Eighteenth and nineteenth century were marked by an unprecedented rise above specifications. In the course of a hundred and fifty years has been done many brilliant inventions, created new types of engines, developed new means of communication and transport, invented a variety of tools and machines. In most manufacturing industries manual labor was almost entirely supplanted by machine. The speed, processing quality and productivity have grown several dozen times. In developed European countries have appeared thousands of large industrial enterprises have developed new social class - the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The industrial boom was accompanied by major social changes. As a result, Europe and the whole world, to the end of the XIX century, has changed beyond recognition; people's lives have not looked like the one that was at the beginning of the XVIII century. Perhaps for the first time in the history of technical revolution so visibly and clearly it has affected all aspects of human life.
Meanwhile, the start of this great machine of the revolution associated with the creation of an automatic spinning machine - the very first machines, widely used in the production. It can be said that spinning machine was the prototype of all subsequent machines and mechanisms, and therefore its invention in its significance goes far beyond the narrow confines of the textile and spinning things. In a sense, her appearance symbolized the birth of the modern world.
Spinning in the form in which it was described above - with a hand spindle and spinning wheel - existed for thousands of years and remains at all times a very complicated and time-consuming task. Hand spinners when making repetitive movements stretching, twisting and winding the thread quickly tired, productivity was low. Therefore, a significant step in the development occurred with the invention of spinning hand-spinning wheel, which first appeared in ancient Rome.
In this adaptation of a basic in the wheel in its rotation driven in rotation by means of an endless cord wheel smaller d, on the axis of the spindle was wearing b. The process of spinning on a hand spinning wheel was as follows: the right hand with a pen resulted in rotation by a large wheel a, while the left, pulling a strand of fiber bundle, directed thread or inclined to the spindle (if it ssuchivalas and twists), or under the direct angle (if she is being prepared, is wound on a spindle).
The next major event in the history of the emergence of the spinning-wheel spinning (about 1530), which called the inventor Jurgens stonemason from Braunschweig. His spinning wheel set in motion the legs and let out for both hands working women.
Work at the spinning-wheel is as follows. Spindle 1 was tightly connected with the Flyers and 2 received a motion from the bottom of a large wheel 4. The latter was connected with the unit, firmly attached to a spindle. The coil 3, one end of which was fastened a block smaller, worn loose on the spindle. Both units were obtained from the movement of the same four-wheel drive, but the flier spindle and connected to a large unit, rotate more slowly than the coil connected to the lower unit. Because the reel rotates faster, it happened winding thread is wound with yarn speed is equal to the difference of speeds of the spindle and the reel. Spinner hand stretched fibers of spindles and partly to twist their fingers. The thread before joining the flyer was moving along the spindle axis. At the same time she moved, that is swirled, and made completely the same speed as the spindle. After going through a flier 2, thread changed direction and went to the coil has at right angles to the spindle axis. Thus, compared to conventional spinning wheel, spinning-wheel allows simultaneous pull, twist and wrap the thread. From the spinning process are already two operations were mechanized: twisting the thread and winding it on a reel, but the hood fibers from the spindles and partial twisting their place manually. It slows down the work. Meanwhile, in the first third of the XVIII century was created by advanced loom Kay, can significantly increase the speed of weaving. The new machine agile Weaver was able to weave the yarn as much as supplying six experienced spinners. The result is a disproportion between spinning and weaving. Weavers began to feel the shortage of yarn, as the spinners did not have time to prepare it in the right quantity. Yarn not only greatly rise in price, but often it is generally impossible to get at any price. And the markets are demanding an increasing number of fabrics.
Several generations of engineers vainly puzzled over how to improve the spinning wheel. During the first half of the XVII and XVIII centuries it was made several attempts to provide the spinning-wheel with two spindles, to improve its efficiency. But work on a spinning wheel was too hard, so this idea is not widespread. It was clear that the spin on multiple spindles will only be possible when the operation itself will pull fiber mechanized.
