Creating a submarine - a remarkable achievement of the human mind, and a significant event in the history of military equipment. Underwater vehicle, is known to possess the ability to act covertly invisible, and hence abruptly. Subtlety is achieved, first of all, the ability to dive, swim at a certain depth, without revealing its presence and suddenly strike the enemy.
Like any physical body, the submarine is subject to the law of Archimedes, which states that any body immersed in a fluid, the urging force directed upwards and equal to the weight of the displaced fluid body. It is possible to simplify formulate this law as follows: "A body immersed in water, loses its weight as much as the body weighs displaced volume of water." It is based on this law is one of the main characteristics of any ship - its buoyancy, ie the ability to float. This is possible when the weight of the water displaced by the submerged part of the body is equal to the weight of the vessel. In this position the ship has a positive buoyancy. If the weight of the displaced water less than the weight of the ship, the ship will sink. In this case believe that the ship has a negative buoyancy.
For submarine buoyancy is determined by its ability to be both underwater and on the surface. Obviously, the boat will be on the surface, if it has positive buoyancy. Receiving negative buoyancy, the boat will sink until it lies on the bottom. That it does not tend to float or sink, it is necessary to balance the weight of the submarine, and the weight of the volume of water displaced by it. In this case, the course will take a boat without water in an unstable position and indifferent to "hang out" at any depth. This means that the boat had zero buoyancy.
To the submarine could dive, float or stay under the water, it must have the ability to change their buoyancy. This is achieved by a very simple way - by taking on ballast water boat: special tanks arranged in the hull, then filled with seawater, then emptied again. When they completely filled the boat becomes zero buoyancy. To the submarine surfaced, should be released from the tank water.
However, adjustment of the dive using tanks can never be exact. Maneuvering in the vertical plane is achieved by overlaying horizontal rudders. As the plane in the air is able to change the altitude by using elevators and submarine works horizontal rudders or rudders of depth without changing the buoyancy. If the leading edge of the rudder over the back, the incoming flow of water will create lift upward. Conversely, if the leading edge of the rudder lower back, counter-flow will put pressure on the working surface of the pen from top to bottom. Changing the direction of movement of the submarine in a horizontal position is made from submarines, as well as at the surface ships ,, change the angle of rotation of the vertical wheel.
The first submarine, received practical application, was "Tartu" ( "Turtle"), a French inventor Byushnelya, built in 1776 in the United States. Despite its primitiveness it had already all the elements of a real submarine. Ovoid body diameter of about 2 to 5 m was made of copper, and the bottom is covered with a layer of lead. The crew of the boat consisted of one person. Immersion was achieved by filling the ballast water of a special tank (a), is at the bottom. Immersion was regulated by means of vertical screws (c). Surfacing was carried out by pumping ballast water two pumps (b), which are also actuated manually. Motion occurred on the horizontal line by means of horizontal screws (g). To change the steering wheel had (e), located behind the man's place (w). The armament of the vessel intended for military purposes, consisted of a mine (s) weighing 70 kg, was placed in a special box under the steering wheel. At the time of the attack, "the cake", lost, tried to go under the keel of the enemy ship. There's a mine cleared from the box, and because it has been given some buoyancy, pop, hits the keel of the ship and exploded. This was in general the first submarine, which was created in the United States honor the name of the "father of the submarine." Boat Byushnelya became famous after a fine move, held it against the British 50-gun frigate "Eagle" in August 1776 during the US War of Independence. In general it was a good start of the submarine fleet history. The following pages it has been linked with Europe.
In 1800 the American Fulton built the submarine "Nautilus" in France. It had a streamlined cigar-shaped with a length of 6, 5 m and a diameter of 2 m. The rest of the "Nautilus" in its design is very reminiscent of "Tart". Immersion was achieved by filling the ballast chamber (a), at the bottom of the ship. The source of the movement was submerged strength of the team, which consisted of three people. Rotation of the handle (B) is transmitted to the two-blade propeller (c), which ensures translatory movement of the boat. To move a sail used on the surface of (g) is attached to the collapsible mast. Speed on the surface was 7.5 km / h, and submerged for about 2 and 5 km / h. Instead of the vertical screw Byushnelya Fulton was first used two horizontal wheel located behind the body, as well as on modern submarines. On the "Nautilus" board had a can of compressed air, allows you to stay under the water for several hours.
