Machine revolution in the 70s of XIX century has affected even such a seemingly distant from the area of technology, as the letter. For centuries, people used for tracing written characters only his hand. With the invention of the typewriter he could entrust the operation mechanism. Rather than write letters now had enough to hit the right key. The advent of the typewriter led to significant shifts in many areas of human activity, and lifted to a higher level of office culture. The speed and quality of paperwork has increased several times. In fact, everyone can learn how to write, but not everyone can write quickly and at the same time, clearly legible and beautiful. Meanwhile, the distribution of written communications between people, increasing the number of business documents and commercial correspondence, requiring special clarity of the manuscript, as well as many other reasons (for example, the desire to expedite the work of the compositors, who, picking up the text with blind manuscripts, often worked slowly and made errors) caused direct-printing desire to invent a machine that would be accessible to everyone and would make it possible at once and quickly obtain one or more copies of a neat and easily readable manuscript. Several models of typewriters appeared in the XVIII century, but they worked so slowly that they could have no practical significance.
One of the first known typewriter was collected in 1833 by Frenchman Progrinom. His ktipograf consisted of 88 levers, connected to the letter and number stamps. Levers located circumferentially moved along and across the sheet of paper on special sled. It is clear that the work on such a machine was hard and uncomfortable. In 1843, Charles Thurber took out a patent on the invention of the typewriter, designed for the blind. That he belonged to a very fruitful idea linkage letters movement, later applied in all typewriters. There were also other designs of printers. However, typewriter only thirty years appeared in the modern sense of the word later, and not in Europe, but in America.
In 1867, two American Letty the printers Scholes and Samuel Sulla invented machine for the printing of numbers, which could be used for the pagination, as well as for the printing of bank notes and numbers series. One of the friends Scholes, intrigued by the new device, offered them, using the principle of a simple typewriter, typewriter to create a machine that instead of characters and numbers could print letters and words. This idea fascinated Scholes. At first, he continued to work with Sulla.
In summer, I was ready first single-letter typewriter. It consisted of an old telegraph key in a key form of a glass plate and some other parts. Scholes put on a glass plate coal belt and a thin sheet of white paper, then moving the paper with one hand, he pressed another button on the telegraph, which was cut from a brass letter "B". This resulted in an impression on the paper. In the autumn of the same year, the first sample multiletter typewriter was created. It worked so well that writing quickly and clearly, but it was still very inconvenient for practical use, as was the flat keyboard (like a piano) and typed in capital letters only. In 1868, this machine received a patent, then Sulla had lost interest in it. But Scholes decided in whatever was to create a sample of the machine, which could be run in production. One of his friends, Deksimor, gave him financial support. Scholes plunged into work. In the next five years, he has produced about 30 models of machines, each next was better than the previous one, but still far from perfect.
Only in 1873 it was created quite reliable and convenient model of the typewriter, which suggested that Scholes famous Remington factory, is issued weapons, garments and agricultural machines. In 1874, the first hundred machines have already been put into the market. The famous American writer Mark Twain was one of its first customers. It is on it, he typed his "Tom Sawyer." Perhaps this was the first classic, the work created at the typewriter. Overall, however, the situation was not entirely satisfactory. Eight years had to accustom the public to this amazing technical innovations. Many machines of the first series was returned to the shops, some with broken parts. For a long time on the typewriters were viewed as a luxury item. But gradually the situation changed. Business offices, firms and banks were the first who appreciated the new invention. Already in 1876 it has been launched mass production machines. The first "Remington", although they had the same operating principle as the modern typewriters, still has some specific features. For example, the text of which was printed in a roll and was not visible. To look at the work, it was necessary to raise the truck, for this purpose, located on the hinge. It is clear that it was not very convenient.
Meanwhile, an example of Scholes and inspired other inventors. In 1890 Franz Wagner received a patent for a machine with a horizontally lying alphabetic levers and visible when printing text. Rights for its production, he sold the factory owner John Underwood. This machine was so convenient that soon began to enjoy the massive demand and Underwood earned her a huge fortune. The inventor himself was not, however, so fortunate and died in poverty. Since 1908 the "Remington" was also to produce cars with visible text. After the "Underwood" typewriter appeared other companies, including several European developments. But in the first decade of its existence, this invention is more consistent with the American way of life. At least until the beginning of the XX century the lion's share of all manufactured and purchased machines accounted for the US. The operating principle of all these machines in general was the same.
Probably not a man who would not have seen the work of a typewriter. Therefore there is no need to describe its action and the device in detail. The main parts of the machine were: a keyboard with a system of levers, the carriage with rollers for paper and cast-iron frame mechanism mounted on a wooden board. The carriage (movable trolley carrying the paper) bore the solid rubber cylinder and parallel to the wooden roller between them and took the paper. When the machine carriage is automatically moved from right to left after the imprint of each letter. By clicking on a particular button, raised associated lever, which was on her steel cut letter. This letter struck by rubber roller on which the paper is moved. All letters are beaten at one point, as they were placed on the cylinder. Between the paper and the letter is automatically passed a special tape impregnated with black or color ink. Steel letter, hitting in the tape, printed on a print paper. On each arm placed the two letters. To print the second had to shift pressure to a special key rubber cylinder (move it to the upper case).
When you hit a key, not only in motion coupled with her arm, but by the toothed conical gearing turned at a certain angle with the tape reel which unwinds one of them and wound another, so that the next letter is another place hit the tape. When the entire tape was held under the print, a special lever changed the direction of its movement, and the coil starts to rotate in the opposite direction. Simultaneously with the movement of the tape to meet her by the spring moving the elastic rubber roller carried by the carriage and the paper supports. The backward movement of the carriage performed by hand.
Thus, each keystroke caused just three steps the machine: 1) the letter left the impression on the paper; 2) carriage is shifted by one step to the left; 3) moves the tape. All this is achieved through the interaction of different parts of the typewriter, the main of which were the printing mechanism, the stepping mechanism and a belt mechanism. Let us briefly consider how the work of each of them.
The movement of the carriage performed by the spring, the stepper wheel (21) and two dogs. After going on-press the button, the moment of impact of letter arm of the shaft, detaining a dog (20) jumps to the step tooth wheel. At the same time stepping wheel tooth included in the tooth carrying dogs, which stops the carriage for napechatyvaniya letters. Following impact (napechatyvaniem) alphabetic and rebound lever from the shaft, the carriage is moved to the left by one tooth stepper wheel, which together with the carriage again delayed pawl (20) to the next stroke.
At the same time when you hit a key (1) rocker lever (3) moves down and through the nipple (26) passed the motion of the intermediate lever (5) in the direction of the arrow. Nipple intermediate lever (6) in turn gave impetus to letter lever (9), which lever arm (16) pushes the segment arc (17) and is driven by a stepping mechanism with the capacity and delays dogs. The next time you hit a key repeats the same work printer. Once the key is released, the spring (22) put the rocker arm to its original position, thus returning to the starting position the entire system of levers.
The same keystroke, as already mentioned, was driven by a belt mechanism, the purpose of which was the fact that the continuous transfer tape from one reel to another, substituting for another blow alphabetic lever on the paper coloring fresh place. Each time you hit the keyboard lever central core (2) is rotated by reporting their movement through the gears (5 and 30), the lateral rods (29), on which the coil strip (24) has been planted.