This difficult task has been partly solved the English mechanic John White, who invented in 1735 by a special extraction tool. According to Marx, it is precisely this part of the machine to determine the beginning of the industrial revolution. Lacking funds, White sold the rights to his remarkable invention of entrepreneur Paul Lewis, who in 1738 took over a patent. In the car, Paul White and human fingers were first replaced by a pair of "exhaust" of rollers rotating at different speeds. One roll has a smooth surface, and the other was a rough knurled surface or upholstered tow. However, before you enter the car rolls, cotton had to go through pre-treatment - they had to be laid parallel to each other and pull. (This is called "combing" of cotton, or carding.)
Paul White and tried to mechanize the process and created a special carding machine. Its principle of operation is as follows. The cylinder is fitted over the entire surface of the hook, rotated into the groove, which at its inner side has been provided with teeth. Cotton fibers were passed between the cylinder and the trough and thus combed.
After that yarn in the form of a thin tape was fed into a spinning machine and is first stretched in the suction rolls, and then came to the spindle rotates faster than rollers, and twists in the thread. The first such spinning wheel was built in 1741 by Paul. It was the first in the history of spinning machine.
Perfecting his car, and Paul White began to pass the yarn through several rollers. When rotating at different speeds, they pulled it into a thin thread. With the last pair of rollers the thread came to the spindle. In 1742, White has built a machine that spun directly on the spindles 50 and driven by two donkeys. As subsequent events showed, they invented suction rollers have proved extremely successful innovation. But in general, his car is not widespread. It was too expensive and cumbersome device for single craftsman. Acute shortage of yarn continued to be felt in the coming years. This problem has been partly solved only after the creation of the spinning machine Hargreaves.
Hargreaves was a weaver. The yarn has manufactured for him a wife, and that she managed napryast per day was not enough for him. Therefore, it is a lot of thought about how it would be possible to speed up the work of spinners. The case came to his aid. Once Hargreaves daughter, Jenny, accidentally knocked over a spinning wheel, but it continued to spin the wheel and the spindle continued to spin yarns, but was in a vertical rather than horizontal. Hargreaves immediately used this observation and built in 1764 by a machine with eight vertical spindles and one wheel. The machine he called "Jenny" on behalf of her daughter. She brought to its creator no money, no happiness. On the contrary, the invention Hargreaves caused an uproar among the spinners - they foresee that the machine will deprive them of work. Barnard excited people rushed Hargreaves once in the house and destroyed the car. The inventor himself and his wife barely managed to avoid punishment. But this, of course, could not stop the spread of the spinning machine - just a few years, "Jenny" used by thousands of artists.
As the car White, "Jenny" require advance preparation cotton fibers. Dressing thread going on here from combed cotton ribbons. Cobs roving were placed on an inclined frame (tilt served to facilitate the winding roving). Instead of exhausting rollers White Hargreaves has applied a special press, which consisted of two wooden bars. Threads with roving cops passed through the drawing press and attached to the spindle. The spindles, which are ready-wound thread, are on a fixed frame on the left side of the machine. At the bottom of each spindle unit had around which the drive cord was thrown over the drum. This drum was located in front of all the blocks and spindles and is driven by large wheels rotated by hand. Thus, the large wheel is driven by all of the spindle.
Spinner moved a carriage with one hand drawing press and the other rotating wheel is driven by the spindle. Operation of the machine consisted of the following processes: the press was closed and retracted from the spindles - a result of the pulling strands occurred. At the same time spinner rotating wheel, it resulted in the movement of the spindle, and they were spinning thread. At the end of departing carriage stopped, and the spindle continued to rotate, producing dokrutku. Thereafter, the carriage is fed back to the spindle, all the threads of a few crouched special wire to ensure that they were in the position of the winding. During the return stroke of the carriage with open pressure yarn wound on the spindle by the rotation of the latter.
Exhaust press Hargreaves essentially replaced the working hand. All the work has been reduced mainly to the three movements: the rotation of the drive wheel to the straight-ahead position of the carriage back and forth, and stooping to the wire. In other words, a person has only played the role of motive power, and therefore in the future become possible to replace the worker by other, more constant and powerful energy sources. Remarkable value Hargreaves invention is that it made it possible to service multiple spindles one worker. In his very first car was a total of eight spindles. Then he increased the number to 16. But during the life of the machine Hargreaves appeared "Jenny" with 80 spindles. These machines are no longer under force was the result of the service, and they began to connect the water motor. Due to their simple design and low cost, as well as the ability to use hand-drive "Jenny" has received the widest dissemination. By the 90 th years of XVIII century in England there were already more than 20 thousand samopryalok "Jenny." Most of them belonged to single-weavers. The smallest of them carried out the work of six or eight workers. It was the first in the history of the car, which received mass distribution.
