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Computing machine


Computing machine
The mechanization and mechanization of computing operations - one of the fundamental technological achievements of the second third of the XX century. Just as the emergence of the first spinning machine was the beginning of the great industrial revolution XVIII-XIX centuries, the creation of an electronic computer was the harbinger of immense scientific, technological and information revolution of the second half of the XX century. This important event was preceded by a long prehistory. The first attempts to collect calculating machine date back to the XVII century, and the simplest computing devices, such as abaca and expense, appeared even earlier - in ancient and medieval times.

Although automatic computing device belongs to the genus of machines, it can not be put on a par with industrial machinery, for example, with a lathe or a loom, because unlike them it operates is not a natural material (filaments or the wood), and the ideal, non-existent in nature numbers. Therefore, before the creator of any computer (either a simple adding machine or a new supercomputer) face specific problems not encountered by inventors in other areas of technology. They can be summarized as follows: 1. As a physical (subject) to report the number of the car? 2. How can input numerical data source? 3. How to simulate the execution of arithmetic operations? 4. How to submit calculator entered the initial data and results of calculations?

One of the first of these problems overcame the famous French scientist and philosopher Blaise Pascal. He was 18 years old when he began working on the creation of a special machine, with the help of which people do not even familiar with the rules of arithmetic, could produce four basic steps. Sister Pascal, a former witness to his work, wrote later: "This work is tiring brother, but not because of the stress of mental activity, and not because of the mechanisms, the invention that does not cause him too much effort, and due to the fact that working with hardly understand him. " This is not surprising. Precision mechanics just born, and quality demanded by Pascal, exceeded the capacity of its masters. Therefore, the inventor himself often had to take on a file and hammer, or puzzle over how to change in accordance with the qualification of master interesting but complex design. The first working model of the machine was ready in 1642. she did not satisfy Pascal, and he immediately began to construct a new one. "I did not save - he wrote later about his car - neither time nor labor, nor the means to bring it to the state to be helpful ... I had the patience to make up to 50 different models ..." Finally, in 1645, his efforts were crowned with complete success - Pascal assembled machine that satisfies him in all respects.

As this was our first in the history of computers and how it has resolved the problem of the above? The mechanism of the machine was made in light box brass. On top of the lid there eight circular openings, around each of which was affixed a dial. Scale rightmost holes was divided into 12 equal parts, the scale of the adjoining holes - 20 parts, the remaining six holes had a decimal division. This grading is consistent with the division of livres - the basic monetary unit of the French at the time: 1 c = 1/20 livres and 1 denier = 1/12 Su. The holes were visible toothed wheel positioning is below the plane of the top cover. The number of teeth of each wheel is equal to the number of divisions of the scale of the corresponding holes.

Entering numbers is as follows. Each wheel is rotated independently from the other on its own axis. Turning is done with the help of leading pin that is inserted between two adjacent teeth. The pin wheel turned until until encountered the fixed stopper fixed on the bottom cover and left projecting inside the hole "1" of the dial. If, for example, put a pin between the teeth 3 and 4 and the rotating wheel until it stops, then it turns to 3/10 its full circumference. Rotating each wheel is transmitted through the internal mechanism of a cylindrical drum whose axes are arranged horizontally. In the ranks of figures have been put side surfaces of the drums.

Addition of numbers, if the amount of not more than 9, there was a very simple and consistent addition of the angles are proportional to them. In addition the operation of large numbers was to be made, which is called the transfer a dozen in the MSB. People who believe in a column or on the accounts must make it in mind. Pascal's machine automatically migrates, and this was its most important feature.

The elements of the car belonging to the same category, were adjusting wheel N, I and digital drum counter, consisting of four of crown wheel B, a gear K and tens transmission mechanism.

Note that the wheel B1, B2, and K have no fundamental significance for the operation of the machine and used only for the transmission of the setting wheel motion N digital drum I. But the wheel B3 and B4 were essential elements of the meter, and so were called "counting wheels." Counting wheel two adjacent bits A1 and A2, are firmly planted on the axis. The mechanism of transmission of tens, which Pascal called the "sling" was the next device. In the counting wheel vehicle B1 Jr. rods were Pascal discharge C1, in which the rotation axis A1 engages the fork tines M, located at the end of the lever dvuhkolennogo D1. This lever is free to rotate on the axis A2 senior level, the plug bore the spring-loaded pawl. When during rotation axis A1 B1 wheel has reached the position corresponding to figure 6, C1 rods engageable with teeth plugs, and the moment when it is passed from 9 to 0, fork slipped out of engagement and due to its own weight fall down, dragging a dog. Last thus pushed forward the counting wheel B2 senior level one step forward (ie, turning it with the A2 axis by 36 degrees). Lever of H, ending with a tooth in the form of a hatchet, played the role of clues that prevented B1 wheel rotating in the opposite direction when lifting forks.

