One of the most remarkable events in the history of technology is the emergence in the middle of the XIX century skoropechatnoy rotary engine, which allowed thousands of times to increase the production of publications, especially newspapers and magazines. This invention, in the same way as the creation of once Gutenberg first typographic machine, had a huge impact on all aspects of human life. In fact, the rapid development of education and its distribution among the masses in the XVIII-XIX centuries has created a huge demand for the printed word, which resulted in an increase in the circulation of books and newspapers. Meanwhile, the old printing press has undergone very little change from the XVI century and has been poorly adapted to ensure that meet the long-felt need. Many typographers in the XVIII century puzzled over how to increase its productivity and create skoropechatnuyu car. The right way was eventually found by Friedrich Koenig, the son of a poor farmer Prussia. Fifteen years he was apprenticed to the printer, and was connected with the printing business his whole life since that time. Even in 1794, Koenig made the first improvements by creating a model with a continuous printing machine, using gears, lifting and lowering of Piana (press). However, it took many years before he was able to apply his invention in practice. All owners of German printers, which Koenig appealed for support, his refusal to answer. In 1806 he moved to London, and only here on his invention paid attention.
In 1807 three of the London printing Koenig gave money for the construction of the printing machine. In 1810, with the help of a master of mathematics Andrew Bauer, Koenig gathered skoropechatny machine that due to various improvements in design can produce up to 400 prints per hour. However, it was not enough. We need a new scheme which would be fully or almost completely eliminate manual labor. In the old machine, as we recall, the printing process takes place through a series of flat boards on a flat thaler was raised with the help of a set of flat dressing, Flat rashketom as a kit to smear paint, pressed flat Pian paper. Especially a lot of time was spent on a set of smearing paint - it always had to nominate from the press and then shoot on location. First Koenig tried to speed up the operation due to the fact that the paint on the set began to be applied with a special paint rollers. Perhaps building on this idea, he decided to press and do not flat and cylindrical in form of a drum. This was the most important discovery Koenig. In 1811 he created the first machine skoropechatnuyu cylinder type, in which the sheet of paper being put on the cylinder (drum), this cylinder is rolled on to the fortified thaler form with a set of receiving ink from a rotating roller. Only thaler stay out past the flat boards in the new design, which was placed a set of tightly enclosed in a metal frame. Replacing the flat surfaces of rotating cylinders at once allowed to increase machine productivity.
The machine Koenig was for its time, a true masterpiece of engineering, all the more surprising that almost all the operations it is done automatically. As the main wheels came into effect a complex mechanism of the entire system of gears and gear, to move in the right direction at the right time all the working parts of the machine. Its main sites are paint and printing machine drum. Between them back and forth moving truck with a set-thaler. Taking the paint from the inking unit, Thaler began to move beneath the print drum, which rolled over him a sheet of paper. Thus in general printing process occurred.
Inking unit consisted of a long box with paint and a few rollers, paint consistently communicate this to each other. The top metal roller was in the ink fountain. When you rotate it got a coat of paint, which as needed can be let out of the box into the slot, making this gap is thicker, then thinner. With metal roller paint was applied to a thin bead, which is then down to her on the shaft rotates at the bottom and move not only around its axis but also along it. With him went the paint to bare metal cylinder, and from there fell into two elastic drum who rubbed it and distributed on a set of evenly. Such complicated inking unit due to the fact that its function in the accelerated printing was very high. Paints on set was to do as much as is necessary to obtain a clear print. It could be more, as in this case the sheets to each other become dirty. The paint was triturated well and distributed evenly set.
The role of the printing drum was to grab a sheet of plain paper and rolled it on a set. On its surface special zahvatki located, which rose and fell depending on the position of the drum. At a time when the taler with the printed form was under the inking rollers, printing drum remained motionless and his zahvatki were raised. Nakladchik standing on a high bench, took a sheet of paper from the reserve, which lies on him by the right hand, and laid it on the oblique plane is quite close to the cylinder, so that the paper could be taken zahvatki. When moving the drum began to rotate thaler ago. Then zahvatki like fingers superimposed on the sheet and fascinated him along. Paper enveloped the drum and held adjacent presses ribbons, which were in the field. During the movement of special needle cylinder (grafeyki) pierced sheet in the middle, keeping it from warping. At its gyre drum carried over the sheet set, pressing it. After the sheet took paint, clamps rose and ribbon passing paper to another device - the "rockets" (receiver), is a series of long flat fingers; these fingers, then move them to the printed sheet, rose and overturned it on the table, where the sheets lay on each other face-up.
Meanwhile thaler again receded under the inking unit. For while the return movement and the drum set does not come into contact with one side of the last was a little cut. During the passage of the drum thaler facing cuts from top to bottom, I remained motionless. But when getting set under the inking unit, the drum back to the original position, opening zahvatki for receiving paper. Thus, work proceeded on the first car Koenig. After all the sheets obtained prints on one side, they again passed through the machine and printed on the back.