Machine Hargreaves partly helped overcome dope hunger and contributed to the rise of a powerful production in England, but it was still not quite what was required. Exhaust device "Jenny" was imperfect. Due to the lack of drawing the yarn was obtained though thin, but weak. For greater strength fabric weavers had to be added to the yarns, linen thread.
More successful machine was created shortly Arkwright. It is a compound of the exhaust mechanism White torsionally winding machine Spinning Jurgens. By profession Arkwright was a barber in the town of Bolton in England. Most of his customers were small spinners and weavers. Once Arkwright began talking witness weavers, saying that the cloth is woven from flax yarn mixed with cotton threads, as the machine Hargreaves is unable to deliver a lot of yarn and thread it does not have sufficient strength. Shortly thereafter, Arkwright got hold of a car, "Jenny", studied it and came to the conclusion that he could build another, which will spin faster and thinner. He set to work, and indeed, he was able to build a spinning wheel, which is completely automatically perform all processes. Spinner had only ensure that the car received enough material, and connecting to break the thread.
Work on the machine is as follows Arkwright drive wheel drives the rotation of the spindle with the Flyers. Pre-cooked cotton rovings was on the cob, which were placed on a horizontal shaft in the upper part of the machine. Roving ribbon cotton fibers came into being before the ears of the exhaust rollers. In each pair, the lower roller was a wooden, corrugated, and the upper - will fit a skin. Each successive pair of rollers rotates faster than the previous. The top rollers were pressed to the lower weights. Elongated thread coming out of the last pair of rollers, it passes through the flyer hooks and wound on a spindle. In order to get the backlog spindles sitting on the coils of rogulek, several coils delayed cord passes through the pulley grooves at the bottom of each coil. The result was a thread a fortress that now it was possible to make fabrics of pure cotton, flax without impurities. The car was described fully implemented the principle of continuity, so it became known as vatermashinoy.
Arkwright was not only a successful inventor, but also a clever businessman. In a community with two businessmen he built a spinning mill, and in 1771 opened the second Cromford Mill, where all the cars were driven by a water wheel. Soon, the factory has grown to a large size of the enterprise. In 1779, she wore a few thousand spindles and employed 300 workers. Not stopping at this, Arkwright founded several factories in different parts of England. In 1782, it employed 5,000 workers already, and its capital is estimated at 200 thousand pounds.
Arkwright continued to work on the creation of new machines that would mechanize the whole yarn processing. In 1775 he received a patent to several support mechanisms. Chief among them were: carded machine, a mobile comb, roving machine and feeding device. Carded machine consisted of three reels and served for combing cotton. (This was an advanced machine White.) The movable comb was used as an addition to carded car - they were shooting carded cotton reels. Roving frames transformed into a cylindrical brushed cotton roving, ready for processing at the spinning machine. The feeding device is a movable web which gave carded cotton machine for processing.
In subsequent years, the glory of Arkwright was marred by accusations of stealing other people's inventions. A number of trials showed that all of them patented machines were not actually invented them. Thus, it appears that the spinning vatermashinu watchmaker invented by John Kay, carded machine - Daniel Bourn feeding device - John Fox. In 1785 Arkwright all patents have been revoked, but by this time he had already become one of the richest British manufacturers.
The last point in the creation of a universal spinning machine set weaver Samuel Crompton, who created the so-called mule-car. It was connected to the principles of "Jenny" and vatermashiny Arkwright. Instead, press Hargreaves Crompton applied suction rollers. In addition, the carriage was introduced, to move back and forth. A carriage placed on the spindle. When the carriage spindles to depart from the rollers, spindles even more stretched and twisted thread. When the carriage approached the rollers, thread spinning and wound on a spindle. While vatermashina made a strong but coarse yarn, and "Jenny" - thin, but loosely, mule-car Crompton gave a strong, yet thin yarn.