transfer mechanism to function only in one direction of rotation of the counting wheel and did not allow the operation of subtraction wheel rotation in the opposite direction. Therefore Pascal replaced subtraction by adding a decimal addition. Suppose, for example, you need to subtract 87 from 532 additions method leads to action: 532-87 = 532- (100-13) = (532 + 13) -100 = 445. You just do not forget to subtract 100. By car, which had a certain number of bits of this, however, could not worry. Indeed, even for a six-digit machine subtract 532-87. Then 000,532 + 999,913 = 1,000,445. But the first unit is lost by itself, since the transfer of the sixth category nowhere to go.

Multiplication is also reduced to the addition. But since the car was introduced Pascal term anew each time, use it to perform the arithmetic operation was extremely difficult.

The next stage in the development of computer technology associated with the name of the famous German mathematician Leibniz. In 1672 Leibniz visited the Dutch physicist and inventor of Huygens and witnessed how much time and effort it took from a variety of mathematical calculations. Then Leibniz and had the idea of ​​creating an adding machine. "It is unworthy of such great people, - he wrote - as servants waste time on computer work, which could be entrusted to anyone using the machine." However, the creation of such a machine required the Leibniz all his ingenuity. His famous 12-bit adding machine appeared only in 1694 and cost a round sum - 24,000 thalers.

At the heart of the machine lay mechanism invented by Leibniz stepped roller is a cylinder coated with it the teeth of varying lengths. The 12-bit adding machine of rollers was 12 - one for each digit number.

Adding machine consisted of two parts - fixed and mobile. In the fixed placed the main 12-bit counter and a step roller input device. The installation of this device, consisting of eight small digital circles, was located in the moving parts of the machine. In the center of each circle is the axis on which the machine under the lid was planted a gear E, as top cover mounted arrow that rotates with the shaft. The end of the arrow could be set against any range of numbers.

Entering data into the machine carried out by a special mechanism. Stepped roll S has been planted on the tetrahedral axis threaded type rack. This rack engages with the gear desyatizubym E, on a circumference whose numbers 0, 1 ... 9 were applied. Turn the wheel so that the slot in the cover appeared this or that figure, moved a step roller parallel to the gear axis F of the main counter. If the roller then turned 360 degrees, it engages with the wheel F were one, two, etc. the longest stage, depending on the shift amount. Accordingly, F wheels turn at 0, 1 ... 9 parts of a complete revolution; and turn the dial or roller R. With the following turnover roller on the counter again tolerated the same number.

Computers Pascal and Leibniz, as well as some others that have appeared in the XVIII century, are not widely known. They were complex, expensive, and the public demand for such machines was not very sharp. However, with the development of production and society is such a need was felt more and more, especially in the preparation of various mathematical tables. Widespread in Europe in the late XVIII - early XIX century have received arithmetic, trigonometric and logarithmic tables; banks and loan offices used tables per cent and insurance companies - the mortality of the table. But it is of paramount importance (especially for England - "a great naval power") were astronomical and navigation tables. astronomers predictions regarding the positions of the heavenly bodies were at that time the only way that allowed mariners to determine the location of their vessels on the high seas. These tables are included in the "Sea Calendar", which came out a year. Each edition required a huge labor of tens and hundreds of meters. Needless to say how important it was to avoid mistakes in the preparation of these tables. But mistakes were still. Hundreds and even thousands of incorrect data also contain the most common table - logarithmic. The publishers of these tables have been forced to keep a special staff correctors, validates the calculations. But this does not prevent the error.

The situation was so serious that the British government - the world's first - worried about the creation of a special computer for the compilation of such tables. Development of the machine (it is called the difference) was entrusted to the famous British mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage. In 1822 it was made a working model. Since the value of Babbage's invention, as well as the value he developed the method of computations are very large, it is necessary to elaborate on the difference of the machine device.

Let us first consider the simple example of the method proposed by Babbage for tabulation. Suppose you want to calculate the table fourth powers of members of the natural numbers 1, 2, 3 ...

