The engine (locomotive)
The history of the locomotive combines two stories: the story of the track and the locomotive of history. And the first came much earlier than the second. On the application of wooden rails in mining even Sebastian Munster writes in his book, published in 1541. In the XVIII century steel rails made of cast iron, and at the beginning of the XIX century - from soft iron (cast iron because of their fragility, destroyed quickly). For a long time the railroad tracks were built only in the mines, but then became widespread passenger road with horse-drawn. The first such rail road was constructed in 1801 in England between Wandsworth and Croydon.
With regard to the locomotive, he could come to light only after the great invention of Watt. As soon as the steam engine gained a certain currency, there was a lot of inventors, trying to adapt it to the needs of transport - for example, to use a steam engine as an engine for the self-propelled carts. The first attempt of the kind made assistant Murdoch Watt. He first realized the other that paromobiley engine must be different in structure from the stationary steam engine. To the cart but itself could carry a payload, the engine must be compact, lightweight and powerful. First of all, Murdoch has offered to increase the pressure in the cylinder to 3-3, 5 atmospheres (if this pressure was considered very high). He also found it necessary to abandon the capacitor and releasing exhaust steam "to exhaust" in the atmosphere. In 1786, Murdoch had built a working model of a steam cart. However, Watt reacted to the experiences of his assistant is very cold, and Murdoch had to abandon their experiments. Fortunately, when Murdoch's experiments in Redrete present intelligent and inquisitive teenager - Richard Trivaytik. What he saw made a great impression on him, and he grew up, he devoted his life to the creation of steam self-propelled transport vehicles.
Trivaytik started with, on being stopped Murdoch. He first designed a steam engine of high pressure, working "to exhaust" without the capacitor. Then, in the years 1801-1803 he built several steam wagons, which ran very successfully for bad road from Kemborna in Plymouth. In fact, it was the first car in history. But before the invention of the pneumatic tire to ride on such machines could only enthusiasts. Good roads were few, and no spring did not save the car and its driver from violent shaking. In addition, all these structures were very bulky and heavy to travel on dirt roads. Then we had the idea to put Trivaytika steam car on track. In 1804 he built his first locomotive.
This locomotive was a cylindrical boiler, rests on two axes. The furnace was located in front of a chimney, so that the tender (coal wagon, where he was fireman) had to be coupled ahead of the engine. Long horizontal cylinder 210 mm in diameter had a stroke of the piston 1 and 4 m. The piston rod is far issued ahead of the engine, and has a special bracket. On one side of the locomotive had a difficult toothed wheel gears on both axes, on the other - a large flywheel, like a steam engine factory. In many respects this first in the history of the locomotive had a wonderful performance. So, at a body weight 5 t he transported at a speed of 8 km / h five wagons with a total weight of 25 tons. Empties it moved at a speed of 26 km / h. Trivaytik was not sure that the friction between the wheels and the rails will be sufficient for the translational motion of the engine. Therefore, the outer part of the wheel, which is issued for the rails, was studded with nail heads, which were pressed into boards, stacked parallel rails. However, very soon Trivaytik sure that the needs of these other devices is not - a steam locomotive could well move on smooth rails and pull a few cars.
Despite its good driving performance, the first steam locomotive is not caused to the interest currently. The fact that Trivaytiku had to demonstrate their offspring at Merthyr Tidvilskoy horse railway. Heavy locomotive constantly racked iron rails. It was obvious that it is necessary to build a special way for him. However, the owners of mines, which would be interested Trivaytik locomotive, did not want to invest in construction of new roads and refused to finance the inventor. In subsequent years Trivaytik designed and built several locomotives. Steam locomotive 1808 was a further step forward. Trivaytik removed the bulky gear. The movement of the vertical cylinder was passed through a simple connecting rod with a crank on the rear axle. Part of the waste steam was on the hot water in the boiler part - produced through the narrowed opening in the chimney to gain traction in the furnace. This advanced locomotive developed empty speed of 30 km / h. However, this wonderful machine nobody interested. In 1811, completely ruined, Trivaytik had to stop his experiments. The trouble of it is, that he was with his invention too early. Not only iron, but also iron were still too expensive. Therefore, construction of railroads seem unprofitable. High-precision machine tools as there were very few. All parts of the engine had to be done manually, they had high costs. In addition, there was a war with Napoleon, England was constrained by the continental blockade, and all projects requiring a large capital investment, could not be realized.
