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Tractor


Tractor
The tractor is a versatile machine designed to move and actuate clings to it a variety of agricultural machinery. From this it is evident that the functions of the tractor is twofold: he first works as a tractor, and secondly, as a drive, so you can use it during different agricultural operations. Benefits of the tractor are obvious — speed, time-saving performance. Therefore, the appearance of it amounted to a revolution in agriculture, perhaps the most important since the emergence of the plough. Since that time, mechanical traction gradually began to displace agricultural production of the muscular strength of animals.

the First tractors were steam. In 1850, English inventor William Howard was used for ploughing, steam car (steam engines). The invention has been spread, and steam ploughs were widely used during the second half of the nineteenth century in some European countries (especially in England, where there were more than 2 thousand). The first tractors with internal combustion engines, constructed by engineers by HART and Parr were collected in the United States in 1901. Their appearance was greeted with delight, and American farmers had pinned high hopes on them. But he quickly disappointed, as the tractors because of its huge weight destroyed more soil than help to handle it. Besides, they were too large for the average farm. In the course of their use revealed many structural weaknesses. Tractors often broke down, the repair required a lot of time and high costs.

gradually, However, these machines were improved. In 1907, the market received already quite efficient tractors. Their weight, size and power decreased, but increased reliability that have made use of the tractor in a convenient medium-sized farm. Set up a network of repair shops, production of parts, whereby the negative attitude of farmers to this machine has been covered in a few years, and in America, the growth of the tractor industry. In 1920, the US had already sold about 200 thousand of tractors of various designs. In 1912 the firm of "Holt" for the first time started the production of crawler tractors.

Soon the tractor took approximately 80-90% of all the arable work on the farm. In addition, the traction motor was used to actuate the various agricultural machinery (for this purpose he was supplied with a special pulley). It can connect threshers, mowers, mills, sawmill, oil mill, straw cutters, and other auxiliary machinery. The tractor also took about half of the works connected with harvesting. In the future, with various trailers machines scope of application of the tractor has been expanded several times.

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