Let such a table is already calculated for some members of the series in column 1 - and the obtained values ​​are listed in column 2. Subtract from each subsequent value of the previous one. Get the sequence value of the first difference (column 3). Doing the same operation with the first differences, we obtain a second difference (column 4), third (column 5), and finally, the fourth (column 6). In this fourth difference are constant: Column 6 consists of the same number 24. And it's not an accident, but a consequence of the important theorem: If the function (in this case, the function y (x) = x4, where x belongs to the set of natural numbers) is a polynomial of n-th degree, the table with a constant pitch of its n-th difference will be constant.

Now it is easy to guess that to get the desired table can be based on the first line by adding. For example, to continue this table has one line, you need to perform the addition:

156 + 24 = 180

590 + 180 = 770

1695 + 770 = 2465

4096 + 2465 = 6561

The difference Babbage's machine used the same decimal counting wheel, that of Pascal. To display the number of registers used, consisting of a set of wheels. Each column of the table, except for 1, containing a series of natural numbers, consistent with its register; all in the car, there were seven, because it was assumed to calculate the function of the sixth permanent differences. Each register consists of 18 wheels on the number of digital bits of the number represented, and several additional, used as a counter for the number of revolutions of other auxiliary purposes.

If all machine registers stored values ​​corresponding to the last line of our table, then for the next function value in column 2 it was necessary to perform a series of additions the number equal to the number of additions of existing differences. Addition of the difference in the car took place in two stages. Registers containing the terms shifted so that the engagement of the teeth was counting wheels. Thereafter, one of the registers wheels rotate in the opposite direction until each of them has reached zero. This stage is called the addition phase. At the end of this stage in each bit of the second register to receive the sums of numbers of discharge, but so far without considering the possibility of transferring from one digit. The transfer took place at the next stage, which is called the swing phase and performs well. When changing a wheel in each phase of the addition of 9 to 0 in this bit has cleared a special latch. The transport phase, all the latch back into place by special levers which simultaneously turning the wheel the next senior level by one step. Each turn could in turn cause in some of the bits transition from 9 to 0, and then release the latch, which is returning to the place, making the transfer to the next digit. Thus, the return snap into place occurred sequentially, starting with the least sensitive category. Such a system is called the addition to the serial transfer. All the other operations performed by arithmetic addition. When subtracting the counting wheels rotate in opposite directions (unlike Pascal machines, Babbage's difference engine allowed to do so). Multiplication is reduced to successive composition and division - to a serial subtraction.

The described method can be applied not only to calculate polynomials, but also other functions such as logarithmic or trigonometric, although unlike polynomials they are not strictly constant senior differences. However, all of these functions can be represented (expanded) in the form of an infinite series, that is, the polynomial a simple form, and reduce the computation of their values ​​at any point to the problem that we have already considered. For example, sin x and cos x can be represented in the form of endless polynomials:

sin x = x - x3 / 3! + X5 / 5!
- ... + (-1) N + x2n • 1 / (2n + 1)! + ...

cos x = 1 - x2 / 2! + X4 / 4!
- ... + (-1) N • x2n / (2n)! + ...

These expansions are true for all values ​​of from 0 to p / 4 (p / 4 = 3, 14/4 = 0, 785) with a very high accuracy. For values ​​of x, over which p / 4 is another view of the expansion, but in each of these sections trigonometric function can be represented in the form of a polynomial. The number of pairs of terms of the series, which are taken into account in the calculation depends on the accuracy of which it is desired to obtain. If, for example, the accuracy requirements are low, it is possible to confine the first two to four terms of the series, and the rest discarded. But it is possible to take more terms and calculate the value of the function at any point with whatever accuracy. (Note that 2 = 1 • 2 = 2! = 3 1 • 2 • 3 = 6;! 4 = 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 = 24, etc.) Since the calculation of the values ​​of each function was reduced to Babbage one simple arithmetic operations - addition. Moreover, during the transition from one section to another function when needed to change the value of the difference, the difference machine itself gave a call (he called after a certain number of calculation steps).

The mere creation of a difference machine Babbage would provide a place of honor in the history of computing. However, he did not stop there, and began to develop the design of a much more complex - the analytical engine, which was a direct predecessor of modern computers. In what was its main feature? The fact that the difference engine, in essence, was still only arithmometer complicated and required for their work of permanent human presence, which he held in his head the whole scheme (program) calculations and guides the machine on a particular path. It is clear that this situation is to determine the brake when performing calculations. Around 1834 Babbage had an idea: "Is it possible to create a machine that would be universal calculator, that is performed to all the action without human intervention, and depending on the particular stage of the decision itself would have opted for the further way of calculating?"