But, of course, no difficulties could not stop the technical idea. There were new inventors who have undertaken for the creation of a steam locomotive. For a long time among engineers was common belief that a smooth wheel can not roll on a smooth iron rail. Trying to avoid the imaginary danger, some inventors have gone astray. In 1812 Blenkiston, one of the owners Midltonskih coal mines in Yorkshire, a small paved railway 6 km long between Middleton and Leeds specially for the engine. In the same year mechanic Murray designed by Blenkistona locomotive, has a fairly good technical indicators. He moved on conventional rails and had a wheel with smooth rims. But the movement was carried out by means of a gear wheel, moving up on the rack, put next to the smooth rails. The machine had two steam cylinder. Engine cranks are offset from each other by 90 degrees. When one of them is in the dead center, the other at this time acted with the greatest force. It was the first steam engine of double action that can start work from any position of the crank. Murray steam locomotive can transport 20 tonnes of payload at a speed of 6 km / h. On the lighter load it could take a very steep climbs. Several of these locomotives were built to service the mines, but widespread, they have not received due to the fact that they had very little speed, high price and often idle because of the broken ways.
Another inventor, Brunton, in 1813 built a locomotive with two mechanisms that, like the legs had to be repelled from the ground and move the machine forward (at the first test of the locomotive exploded since the errors were made in calculating the boiler).
Soon, it was proved that a smooth wheel may well move on a smooth rail. Two of the inventor - Blackett and Headley - built a special trolley with smooth rims, which are driven by means of the gear train people who are on it. Iron loaded on the truck, thus changing its weight. During these experiments, it was shown that the friction drive wheel truck (i.e. the wheels are obtained from the engine rpm) at 50 times the friction wheels kativshihsya freely along the rail. Consequently, due to the abutment of its driving wheels any locomotive could haul cargo to 50 times its towing weight (weight on the wheels of the engine, coupled with a motor). In 1815 Blackett and Headley collected a very good engine, named "Puffing Billy". With access to the Trivaytika drawings, they were able to take advantage of many of its operating time. For a long time the designers struggled with the problem faced by all the inventors of the engine at the time - how to reduce the load on the axle, the locomotive to not break the rails. At first, this was too much, so before each tender had to load the stock cast-iron rails. Finally Blackett Headley and put the pot on a frame with the tender, providing it with four pairs of wheels, so that "Billy" had four major axis. Only after he has ceased to spoil the journey. This locomotive was operated the mine until 1865, after which he was handed over to the London Museum.
Meanwhile, the final victory over Napoleon led to a change in market conditions. England entered a new period of industrial expansion. Demand for coal has risen sharply, with the result that the owners of the mines became more acutely aware of the need for vapor transport. Now many of them were willing to fund experiments on the construction of locomotives. While the idea of a steam traction was in the air, over her in different places in England labored several dozen engineers, to develop various design locomotives. Successfully other locomotives were designed and built by George Stephenson. In 1812, as a chief mechanic Killinguortskih mines, Stephenson suggested his master Thomas Liddell draft of its first locomotive. He agreed to pay for its construction. In 1814, work was completed. Steam locomotive, named "Blucher", involved in the work on the maintenance of the mine. By design, it closely resembled a locomotive Blenkinstona but without toothed drive wheel. He had two vertically set steam cylinder; the movement of the piston rods passed two leading ramp. These ramps were connected toothed wheel transmission. The tender has been separated from the engine and fastened behind. "Blucher" could carry a weight of 30, 5 tons, but could not take the steep slopes and developed with a load speed of 6 km / h. In many respects, he conceded, "Puffing Billy" and after years of operation proved to be advantageous to use only a little before the horse. The cause of the failure was a weak draft. Exhaust steam is discharged into the air and not into the pipe, where it could enhance traction in the furnace. This lack Stephenson eliminated first. Once the exhaust steam began to flow into the pipe, thrust increased. An improved locomotive has seriously competed with horses, and Liddell willingly gave money for the continuation of the experiments.
