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Machine gun


Machine gun
You can count several epochal inventions, one of which is certainly the case in the history of machine gun and military equipment. In the same way as the first gun opened the era of firearms, and the first rifle - era rifled, the creation of machine-gun marked the beginning of the era of rapid-automatic weapons.

The thought of such weapons, which would allow in the shortest amount of time to release the greatest amount of bullets, there was a very long time. At the beginning of the XVI century there were fortified cross on a log rows charged trunks, through which the seed was to wake up the powder path. Upon ignition of the powder obtained volley from all trunks. The use of these installations (rebodekonov) in Spain reported about 1512. Then there was an idea to strengthen individual trunks on a rotating faceted shaft. This weapon is called "body" or kartechnitsy. The Authority could have on ourselves to a few dozen trunks, each of which was equipped with his flintlock and trigger. Operated device is very simple: when all trunks were charged and discharged locks, shaft driven in rotation by the handle fixed on its axis. This locks, passing by a fixed peg (a small rod), fortified in the axis of the tool, descended and made the shot. Fire frequency dependent on the rotational speed. However, such weapons had a wide circulation. It has become more convenient only after there cartridges in a metal sleeve.

In the years 1860- 1862 American Gatling created several designs perfect fairly kartechnitsy who were the immediate predecessors gun. In 1861, such kartechnitsy was adopted by the US Army, and later many other armies.

Around the central shaft AB were attached six or ten gun barrels, forming with him as if the cylinder; trunks were recruited in a special iron frame VGDE, which had pins G and H to the frame space on the wheel carriage. Val AB and its surrounding trunks were passed through the holes of the two iron discs K and L. The front end of the shaft B is inserted into the front wall of the frame, and the rear end but through a hollow iron cylinder M and was connected with gears NN. Through the handle shaft AB PA with trunks rotationally driven. For loading kartechnitsy AB directly on the shaft for receiving sawn-off trunk had cylinder P with gutters disposed on the side surface on the extension of each barrel: ammunition placed therein. Over the receiving cylinder was attached to the frame on the hinge cover with P funnel through which you can pour patrons of special railway package. Hidden in the cylinder M mechanism it has been designed so that if one person is rotated by the handle PA system trunks, and the other patrons poured into the funnel C, then made consistent loading and firing of each stem, one by one; cartridge cases at the same time consistently thrown from the trunk and fell down.

It is carried out as follows. By receiving cylinder robed P rests on the same gear shaft lock cylinders AB with gutters, which were a continuation of the gutters of the first cylinder. Both the cylinder and the barrels were one and cited in the general rotation of the handle O. Each chute lock cylinders placed shutter, which is a tube VG. Inside the tube was placed with the hammer head and impact pin D E; drummer could move longitudinally in the gate, and head for the D was butchered along the upper wall of the shutter slit; around the hammer was wrapped spring is compressed between the head of the hammer and the projection in the gate G. In front of the gate was reinforced by stud extractor (a device for extracting the spent cartridges) H with hook and claw and K. By rotating the entire system projections gates A slipped on MMM inclined rifling on the inner surface of the stationary sheath covering mechanism. Consequently valves gradually put forward in the receiving cylinder trough, pushing the cartridge into the barrel. In every moment of rotation only one trunk was locked gate, that is prepared to fire. Heads drummers D slipped on the ledge NN, located on the inner surface of the fixed shell, with at least nominating shutter forward coil springs compressed. At a time when the shutter closes the trunk, the head of the hammer was released from the projection HH and the shock spring inflamed capsule holder. Upon further rotation of each valve as a result of the reverse tilt marked slot MMM moves back, the extractor was pulling an empty sleeve, which fell down. Weighing about 250 kg kartechnitsy could do up to 600 rounds per minute. It was quite moody arms, and managed it was very difficult to her. In addition, the rotation of the handle was very tedious. Kartechnitsy used in some wars (Civil War, the Franco-Prussian and Russian-Turkish), but there was not able to establish itself with a good hand. In the history of technology, it is interesting that some of its mechanisms were used then the inventors of machine guns. However, to call kartechnitsy automatic weapons in the modern sense of the word is still impossible.