In essence, this meant the creation of a program-controlled machine. That program, which was previously in the operator's head, was now to be expanded into a set of simple and clear instructions that would be introduced in advance into the car and drove her work. No one has never tried to create such a computer, although the idea of ​​program-controlled devices has already been implemented at the time. In 1804, French inventor Joseph Jacquard invented a loom with programmed control. Its working principle is as follows. Tissue, as is known, is a perpendicular interlacing yarns. Interlacing is carried out on a loom, wherein the warp (longitudinal) threaded through the eyes - openings in the wire loops and the transverse weed out through the base in a specific manner by means of the shuttle. In the simplest weave the loop via a rise accordingly lifted and threaded through which the warp threads. Between the raised and remain in place gapped strands, which stretches for a shuttle weft (transverse). Then raised loops are omitted, and the remaining lifted. In an increasingly complex pattern of interweaving strands should raise in various other combinations. Lowering and lifting the warp threads by hand weaver worked, which is usually time-consuming. After 30 years of persistent work Jacquard invented a mechanism that allows you to automate the movement of loops in accordance with a given law with a set of pasteboard cards with holes punched in them - a deck of cards. The Jacquard loom eyes were associated with long needles, rests on the punch card. Encountering holes needle moved upward, causing the eyes associated lifts. If the needle rested on the card at the point where no holes, they remained in place, holding the same eyes associated with them. Thus, the space for the shuttle, and thus the weave pattern defines a set of holes in the respective control maps.

The same principle of control of punched cards Babbage intended to use in their analytical machine. Over its device, he worked for almost forty years, from 1834 until the end of his life in 1871, but was not able to finish it. However, he left behind more than 200 drawings of the machine and its individual units, equipped with a variety of detailed notes explaining their work. All of these materials are of great interest and are one of the most amazing in the history of the art examples of scientific prediction.

In the opinion of Babbage Analytical Engine was to include four main blocks.

The first device, which Babbage called the "mill", was intended to fulfill four basic arithmetic operations. The second device - "warehouse" - meant to store numbers (initial, intermediate and final results). Initial numbers sent to the arithmetic unit and the intermediate and final results obtained from it. The main element of these two blocks are registers of the decimal counting wheels. Each of them could be established in one of the ten positions and thus "remember" one decimal. Memory machine should include 1000 registers 50 in each numerical wheels, i.e. it can be stored in 1000 pyatidesyatiznachnyh numbers. Speed ​​perform calculations directly dependent on the digital wheel speed. Babbage suggested that the addition of two 50-bit numbers will take 1 second. To transfer numbers from memory into the arithmetic unit and back to be used racks, which were to engage with the teeth on the wheels. Each rake moved up until the wheel did not take the zero position. Movement of the rods and links transmitted in the arithmetic unit, by which the other rack used to move to the desired position of the wheels of one of the registers. The basic operation of the analytical engine, as the difference is the addition, and the rest came down to it. In order to rotate a set of gears, require significant external force that Babbage expected to receive for the use of the steam engine.

A third device, the control sequence of operations, transferring numbers on which operations were performed, and outputs the result, structurally consists of a two zhakkarovyh punch-card mechanism. Punch cards Babbage different from Jacquard punch cards, which is controlled by only one operation - lifting thread to obtain the desired pattern in the fabric manufacturing. Job Management Analytical Engine includes various types of operations, each of which required a special kind of punched cards. Babbage identified three main types of punch cards: operating (or card transactions), variables (or variables of the card) and numeric. Operating punch card machine operation performed. According embossed on them commands occurred as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of numbers that were in the arithmetic unit.

One of the most visionary ideas Babbage was the introduction of a set of commands defined by a sequence of operating a deck of cards, a conditional branch instruction. Itself program control (without the use of conditional branch) would be insufficient to effectively implement complex computing operation. A linear sequence of operations is strictly defined at all points. This road is known in detail until the very end. The concept of "conditional jump" means moving the computer to another area of ​​the program, if the pre-performed some condition. With the ability to use a conditional branch instruction, the compiler of a computer program was not obliged to know at what stage of the calculation will change an attribute that affects the choice of the calculation speed. The use of conditional transfer allowed at each fork in the road to analyze the current situation and on this basis to choose one or the other way. Conditional commands may have the most different kind: a comparison of the numbers, the required sample numerical values, determination of the number plate, etc. The machine carries out arithmetic operations, we compare the number of received and spent in accordance with the further operations. Thus, the machine could move to another part of the program, skip the commands or revert to the implementation of a program section, ie to organize a cycle. conditional branch instruction introduction marked the beginning of use in the machine logic, not only computational operations.