In 1815 Stephenson built his second locomotive. In this design, he refused axis coupling toothed wheel transmission. Vertical steam boilers were placed directly over the axle, and the movement of the pistons transmitted directly to the drive axis, coupled by a chain. a third locomotive "Killinguort" was completed in 1816. For him, Stephenson first invented and applied the spring (before the appliance is installed directly on the frame, so that the locomotive just shake the soul out driver, bouncing on the joints). Simultaneously, Stephenson worked on the improvement of the track. At that time it was widely used brittle cast iron rails. When moving heavy steam locomotive and then they burst in the joints. Stephenson invented a scarf joint and took a patent. However, at the same time it became clear that as long as the iron rails have been replaced by iron, dramatic improvements can not be expected. Iron was several times more expensive than iron, and the owners were reluctant to build such expensive cars. But Stephenson proved that steam engines leverage only when the force of the thrust is large enough. To locomotives could carry large compositions and develop considerable speed, you must resolutely, sparing no cost, to rebuild the existing road horse, which had to go the first locomotive in two ways: to soften the slopes and enhance the rails. These ideas Stephenson was able to realize a few years later.
In 1821, one of the mine owners Darlington Edgar Pease founded on the construction of the railway from Darlington to Stockton and ordered its construction Stephenson. The total length of the road with the side branches was 56, 3 km. It was significant at the time, the company, and Stephenson enthusiastically took up its implementation. With great difficulty he managed to convince Pisa and his companions put on half the length of the road iron rails instead of iron, even though they cost twice as much. September 19, 1825 on his way triumphantly passed the first train of 34 carriages. Six of them were loaded with coal and flour, the rest were placed benches for the audience. Toting these cars new locomotive "Movement", which he ran Stephenson. Under the sounds of music and merry shouts passenger train has passed to Stockton. Average speed it was 10 km / h. In front of the locomotive he rode horseback with flag, asking the public to release the track. In some places he had to race at full speed, because the train accelerated to 24 km / h. More than 600 passengers were transported for this flight. Together with the rest of the cargo that the public weighed about 90 tons.
In connection with the successful construction of the Stockton-Darlington Road Stephenson name became widely known. In 1826, the board of directors of the Liverpool-Manchester road transport company offered Stephenson as chief engineer with a salary of £ 1,000. Construction of this road is of great complexity, because it took place on the rugged terrain. It was necessary to build a wide variety of artificial structures: embankments, cuttings, tunnels, etc. Some bridges were built 63. Under most Liverpool had to build a tunnel length of 2, 4 km to the rocky ground. Then he had to make a recess in the high sandy rock (total of 480 thousand. Cu. Meters of stone was removed during this operation). Especially great difficulty is the construction of the web through peat bogs Chet Moss, a width of 6, 5 km and a depth of 15 m. The total cost of the work was soon exceeded all cost estimates, and Stephenson meanwhile insisted that instead of cheap iron rails were laid expensive iron. He took all his eloquence and all his authority to the directors to prove: that way and not another should build railways.
Finally, all obstacles have been successfully overcome. In 1829, when the road was nearing its end and I had already been thinking of rolling stock, the company announced a free competition for the best design of the locomotive. Near Rainhill has been allocated a new site 3 km long. Locomotives, participated in the competition, had to pass this distance 20 times. Stephenson put in Rainhill its new locomotive "Rocket", built on its plant with the latest technology that time. Back in 1826 he developed a locomotive design with a sloping cylinder (the first time it was tested on the engine "America"). This allowed us to reduce the harmful space in the cylinders, that at vertical of the location is very important. There was also a significantly improved boiler and were first used flue pipe, which should say more. In general, the boiler has been one of the most important components of the engine, which is largely dependent on its specifications. To it imposes a number of requirements: with little consumption of coal and water, he had to give the greatest possible amount of vapor. This effect can be achieved primarily by increasing the area of contact between the water and the hot gases.
