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Plow


Plow
For several millennia agriculture has remained hoe. In areas where the soil was soft (for example, in the Nile valley or Mesopotamia), hoe can be a good to cultivate the field. Therefore, farming began to flourish in ancient times. However, the productivity of the farmer was insignificant. Besides such favorable conditions were a rare exception. Usually peasants had to raise virgin grasslands, overgrown perennial herbs, with powerful intertwining roots. For a man, one armed with a hoe, the soil was hard, often an insurmountable obstacle. Felt the need for such a tool of cultivation, which could not dig, and to cut layers of turf at the bottom. This weapon was the plough.

the Plow has evolved from a special instrument of ancient farmers that modern scientists have dubbed "trench with a stick." With the help of this stick, the farmer laid in a field, furrow, divide it into ridges. The distinctive feature of these sticks were working part directed at an acute angle to the handle. Using them put the idea to the ancient farmers that the soil can process a digging as it was done before, and drawing. Then, apparently, appeared the plough — cloven stick with pointed end (there are already visible in the embryo of the drawbar and shield). Uprages in this device, the farmer dragged him along, making a furrow. Of course, to use such a weapon was possible only on very soft soil has already been loosened by years of handling, where there were no stones, no sod. To plow hard soil, it was necessary to increase the pressure on the blade. Thus was invented the arm. Further improvement of this arable guns can be seen in one drevneevreyskom the monument. It was already in the full sense of the plow, which had three main parts: the shaft, the blade and the handle. In this form, it required two workers: one was pulling the plow and the other guided him and kept in the ground. All of the first plows were driven by manpower. Of course, the peasant is weighed down by such work, and after some time he began to harness to a plough of oxen. At first people just tied the plough to the horns of oxen, later came the yoke and primitive harness. The processing speed of the earth immediately increased several times, and the work itself easier.

the First plows were made of roots of oak, beech, maple and some other trees and was a solid pieces of wood. Then the shingles began to strengthen with iron. Many years passed before the plow was made further improvements. In the writings of Pliny — Roman writer of the first century of our era we find the description of the plow, which, unlike previous ones, is provided with a wheel, a knife and otvarennymi boards. The wheel did not give the plow from entering too deep into the ground, a knife was needed to cut the turf. An important innovation was the dump. The purpose of the blade is to turn over the turf, which cut a knife and a ploughshare. A plow without a blade when the movement was loosened earth. The blade turned over the turf so that the weeds were under the ground. The invention of the blade was a huge event in the history of the plow. As such, the plow lasted until the end of the middle ages, when it had been made new improvements.

the Spread of the plough with iron ploughshare has made a drastic revolution in agriculture. Plow farming has transformed agriculture, was its highest achievement in no small measure contributed to the emergence of many civilizations of the Old world. The advantage of plow agriculture before hoe so obvious that in the view of ancient people his invention was the work of the gods. The Egyptians believed the plow the gift of Osiris, the Greeks of Pallas Athena, the Indian Agni, as the people of China — the divine Chanpuru.

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