With the second type of punch cards - variable (or, in the terminology of Babbage, "maps of variables"), carried out the transfer of numbers between the memory and arithmetic unit. These maps highlight not the numbers themselves, but only the number of memory registers, ie the cells to store one number. Memory registers Babbage called "variables", thus indicating that the contents of the register varies depending on the number stored in it. Analytical Engine Babbage variables used three kinds of cards: for a transmission of the arithmetic unit further retaining its memory, for the same operation, but without storing in the memory, and to enter the number into memory. They were named: 1) "zero map" (the number is called from the memory register and then the register value is set to zero); 2) "Save map" (the number is called from the memory without changing the contents of the register); 3) "Get Map" (the number is transferred from the arithmetic unit to the memory and is written to one of registers). When the machine is operating on a punch card had an average of three variables maps. They indicate the number of memory locations (addresses, in modern terminology), which kept the two original numbers, and the number of the cell where to write the result.

Numeric punch cards were the main type of punch card analysis machine. With their help by entering the initial numbers to solve some problems and new data that might be required in the course of computation.

After implementation of the proposed computing machine beat out the answer on a separate punch card. These punch card operator piled in the order of their numbers and further used in the work (they are like its external memory). For example, when in the course of computations required logarithm in 2303, she showed him a special little window and gave the call. The operator is required punch card with the value of the logarithm, and introduced into the machine. "All the cards - Babbage wrote - once used and manufactured for one problem may profit used for the same purposes with other data, so there is no need to prepare them for the second time - they are carefully preserved for future use; over time, the machine will have its own library. "

The fourth block is designed to receive the initial numbers and the issuance of the final results and represented the number of devices that provide input-output operations. The initial number is entered into the machine and the operator acted in its storage device from which extracted and received the final results of the exit. The machine can output the answer on a punched card or printed on paper.

In conclusion, it should be noted that if the hardware design of the analytical engine is connected exclusively with the name of Babbage, programming is solving problems on the machine - with the name of his good friend - Lady Ada Lovelace, a native daughter of the great English poet Byron, who passionately fond of mathematics and perfectly versed in complex scientific and technical problems. In 1842 in Italy, it published an article by a young mathematician Menabrea description of Babbage's Analytical Engine. In 1843, Lady Lovelace translated the article into English, providing its extensive and insightful comments. To illustrate the operation of the machine, Lady Lovelace put it to paper made up a program for calculating Bernoulli numbers. Her comment is essentially the first work in the history of programming.

The Analytical Engine was a very expensive and complex device. The British government first financed the work of Babbage, soon refused to help him, so he was not able to complete its work. It was the complexity of the machine whether justified? Not at all. Many operations (especially input and output numbers and transfer them from one device to another) would be greatly simplified if Babbage using electrical signals. However, his car was conceived as a purely mechanical device without any electrical components was that puts its inventor is often in a very difficult position. Meanwhile electromechanical relay later became a major element of computers, at this time has been invented: it was invented in 1831 at the same time Henry and Salvatore Dal Negro.

The use of electromechanical relays in computing dates back to the invention of the American Herman Gollerita who created a set of devices designed to handle large amounts of data (for example, census data). The need for such a machine was very high. For example, the 1880 census results were processed in the United States, the 7, 5 years. Such a considerable period of time was due to the fact that it was necessary to sort the huge number of cards (one for each of the 50 million inhabitants) with a very large - 210 columns - a set of possible answers to the questions asked in the card. These issues Goller knew firsthand - he was an employee of the US Census Bureau - the statistical agency, was in charge of the census and processing of its results.

Many working on sorting cards Goller came to the idea to mechanize the process. First, he replaced the card punched cards, that is, instead of a pencil marks came up with possible answers to punch a hole. To this end, he developed a special 80-column punched cards, which were deposited in the form of punched holes all the information about one person, registered in the census. (The shape of the punch card has undergone since then significant changes.) Typically, the answer to one question is used a strip punch card that allows you to record ten of options (for example, on the question of religion). In some cases (for example, on the issue of age) can be used two columns to give a hundred answers.

