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Drilling for oil


Drilling for oil
Before the advent of kerosene in many countries, the main lighting means were wax candles and whale oil. For the sake of the latter were exterminated hundreds of thousands of whales. Soon the whales were rare, and there is a need to replace whale oil in some other oil. Then resorted to a mixture of turpentine and alcohol; Attempts were also made to extract oil from coal by distillation. In 1844, American chemist Abraham Gesner was lighting oil from coal, which he called "kerosene". But later the name "Kerosene" was assigned to the refined oil. A method for producing kerosene from petroleum was discovered in 1857 by Ferris. Unlike crude oil (which also tried to apply for coverage) kerosene burned much better, with no soot and fumes that ensured the success of the new invention. Since that time, the rate of oil production began to increase steadily.

At the same time the society for the development of oil resources in the state of Pennsylvania was founded in New York. Extraction was carried out first in the most primitive way of the well, in which the oil workers tore a deep hole and drew from it the oil like water buckets. One of the leaders of society, Bissell, soon the idea was to produce oil using boreholes. This idea seems very simple, but first she never came to mind. Bissell learned that by drilling for many years to extract water from deep sources of salt (from this water then evaporated salt), and many of these sources have been abandoned, because together with the oil contained water. Thus, it can be concluded that the oil and the water under the ground near each other and nothing prevents pump oil from the well by means of pumps in the same way as was done with water. Many, however, reacted to this proposal with suspicion.

Arts drilling ground to the middle of the XIX century has come a long way of development, but on the whole still stood at a fairly primitive level. The predominant method was the so-called percussion drilling, in which the well is hollowed out in the rock blows wedge destructive tool - flat chisel or drill. It occurred while drilling follows. Please choose a place in the borehole. Then we build the tower and carefully adjusted to the guide tube. Drilling rig served as a machine to lift the drill. Drilling was carried out strikes. At the end of the pole strengthened heavy head with cutters: with the help of a rope thrown over the block, it was lowered and then raised again. Force of its gravity, it is crushed rock. To get the correct form of the well, the bit before each blow turned at a certain angle. When the drill deeper into the earth for all its length, it is screwed to the bar about 3 m. In the drilled hole for attachment of the walls lowered iron pipes. To remove the crushed rock particles of wetted with water and turned into mud, which is periodically removed upward using bailer - long bucket with a valve at the end. It is understood that each of the time necessary for removing the tool from the well drilling and unscrew it apart. In this work (lifting, unscrewing and screwing Drum) took a huge amount of work. If the ground was soft, the day could take up to 18 m, but usually have time to drill no more than 3-4 m. The greater the depth of the drill reaches the slower was the work.

In 1846, Fauvel invented a way to wash wells water jet. He started using hollow rod and pumping water in them, which is then pumped between the drill and the borehole wall with fragments of crushed rock. This invention was an era in the history of drilling equipment. With this arrangement, drilling could never be the accumulation of dirt on the bottom of the well and there was no need to continuously lifting tool. This invention Fauvel drilling difficulties were reduced by 9/10, and it is just beginning to develop rapidly. drilling cost has decreased by 10 times.

So is the case when Bissell decided to use a drilling technique to search for and production of oil. He still did not know what a revolution in the economy will make his idea. Conducting drilling engineer was instructed to Drake. In March 1858 near the town of Taytesvilla in Pennsylvania had been dug deep open pit, the bottom of which started drilling.

The history of the first oil well is full of dramatic episodes, from the very beginning Drake had to overcome a lot of difficulties due to lack of the right people and tools. No faith in a man who wanted to extract oil from the water-lifting shaft. Drake finally found an experienced driller, who was involved in the business for the past 30 years. He undertook to bring the well up to the end. But hardly started, drillers stumbled on a water reservoir, and water gushed out of the hole with such force that they had to leave in a panic mine - otherwise they would simply drowned. To improve the situation, told Drake to navigate through the aquifer and sand a large iron pipe, after which drilling could proceed further. In late April 1859, when drillers reached a depth of 21 m from the well went oil. Thus, the experience was a success. When the pump is installed, it became pump 8 barrels of oil per day. A week later, the number increased to 20 barrels. At the end of October of the same year, on the first well was a fire and burned the whole point. However, entrepreneurs are not desperate and installed in the same place a new tower, which was given 30 barrels per day from the first day - the amount remaining in unsurpassed for many years.

Drake's successful experience marked the beginning of the US oil industry. The news of the success of its oil installations quickly spread across the country. Bissel rented new oil patches. Other entrepreneurs followed suit. Soon to start a real oil boom. Oil production was profitable enterprises. It happened that the land, which cost 30-40 dollars on the eve of a few days shooting up in price up to 10 thousand dollars. This attracted a lot of business in the oil speculators and capitalists. The enormous concentration of capital in this area has allowed to perform miracles. With incredible speed were laid pipelines and railways, as if out of the ground in the desert city arose, in the oil fields like mushrooms grow thousands of oil rigs.

Technique oil quickly improved. Since 1858 when the hammer drill for pulling out the drill began to use steam engine. But even more important was a shift to more productive rotary (rotary) drilling. In this method of drilling a cylindrical hole was drilled to a continuously rotating bit and crushed particles while drilling continuously imposed on the surface of the circulating washing fluid jet, injected continuously downhole special pump. In 1889, Chapman invented the apparatus for rotary drilling, where the device essentially has not changed until today. The rotor (rotating mechanism) is received from the powerful movement of the internal combustion engine and transmit it to the leading tube, and through it - drill pipe and drill bit. Chapman first installation used to drill for water. In 1901, the first oil well was drilled on it.

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