The invention Koenig interested primarily owners of major newspapers. In 1814 Koenig gathered for printing "Times" two cylindrical machine that prints at a speed of 1000 sheets per hour. He then invented a machine with two cylinders, print simultaneously on both sides of the sheet. it began to receive orders from different countries. Get Rich, Koenig in 1817 he returned to Germany and founded in Würzburg, the first factory for the production of printing machines. Before his death (in 1833), he managed to set up production of printing machines, printing two colors. Companion Koenig Bauer further perfected his invention. Very soon there were machines in which the working-nakladchika role has been completely eliminated, and the paper was submitted to the pneumatic cylinder unit, which sticks to the edge of the sheet itself. After the drum valves seized sheet, the device is automatically pulled away and brought a next sheet. It was further introduced another important advance in the form of a folding device joins the car, which when passed to his rocket-sheet fold them, that is, bend the desired number of bends at speeds of printing sheets. Thus, the work of the most difficult skoropechatnoy machine consists of the following operations: samonakladchik automatically handed a sheet on the cylinder, and then, after printing one side, using ribbons sheet systems move to the second, located next to the cylinder, clinging to him printed side; the second cylinder sheet held on the same form, the same thaler, made the text imprinted on the other hand; after which the sheet is fed to the missiles; then - in the folding unit. The driving force was different machines. At the beginning of the XIX century they were rotated rabochie- "vertelschiki"; then began to use steam engine, the movement of which is transmitted by means of an endless belt.
In the middle of the XIX century, when the volume of printed materials has increased tremendously, the fastest skoropechatnye machines, making 2000 sheets per hour, it has appeared insufficiently productive. Of course, you could put the second and third car, but this solution proved very costly. The solution was found in the creation of a rotating machine, in which there was not a flat surface, and even Thaler was replaced by a rotary drum. In 1846, Englishman Applegat Augustus invented the first such machine with large vertical cylinder. On this cylinder by partitions installed set. Located around the cylinder as the ink rollers, and eight smaller cylinders, which are fed nakladchiki sheets. During one revolution of the cylinder of a large set of walking past eight smaller cylinders with a position of the paper and gave eight sheets at once. Per hour this machine could obtain 12000 prints (but only on one side). Up to 1862 it printed "Times" on such a machine. Then it was replaced by a more powerful machine American Robert HOE, worked about in the same way. The main cylinder with a set, reinforced straps and screws, standing horizontally as in a conventional printing press, and ten cylinders placed around it for the lining paper on which is printed the text from the set in the master cylinder as dragging it to each of the ten smaller cylinders. HOE main shaft of the machine had a diameter of half a meter. Nakladchiki paper stood five stories from both sides of the machine. For its huge size, it has been nicknamed the mammoth.
In essence, Applegata car was the first rotary engine (from the rotation - gyre), as all its major part taken the form of rotating on the axis of the cylinder. But she had two significant drawbacks, slowing her work: a set located on the cylinder was not secured tightly enough and at a very rapid rotation could be scattered, and the paper feed single sheets manually occurred. The first of these disadvantages were overcome after the invention of the stereotype - set, which, unlike the former, was not made of the individual characters, and the entire cast from metal. In 1856 John Walter found that when a wet cardboard letters pressed into the matrix, and then dry it in the oven, the resulting board papier-mache can serve as a form for casting stereotypes. For this set top clamped in a steel frame, a specially superimposed sheet prepared wet cardboard was beaten stiff bristles thereon until the font is not yet pressed into its surface. Then the frame with the board clamped in the press and pushed into a heated press. When the board was dry, it was removed from the frame. In doing so it remained quite depressed exact imprint of the entire set. The matrix thus obtained was placed in molds, so that it forms two half-cylinder, it was poured into the molten metal and two half cylinder obtained, each of which was to the last detail of one set of molded frame. These half-cylinders are fixed to the shaft of the rotary machine.
As for the second problem, the other before it was resolved to William Bullock, who in 1863 created a new type rotary engine truly, do not print on separate sheets, and immediately on both sides of an endless paper tape. Roll it was put on the fast-rotating rod. From paper tape came on the cylinder, presses it to another cylinder with located on it a round consisting of two semi-cylindrical, a stereotype. Thus, all nodes in the basic machine Bullock were performed in a rapidly rotating cylinder. Because of this it is more than 15,000 printed sheets per hour. Subsequently speed of 30,000 impressions had been reached (such a machine for 3 minutes processed paper to 1 km). But in addition to the speed of the rotary engine had many other advantages. The paper can be let through more cylinders and immediately print not only on both sides, but also in several different colors. For example, a strip of paper, having a cylinder with a main form to one side and take black paint, took another cylinder, printed in black ink on the back, then came to the third - is printed in red ink, and so on. When the endless strip of paper has taken all the colors, it has done for the last cylinder, which was set knife, cut the strip into sheets. Then cut sheets passed into the folding apparatus forming part of the machine, and here kinked many times as necessary, and then threw the car ready folded newspaper or a book list.