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Paper
Inventors of paper were the Chinese. And this is no accident. First, China already in ancient times was famous for her book wisdom and a complex system of bureaucratic control that required officials ongoing reporting. Therefore, there has always been a need for inexpensive and compact material for writing. Before the invention of paper in China or wrote on bamboo tablets, or on silk. But silk was always very expensive, and bamboo — very bulky and heavy. (A plaque was placed at the rate of 30 characters. It is easy to imagine how much space was supposed to be a bamboo "book". Not accidentally write that to transport some of the works required an entire cart.) Second, only the Chinese long knew the secret of silk production, and the paper thing just evolved from one of technical processing of silk cocoons. This operation consisted in the following. Women engaged in the sericulture, boiled silkworm cocoons, and then, spreading them on the Mat was dipped in water and triturated until a homogeneous mass. When the mass was taken out and uzivali the water was silk wool. However, after this mechanical and heat treatment on the mats stay thin fibrous layer, is converted after drying into a sheet of very thin paper, suitable for writing on. Later, workers began to use the defective silkworm cocoons for targeted production of paper. They repeated the now familiar process: boiled cocoons, washed and milled to obtain a paper pulp finally dried the leaves. This paper was called "cotton" and it cost quite expensive, so how expensive was the raw material itself.

of Course, in the end, the question arose: is it possible to only do silk or for the preparation of paper pulp can approach any fibrous raw materials including those of plant origin? 105 G. one Tsai LUN, an important official at the court of the Han Emperor, made a new variety of paper from old fishing nets. The quality is not inferior to silk, but was much cheaper. This important discovery had huge implications not only for China but for the whole world — for the first time in history people have got excellent and readily available material for writing, equivalent replacement, which is to this day. The name of Tsai LUN, therefore, rightly included in the number of names of the greatest inventors in the history of mankind.

In later centuries, in the process of making paper was introduced some significant improvements, so it began to develop rapidly. In the IV century paper completely replaced the use of bamboo plates. New experiments have shown that paper can be made from cheap vegetable raw materials tree bark, reeds and bamboo. The latter was particularly important, since bamboo grows in China in large numbers. The bamboo split into thin splinter, soaked with lime, and the resulting mass was then boiled down in a few days. Separated the grounds kept in special pits, carefully milled special Balaam and diluted with water to form adhesive, pasty mass. This mass is filled with a special shape bamboo sieve, mounted on the subframe. A thin layer of mass together with the form put under the press. Then the form pulls and under pressure was only a sheet of paper. The pressed sheets were removed from the sieves were stacked in a pile, dried, smoothed and cut to format.

over time the Chinese reached its highest art in the manufacture of paper. For several centuries they, as usual, carefully kept secrets of paper production. But in 751, during the clashes with the Arabs in the foothills of the Tien Shan, several Chinese artists have captured. From them the Arabs learned to make paper and for five centuries is very profitable to C it in Europe. The Europeans were the last of the civilized Nations, who have learned to make themselves paper. The first is an art adopted from the Arabs to the Spaniards. In 1154 the paper production was established in Italy in 1228-m — in Germany, in 1309-m — in England. In later centuries, the paper received worldwide wide spread, gradually winning all new and new spheres of application. Its significance in our lives is so great that, according to the famous French bibliographer A. SIM, this era can rightly be called the "paper era".

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