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Spinning wheel and loom

Spinning wheel and loom
Weaving radically changed the lives and the human form. Instead of animal skins people dressed in clothing made of linen, wool and cotton fabrics, which have since become our constant companions. However, before our ancestors learned to weave, they had to master the technique of weaving. Just learn to weave a mat of twigs and reeds, people might start to "intertwining" of threads.

The process of production of cloth is divided into two main operations - getting the yarn (spinning) and receipt of the canvas (actually weaving). Observing the properties of plants, people have noticed that many of them are composed of elastic and flexible fibers. Such fibrous plants used by man in ancient times include flax, hemp, nettle, Xanthos, cotton and others. After the domestication of animals, our ancestors got together with meat and milk, a large number of wool, also used for the production of fabrics. Before starting it is necessary to prepare the raw material was spinning. The starting material for spinning yarn is fiber. Without going into details, we note that the master should be a lot of work before the wool, linen or cotton will become a spinning fiber (the most concerned flax: process the fibers extracted from the stems of plants are particularly time-consuming, but even wool, which, in fact, is ready-made fibers, requires a series of preliminary operations of cleaning, degreasing, drying, etc.). But when the spinning fiber is obtained for the master indifferent, wool is, linen or cotton - the process of spinning and weaving for all types of the same fibers.

The oldest and simplest device for yarn production was manual spinning wheel, consisting of spindle whorls and spinning wheel itself. Before you start spinning the fiber attached to any branch or stick stuck with a fork (later replaced the knot board, which became known as the spinning wheel). The wizard then pulled out a coil fiber bundle and attaches to a special device for twisting yarn. It consisted of a rod (spindle) and spindles (which served as a round stone with a hole in the middle). Spindles is placed on the spindle. Spindle with bolted to it the beginning of the filament resulted in rapid rotation and immediately released. Hanging in the air, it continued to spin, gradually pulling and twisting the thread. The spindles serve to strengthen and maintain the rotation, which otherwise would have stopped a few moments later. When the thread is sufficiently long, the skilled worker it is wound on a spindle whorls and not let slip the growing tangle. Next, the whole operation is repeated. Despite its simplicity, the spinning wheel was surprising conquest of the human mind. Three operations - pulling, twisting and winding strands joined together in a single production process. The man was able to quickly and easily convert the fiber into yarn. Note that in later times in this process has not been anything new in principle; he had only been passed on to the machine.

After receiving a master yarn proceeded to cloth. The first looms were vertical. They were two forked split bar inserted in the ground, on the forked ends of which fit cross a wooden rod. This cross member is placed so high that it was possible to get standing before her, tied one beside the other strands that form the basis. The lower ends of these strings freely hanging almost to the ground. That they are not tangled, they pulled their suspensions. Clocking weaver took a hand weft thread attached thereto (in the duck could serve as a spindle) and passes it through the substrate so that one thread remains hanging on one side of the weft and the other - on the other. Transverse thread, for example, can pass over the first, third, fifth, etc. and under the bottom of the second, fourth, sixth, etc. warp yarns, or vice versa. This method of textile weaving technique literally repeated and required a lot of time for passing the weft yarn is over, then under the bottom of the respective warp threads. It had a special movement for each of these threads. If the basis was a hundred strands that should have been done a hundred motions for threading weft only one row. Soon the ancient masters noticed that textile machinery can be simplified.

Indeed, if it were possible to immediately lift all the even or odd warp, the master would be spared from having to duck to slip under each string, and could just stretch it across the base: one hundred movements have been replaced by one! Primitive device to separate strands - Remez was invented in ancient times. Initially Remez served a simple wooden rod to which were attached through a lower ends of the warp threads (so even if tied to Remez, then continued to hang freely odd). Pulling the Remez, master immediately separated from the yarn all even and odd one throw prokidyval ducks across the base. However, in the reverse movement duck again had to pass one by one all the even thread. Work has accelerated twice, but still remained laborious. However, it became clear in which direction to seek: it was necessary to find a way to separate the alternating odd, the odd strand. At the same time it was impossible to simply enter the second Remez, because the first would become in his way. Here the ingenious idea has led to an important invention - the weights to the lower ends of the strands of steel tie shoelaces. The second ends of the laces fastened to the plank, Remez (one - even to another - odd). Now Remezy not interfere with the mutual work. Pulling the one Remez, then after the other, the master consistently separated the even, the odd yarn and threw ducks through the base. Work has accelerated tenfold. fabrics Manufacture ceased to be braided and make your own weaving. It is easy to see that in the method of fastening the ends of the threads above base to Remez using laces can be used instead of two larger Remezov. For example, you can bind to a special plaque every third or every fourth thread. weave methods thus can receive a wide variety. On this machine could weave not only calico, but herringbone or satin fabric.

In the following centuries in a loom to make various improvements (for example, the movement began to Remezov controlled by kicking the pedal, leaving the hands free weaver), but principally of textile machinery has not changed up to the XVIII century. An important drawback of the described machine was that, prodergivaya ducks to the right and to the left, the master was limited to his arm length. Typically, the web width is not more than half a meter, and to get a wider band, they had to be stapled.

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