In the early locomotives used a simple cylindrical pot. Here D - cap, which is going to steam conducted to the steam valve on one of the tubes B (the other was connected to a safety valve). The boiler has an inclined lattice R, and by which the air delivered to the coal, pour through a funnel T. The coal slid down on the funnel as combustion, and the most powerful burning occurred at the bottom of the lattice; flames rising from there by sloping the arch G, where there was a hole b, through which hot gases flow into the first chimney F under the boiler. Then, these gases fall into c in the side flue and F, and d through the connection on the front side F again passed along the rear of the boiler, from which flew into the chimney. Thus, the boiler as it flows around all sides by hot air. Fly-K and door latch S were simple devices, with which the fireman regulated air supply to the furnace.
A simple modification of the cylindrical boiler became a flame tube boiler, in which the first chimney is held under the boiler, and inside it.
The next step was the boiler tube, invented in 1828 by French engineer Seguin. Inside the boiler flue pipe were metal, which from the furnace to the chimney moving hot gas. The heating boiler tube surface was significantly greater than in the cylindrical. Thus far most of the heat was on vaporization and relatively smaller flew away into the pipe. At the "Rocket" total surface area of the boiler heating was about 13 square meters, of which the tube had 11. Therefore, with the same dimensions of the boiler performance has been significantly higher.
Rainhill Trials have become a major event in the history of the engine; it is believed that they ended during his childhood. On the competition was attended by about 10 thousand people, and it is best to say about the huge interest of the public easy to transport steam. I hope that Stephenson had placed on his creation, entirely justified. October 10 "Rocket", going empty, except for those times record speed of 48 km / h. At a bodyweight of 4, 5 tons of the locomotive pulling the train freely total weight of 17 tons at a speed of 21 km / h. The speed of the engine with one passenger carriages reached 38 km / h. By all accounts "Rocket" was much better than all other locomotives, and 500 pounds sterling prize was awarded to Stephenson. He shared it with his assistant Booth, who proposed the idea of a tubular boiler (neither Booth nor the Stephenson at that time knew nothing about Seguin invention). "Rocket" can already be considered quite perfect locomotive, as she had all the major features of the later locomotives: 1) furnace was surrounded by a water boiler; 2) the boiler has been positioned horizontally, and had smoke tubes; 3) couples went into the chimney, which increases traction and increased furnace temperature; 4) the power of a pair of wheels was transmitted through a connecting rod without any gears.
The following year, Liverpool line - Manchester was inaugurated. Construction of the road require unprecedented at the time of investment. General at its installation costs amounted to 739,000 pounds. However, the need for this road was so great that it has paid off quite quickly. This was the best recommendation that a new mode of transport. In a few years all over the world unfolded rapid railway construction. The era of the engine. Meaning Liverpool-Manchester road in this process can not be overestimated - it was the first in the history of large, technically correct implementation of the project of railway construction. Many Stephenson findings concerning the device embankments, construction of dams and tunnels, laying of rails and sleepers, etc., Then became a model for other engineers.
Large-scale changes caused by the widespread steam locomotives were so huge that we can say without exaggeration - they changed the face of the world. Before the invention of the railways were the most important industrial cities in the sea coast or on navigable rivers. The main vehicle served as sailing ships. Inland freight cartage took place, and in all countries of the roads are in very bad shape. In the absence of roads could not develop the industry. Many areas had minerals, were nevertheless condemned to inactivity. Go to the steam transport has led to a significant increase in mobility and turnover rate, despite the fact that the transport price decreased markedly. The most remote areas were soon linked by rail with industrial centers, ports and sources of raw materials involved in the general rhythm of economic life. Distance is no longer an obstacle, and the industry has received a powerful impetus to its development.