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Linotype


Linotype
The invention Bullock was soon complemented by important innovations in the typesetting case. Up until the beginning of the XIX century, the production of a set of characters and remained tame and little changed in nature since the time of Gutenberg. Meanwhile, in the middle of the XIX century among publishers of certain newspapers (especially in America) a fierce competition, which has led to a desire to make the most of fresh material: everything that had happened the day before and even during the night, had to find a place in the morning paper. For this purpose it was necessary not only to increase the speed of an express train to the printing of newspapers, but also the range of produce so that last night the news in a few minutes were not only recruited but well laid out and inserted into the headlines. Hand compositor, gaining an hour no more than 1000 characters, that is, 23 rows, for this was no good. First we tried to speed up its work by casting the most running syllables (the so-called logos), but it did not help the cause, as it increases the number of branches in the hand typesetting and therefore only complicates the work. Then came the idea to mechanize the recruitment process.

In 1822, the English engineer Church after fifteen years of works built the first, still imperfect, typesetting machine. This invention has made a great impression on his contemporaries, and newspapers put detailed description of the mechanical typesetter.

Machine Church consisted of a stable wooden frame (two perpendicular columns of beams), standing on the running boards, and is driven by the pressure on the pedal. In its upper part there were lecterns on which were arranged with cupboards letters. The lower bar of the frame placed keypad, its buttons are held in position by means of coil springs. Keystrokes lower letter released from the canister to the front of the music stand and a special device directed at its middle. Pressing the pen letter here fell into the collective channel. Thus, of all the manual operations that are necessary to carry out the compositor, there was only one mechanized - search and filing letters. Practical application of machine Church has not received, but its construction was the starting point for all future inventors. For several years, it was created several typesetting machines, but they all had a very significant drawback - they had not been thought out set of disassembly and distribution of letters by cash offices, and after all this work took away a lot of time typesetter.

An important step towards the resolution of this problem was the invention of typesetter Danish Christian Sorensen who created a typesetting machine "Taheogipom" in 1849. This machine was placed on the table and looked like a piano. In the middle of the funnel was set up, set up the opening. The funnel were placed two cylinders, inlaid bottom and top - folding. Both are driven by means of toothed wheels. Next to each cylinder was placed erect the same number of copper rods (120 pieces) with a protruding rod in the form of a dovetail. Each letter had special slots (signature), the corresponding form of any of the rods, they are strung on the rods and one Zadruga sent in the middle of the machine. When a worker hit by some kind of key, the letter has cleared properly, which then fell through the groove into the funnel, and from there to composing sticks. When the line came to an end, the second compositor leveled it. font disassembly occurred simultaneously with the kit. Collapsible cylinder had the same number of channels as there were letters. Above the top of the cylinder channels was metal Cash slots which match the signature of letters. Parses the string moved by a metal band, and each letter fell into the appropriate hole where the string on the rod.

It signatures The idea proved very fruitful and was later used in foundry and typesetting machines, but the machine itself Sorensen almost not applied. More widespread machine Fraser actually consist of two - type-setting and collapsible.

The typesetting machine letters were placed in rows of channels arranged horizontally. The series of characters pushed to the channel openings special spring-loaded device. There were holes channels devices, ejecting letters; the past with every stroke keys fell one after the other between the funnel ribs and fell into the collector. Alignment of lines produced a second compositor. It is a new principle applied Fraser for folding machines. Analysis took place by operation of the keyboard. Where in the typesetting machine were channels with letters in folding machine is galley with analysis. From the latter a special device separated format strings and installed in one long line, approach to the funnel, which had overturned appearance. Parsed letters fall in mobile shopping channels are not straight, and placed first in the dispensers. Machine Fraser was one of the best. It has spread in England and America, and was used in many print shops up to the beginning of the XX century.

Before all the creators of typesetting machines and foundry stood most difficult obstacles to the full mechanization of the recruitment process - how to ensure that all lines have the same length? Even the operation in the best machines had to be done manually. Only in 1872 the American Merritt Gelli patented a machine with automatic alignment of rows. The solution found them, it was brilliant in its simplicity. Instead of a space (when it was necessary to distinguish one word from another) of the machine shop was supplied flat wedge, thicker and slim down the top, which grew in number with matrices. When the set ended with the line, there is enough pressure on the letters. This wedges moved so that the distance between words and increased line received some of the same length.

Along with composing machines perfected technique of casting letters. In 1838, American David Brace literolitnuyu invented a machine, which is then entered into general use. In the car was a small crucible with molten metal for letters (it consisted of 70 parts of lead and 30 parts of antimony). All operations are performed automatically by the machine rotor turn. In a piston pump up the first part of the movement, and the pump penetrates the molten metal. This progressed literal form, which bore directly adjoined to the opening of the tube, the molten metal splashes. The piston then lowered, and the metal got into the mold. After this form is moved away, and threw out the letter disclosed. But each letter 'then still had to be sanded and cut at the edges excess metal. This work was done by hand already. Brace machine used for 50 years. However, already in 1853, Johnson created a complex foundry machine, in which not only the cast, but further processing of letters automatically.

For a long time foundry and typesetting machines have evolved independently of each other. However, a genuine revolution in the typesetting case occurred only after the idea to combine these two machines in one. In 1886, the apprentice watchmaker Ottmar Margentaler from Baltimore, using design finds many of his predecessors, has created a machine that was named "linotype". She was a string of letters and shone in its entirety, which immediately set dramatically increased productivity. On linotype Margentalera work went well. Typewriting, sitting in front of a keyboard and having before our eyes the original set, hit by a particular key. At each stroke of a store located obliquely at the top of the machine above the keyboard, he dropped out of its groove matrix and the endless belt is gliding down to the left of the typesetter composing sticks (collector arrays). At the end of the line translate compositor pressure lever all the rows of the matrix to form the casting, about which there was a pot of molten metal printing. When the rows of the matrix was placed in front of the casting mold, there is an alignment of its length by a flat wedges as described above. After this, the casting form is pressed to the hole in the crucible. Because the pot is poured into metal matrices line was cast, then immediately froze, trim, polished and even hot pushes to strokosobiratel, becoming in line with other previously cast lines. Meanwhile wedges separated from the matrix and falls into place, a special hand catches the matrix, raised them to the upper edge of the magazine and a special thanks to cuts in the matrices, different for each matrix, the latter sliding along the endless screw, each got into his trough.

Linotype had for each matrix several types and sizes of fonts and give the opportunity to gain a newspaper from beginning to end, with headings, subheadings, and other ads. Experienced compositor managed to dial it up to 12,000 letters per hour. This significant acceleration compared to manual work was extremely important, and meet long-standing needs. For it also says the commercial success of the new invention. Despite its complexity and significant cost Linotype widespread throughout the world. Already in 1892, its more than 700 pieces were produced.

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