This automatic weapons, of course, there could be no question about how to manually rotate the barrels, and the principle of its operation was quite different. Developing at a shot pressure powder gases are used not only to eject the bullet from the barrel, but also to recharge. This will automatically do the following: Open the gate, ejected cartridge cases, a platoon action spring drummer, introduced a new cartridge, after which the gate closes again in the barrel chamber. On the creation of samples of such weapons worked in the second half of the XIX century, many inventors in different countries. For the first time the current automatic movement succeeded in creating an English engineer Henry Bessemer. In 1854 he designed the first automatic gun in history. Recoil after firing happened here ejection, after that automatically shall be sent to the new shell and a platoon of the mechanism for the next shot. To gun does not overheat, Bessemer thought through the water cooling system. However, his invention was so imperfect that we are on the mass production of this gun did not go.

The first in the history of machine gun was set up American inventor Hiram Maxim. For several years he unsuccessfully worked on the invention of automatic rifles. In the end he was able to construct all of the major components of automatic weapons, but it has turned out so cumbersome, that was more like a small cannon. From the rifle had to be abandoned. Instead, Maxim collected in 1883, the first working model of his famous gun. Shortly thereafter, he moved to England and founded his own workshop here, which later merged with weapons plant Nordenfeldta.

The first test gun was held in Enfield in 1885. In 1887, Maxim has offered the British War Office, three different sample of his gun, which gave about 400 rounds per minute. In subsequent years, he began to receive more and more orders at him. The machine gun was tested in various colonial wars waged by England at this time, and established himself as a great menacing and very effective weapon. England was the first country who took the machine gun on the arms of his army. At the beginning of the XX century Maxim machine gun it was already in service with all European and American armies, as well as Chinese and Japanese armies. Actually, he was destined to a rare longevity. Constantly improving, this reliable and trouble-free machine stood in service with many armies (including Soviet) until the end of the Second World War.

action "maxim" The principle was as follows. The machine gun was movable barrel connected via pins with two longitudinal plates a special frame, which is placed between the AB lock, lockable trunk, crank and connecting rod HS HD. All three of these parts were connected together by hinges IOP, the latter being passed through the rear hinge frame end plates and tightly joined to the connecting rod, i.e. such that when rotated, the axis, then turned and the connecting rod itself. On this axis on the right side outside the box nasazhivalas handle hedgehog, a rear end rests on the roller F Z. To handle using a chain was attached the rear end of the coil spring K, tensile, front end as it was attached to a fixed duct system. The handle was located right outside of the gun box.

When fired, the powder gases sought to discard the lock back, but as he was connected by means of the crank and connecting rod with the frame machine gun through the axis D (with the average z-axis located slightly above the two extremes of the axes A and B, adhering to the same time on top of a special panel ), initially these parts (ie, crank, crank and lock) maintained its original position they had before the shot, and retreated, moving for a frame, and consequently, coupled with her trunk. It's happened before, as long as the handle hedgehog sitting on the axis D, does not fit in the movie W, then the handle began to rotate. This rotation of the handle causes rotation axis D, and hence the rod DW. Castle while getting accelerated in comparison with the frame and barrel movement - he opened the trunk liner and ejected from the chamber. After that stretched spring returns the entire mechanism to the original position. Because the moving parts in the system were very massive, then the first time the machine gun is often given "delay" in bringing its rate fell markedly. To improve gun Miller, a technician of the company "Maxim-Nordenfeldt" Zhukov and Russian captain came up muzzle. Its action was the fact that the powder gases emitted from the barrel of a bullet, reflected on the front inner wall of the muzzle and then act on the cutting edge muzzle, increasing the speed of dropping the barrel from the frame.

Filing cartridge in the barrel is as follows. In particular cuts in front of the castle plane glided up and down the larva of the LM, the purpose of which was to snatch the cartridges from the tape, and the spent cartridges from the chamber: during its lifting up into special grips larvae entered hat cartridge, and when moving away of the castle back chuck pulls out the tape. In order to put on the line snatched cartridge chamber axis, the larva had to descend down what happened under the influence of its own weight, with special lateral horns larvae slipped on the side plates PR stationary box.

Greater intensity lowering assisted lamellar SS spring, presses down on the larva. Reverse raising of larvae occurred up using the lift arms BUT, the front edge of which presses against the side bolsters larvae when rotating levers. The rotation of the arms produced a special shoulder BB '.

The handle in the machine gun acted as an accelerator: With its massiveness, it is accelerated in its rotation turning of the crank and connecting rod with lock dropping to its rearmost position.

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