The second idea was the result of the first Gollerita - he created the world's first tabulating complex includes input punch (punching) and a tab with a device for sorting a deck of cards. Perforation was performed manually on the punches, which consisted of a cast iron body with a receiver for the map and the actual punch. I placed over the receiver plate with several rows of apertures; when pressing the handle of the punch on one of them made its way under the plate map as necessary. Sophisticated punch card punched on the group shared data at the touch of hands. Sorting machine was a few boxes with lids. Maps manually moved between a set of spring pins and tanks filled with mercury. When the pin falls into a hole, he touched the mercury, and closed the electric circuit. At the same time he lifts the lid a certain box, and the operator to put the card. TAB (or summarizing machine) probed holes on punched cards, perceiving them as the corresponding numbers and counting them. The principle of its action was similar to sorting machine and based on the use of electromechanical relays (as they also apply spring pins and a cup of mercury). When the rods during the motion of punch cards fall through the holes in the cups of mercury, the electric circuit is closed, and the electric signal is transmitted to the counter, is added to the existing number in it a new one. Each meter has a dial with an arrow that moved in the unit of the scale when the hole is detected. If the tabulator was 80 meters, at the same time he could count on 8 results (with ten-choice questions for each of them). To calculate the results for the following 8 on the same card again passed through a tab at its other site. For one run was sorted to 1000 cards per hour.

The first patent (to the idea) Goller received in 1884. In 1887, his car was tested in Baltimore in the preparation of tables of mortality. In 1889, the decisive test of the system - the pilot census was conducted in four districts of the city of San Luis. Gollerita machine far ahead of competing with her two manual systems (she worked 10 times faster). After that, the US government signed a contract for the supply Golleritom equipment by 1890 census. The results of the census through the Tabs were processed in just two years. As a result, the machine very quickly gained international recognition and was used in many countries in the processing of census data.

In 1902 Goller created automatic tabulator in which cards are not fed manually and automatically, and upgraded its sorting machine. In 1908, he created a fundamentally new model of summing machine. Instead of cups of mercury are used the contact brush, with which completes the electrical circuit of the electromagnets. The latter provides the connection and disconnection of continuously rotating shaft with digital totalizer wheels. Digital wheel turning through the teeth of the continuously rotating shaft, which bore the sliding cam clutch, controlled by electromagnets. When a contact hole proved brush, closes an electrical circuit corresponding to the electromagnet, and it includes a clutch that connects the digital wheel to the rotating shaft, and the contents of the counter in this schedule increased the number of which is proportional to one turn of the wheel. The transfer was carried out dozens of approximately the same as the difference in the Babbage machine.

The case, which began Golleritom has continued in our time. Back in 1896 he founded the firm "Tabyuleyting Machinery Company", specializes in the production of tabulating machines and punch cards. In 1911, after Goller left the business, his firm merged with three others and was transformed into a well-known today worldwide, IBM - the largest developer in the field of computer technology.

electromechanical elements were first used in the tabulator Gollerita. Further development of computer technology has been associated with a broad and multi-faceted use of electricity. In 1938, German engineer Konrad Zuse created the first in the history of the relay electronic computer Z1 car on telephone relays (recorder it was mechanically). In 1939, there was a more advanced model of the Z2, and in 1941 Zuse assembled the world's first functioning computers with programmed control, in which the binary system was used. All these cars were lost during the war and, therefore, did not have much influence on the subsequent history of computing.

Regardless of the construction of the relay Zuse computers I worked in the United States, Howard Aiken. As a graduate student at Harvard University, Aiken while working on his thesis was forced to do a lot of complex calculations. To reduce the time for processing the work, he came up with the simple machine to automatically solve particular problems. Eventually he came to the idea of ​​auto-purpose computer capable of solving a wide range of scientific problems. In 1937, his interest in the project company IBM. To help Aiken was allocated a team of engineers. Soon after work began on the construction of the machine "Mark-1". Relays, meters, contact printing and input and output devices are standard parts punch card tabulators manufactured by IBM. In 1944 the car was collected and transferred to Harvard University.

"Mark-1" remains in transition machine. It is widely used mechanical elements to represent numbers and electromechanical control machine operation. As Babbage's Analytical Engine, the number stored in the register, consisting of desyatizubyh counting wheels. In total, "Mark-1" has been register 72 and, in addition, additional memory of 60 registers formed by mechanical switches.

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