After a few preliminary tests Fulton ship went down the Seine to Le Havre, where he made his first outing at sea. The tests were satisfactory: for 5 hours, the boat with the whole crew was under water at a depth of 7 m were quite good and other indicators - a distance of 450 m boat broke under water for 7 minutes.. In August 1801 Fulton demonstrated the combat capabilities of his ship. For this purpose, the raid on the old brig was launched. "Nautilus" approached him and detonated under water with the help of mines. However, the fate of "Nautilus" has not justified the hopes that were pinned on him by the inventor. During the transition from Havre to Cherbourg, he was overtaken by a storm and sank. All attempts to build a new Fulton submarine (he proposed the project, not only the French, but the English and their enemies) did not succeed.
A new stage in the development of underwater submarine ship was a "Submariner" Bourgeois and Brune, built in 1860. Its size is much higher than all the submarines, which were built before that:. Length of 42, 5 m, width - 6 m, height - 3 m, displacement - 420 tons This boat was first installed engine runs on compressed air, which allowed her to develop at the time of attack rate of about 9 km / h at the surface, and 7 km / h under water. Other features of this vehicle it is necessary to take it to adopt more serious and practical than its predecessor. The "Sub-Mariner" mine was strengthened at the end of the rod length of 10 m at the bow of the ship. It gave a real advantage, as it allows to attack the enemy on the move, that it was absolutely impossible for the old boats. Firstly, the underwater ship due to its low speed it was difficult to come up under the bottom of the attacked ship, and secondly, if it is able to do something for the time necessary for surfacing let loose mines, the enemy had time to get away. "Sub-Mariner" had the opportunity, walking across the path of the vehicle to move, hit him in the side of mine, suspended at the end of the rod. The blow was to explode the mine. However, the "Submariner", are at a safe distance of 10 m, I should not have to suffer. For dipping his ship Bourgeois and Brune used a combination of several methods. The submarine had tanks for ballast water, vertical screw and two horizontal steering. On "submariner" as purging tanks for the first time it provides for compressed air, which greatly reduces the ascent.
The first submarine have been applied during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. There were several "David" submarines at this time armed with the southerners. These boats, although not completely submerged under water - part of the cutting performed on the surface of the sea, but still they could secretly sneak to the ships of northerners. The length of the "David" was 20 m, width - 3 m. The boat was equipped with a steam engine and the wheel dive, located in the front of the case. In February 1864 one of these submarines under the command of Lieutenant Dixon started up at the bottom of the corvette northerners "Guzatanik", striking him in the side of his mien. "Guzatanik" became the first in the history of the victim of the submarine war and submarines no longer then be the object of pure invention and won their right to exist along with other warships.
The next step in the history of submarine steel boat Russian inventor Drzewiecki. The first model, created by him in 1879, had a foot engine. The crew of four people driven to rotate the screw. From the foot drive work as water and air pumps. The first of them serving for the purification of the air inside the vessel. With it, the air is forced through the cylinder with caustic soda, to absorb carbon dioxide. The missing amount of oxygen is replenished from the reserve cylinder. With the help of a water pump pumped water from the ballast tanks. The length of the boat was 4 m width - 1, 5 m.
The boat was equipped with a periscope - a device for observing the surface from underwater position. Periscope simplest design is a tube, the upper end of which was put forward above the water surface and the bottom was inside the boat. The tube equipped with two inclined mirrors, one at the upper end of the tube, another - at the bottom. The light rays reflected from the first upper mirror, then fell to the bottom and reflected from it in the direction to the eye of the beholder.
