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The pipeline

The pipeline
In the second half of the nineteenth century received a new development of the ancient pipeline transport. Great was the idea to use the pipeline to transport oil and gas. Thus was solved the problem of shipping oil from distant fields to refineries, most particularly standing at the time. For the first time faced her in the United States. Due to the incredibly fast development of oil production in California are having difficulties with the transportation of oil. The shallow river, containing oil, could be served only by rafts. One time tried to increase their level via mountain springs. Water was collected in a special reservoir, and once or twice a week went to a shallow river, containing oil. Then downstream started the whole caravans of barges, whose number reached 500. They brought together 20-25, even 40 thousand barrels of oil. But this method was inconvenient and costly. It would be more economical to transport oil by rail. However, for many years believed that the oil sources might dry up at any moment, and therefore did not lay out to them the Railways. This was done only much later. At first oil was shipped in barrels, later came to be used for this purpose a special tank wagons (first wooden, then iron).

In those same years, several engineers had the idea to use for pumping oil pipeline. However, to many, this method seemed risky and difficult. In 1860, engineer Cairns suggested to lay a pipeline with a pipe diameter of 150 mm along the Ohio river at a distance of about 50 km. This proposal was not supported by the owners of the fields. Three years later, was held a pipeline of smaller diameter, but the pipe it was connected firmly enough, so it had to stop. This first pipeline, which functioned in practice, had a 6 km length and missed every day 80 barrels of oil. In 1866 he built a pipeline length of 16 km, Its designer Charles Gatch believed that only one pump to pump oil throughout the length of the pipe. Many doubted that this is possible. At first even the thought of spending the oil for miles through the mountains and ravines with a pump seemed absurd and ridiculous. However, GETC, not listening to idle speculation, and trust in their calculations. When the construction of the pipe was completed, it is situated at one end of the pipeline and telegraphed to the engineer at the other end to turn on the pump and slowly began to pump oil. The pipeline was 50 mm in diameter and could accommodate up to 180 barrels of oil. Getch waited, but the oil did not appear. So it took a few hours. Almost no one believed in the success of the enterprise. Finally heard a slight rumble. The noise increased, and suddenly, the oil appeared at the end of the pipe. It took her four hours to reach the receiving station. It was a historic moment. Thus, Getch proved that the transfer of oil through pipes over long distances is not an empty Chimera, and it is quite feasible to resolve the technical problem. Pipeline of Getcha be able to deliver up to 2,000 barrels per day. Soon was constructed and other pipelines, and the length of them increased. The principle of operation of the first pipeline was very simple. They consisted of two main stations — reception and delivery, between which were laid a steel pipe. At the receiving station were installed on the pumps, the purpose of which was to take the oil from selected tanks and pumping it through pipes to the reservoirs of sufficient station. If the distance was considerable, it was foreseen intermediate station with its pumps. In 1874 was built a pipeline from Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh. He had a pipe 100 mm in diameter and 90 km in length — huge for that time — and missed 7500 barrels per day.

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