Armament consisted of boats mines with special rubber suction cups and the fuse is ignited by current from a galvanic battery (mine was attached to the bottom of the ship was standing, and then the boat was sailing, unwinding the wire, at a safe distance, at the right moment the circuit is closed, and there is an explosion). In tests showed the boat excellent maneuverability. It was the first production boat, to adopt the Russian army (only 50 such boats were manufactured). In 1884 Drzewiecki has supplied its first motor boat driven by the battery, which provided the movement of the boat for 10 hours at a speed of about 7 km / h. This was an important innovation.
In the same year the Swede Nordenfeld put on your submarine steam engine. Before diving two boiler filled with steam under high pressure, allowing the vessel to sail underwater submerged four o'clock at 7, 5 km / h. Nordenfeld also the first to establish on his boat torpedoes. Torpedo (self-propelled mine) was a submarine in miniature.
The first self-propelled mine was designed by the English engineer Whitehead and his collaborator Austrian Lyuppi. The first tests took place in the city of Fiume in 1864. Then mine passed 650 meters at a speed of 13 km / h. The motion was carried by a pneumatic motor, to which compressed air is fed from a cylinder. In the future, until the First World War torpedoes structure has not undergone major changes. They had a cigar-shaped. In front of the detonator and the charge placed. Next - with the compressed air tank, regulator, engine, propeller and rudder.
Armed with torpedoes submarine became extremely formidable opponent for all surface ships. torpedoes shooting took place with the help of torpedo tubes. Torpedo on rails supplied to the hatch (a). Luke opened and the torpedo was laid into the machine. After this he opened the outer hatch, and the machine was filled with water. Compressed air is supplied from the container (c) through the connection in the trunk unit. Then the torpedo with the engine, propellers and rudders produced outside. Outside the door was closed, and the water of it went through the tube (s).
In subsequent years, the submarines began to be supplied with gasoline internal combustion engines for swimming on the surface and electric (battery-powered) to move under water. Underwater court quickly improved. They could rapidly emerge and disappear under water. This is achieved through well thought-out design of the ballast tanks, which is now divided by their purpose into two main types: the main ballast tanks and ballast tanks of the auxiliary. The first tanks were designed to absorb the buoyancy of the submarine during its transition from a surface position in the underwater (they were divided on the nose, and the average feed). By the auxiliary tank ballast treated located at opposite ends of the shell trim (bow and stern), equalizing tank and the tank is quick dip. Assign each of them was special. With a quick dip tank filled submarine regained negative buoyancy and swiftly went under water. Trim tanks were used for alignment trim, ie the angle of the underwater hull of the ship and bring it on "an even keel." With their help it was possible to balance the bow and stern of the submarine, so that her body held strictly horizontal position. Such a submarine could easily be controlled in a submerged position.
An important event for the submarines was the invention of marine diesel. The fact that the float has been very dangerous under water with a gasoline engine. Despite all the precautions, volatile gasoline fumes accumulated inside the boat and could be ignited by the slightest spark. As a result, quite often there is an explosion, accompanied by human victims.
The world's first diesel submarine "Lamprey" was built in Russia. Designed by Ivan Bubnov - the chief designer of the Baltic Shipyard. The project was developed by the diesel boats Bubnov in early 1905. The following year, started construction. Two diesel for "Lamprey", as mentioned above, produced Nobel plant in St. Petersburg. Construction "Lamprey" was accompanied by several acts of sabotage (in March 1908 there was a fire in the battery compartment, in October 1909 someone slipped sandpaper in the main engine bearings). However, to find the perpetrators could not be in these crimes. The launch took place in 1908.
Power plant "Lamprey" consisted of two diesel engines, electric motor and battery. Diesel engines and motor are mounted in a single line, and run one propeller. All motors connected to the propeller shaft via razobschitelnyh couplings, so that at the request of the captain of the shaft can be connected to one or two diesel engines or electric motors. A diesel motor could be connected to and bring it into rotation. In this case the electric motor acts as a generator and charges the battery. The battery consisted of two groups of 33 in each battery with a corridor between them for maintenance.
Length "Lampreys" -. 32 m on the surface speed - 20 km/h under water - 8,5 km/h. Armament - two bow torpedo tubes.