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Cinema


Cinema
Cinema, in the form in which it appeared in the late XIX century, has become the end point of a long way of searching, in which at various times were many inventors. They all had the same dream - to create a device that could capture, and then play back the motion. This task has proved very difficult. Even today, the uninitiated person will stand in front of her to a standstill. For example, someone raises a hand. In a bottom-up movement of the hand passes through an infinite number of intermediate positions. Really, in order to show this simple movement, it is necessary to fix them all? Fortunately, this is not necessary. The human eye has the ability to grasp and retain for some time (about 1/14 of a second) received them perception, even after this perception caused when the picture disappeared. That is why we do not see at each of its rapid rotation of the spoke of a bicycle wheel (they merge in front of our eyes in a continuous circle). Or another example - if in the darkness someone leads quickly from side to side a burning ember, we can not see where every moment is this piece of coal, because all of its intermediate positions are merged in our perception in a fire lane. It turns out that with the rapid movement of an object our eye does not see all the intermediate positions - imprinted on the retina manages only about 14 still pictures per second, and these images are merged together into a moving picture. In a certain sense, it is the lack of our eyes prevents him in some cases reflect the true reality. But precisely because of this lack of our perceptions become available such entertainment arts as animation, film or television. So, in order to lock the movement, there is no need to mark each of the intermediate positions of the moving object. It is enough to make every second of all 12-14 etched, and then scroll through them with the same speed. From the above it is clear that the art of cinema is actually composed of two parts. First you have to capture the movement (for which you need to make a series of snapshots of some of its phases), and then we must be able to project these instant pictures on the screen in such a way that the spectator saw before him the image of a moving object. Both turned at once. It took the efforts of many inventors before all arisen in this way the difficulties were resolved.

The first experiments on the projection images were made in ancient times. In 1646, the German Jesuit Athanasius Kircher summarized in his work "The great art of light and shadow" the accumulated experience in this area and described the principle of the magic lantern. The magic lantern was used for projection through a lens system on the white surface (the screen), the enlarged image of a small object, often transparent plates coated with her drawing. (Each is well-known principle of filmoskop -. Modern varieties of magic lantern) Magic Lantern can be considered the prototype of the first film, which has no transmission of motion.

This art has been mastered only in the first third of the XIX century. In 1833, a professor of practical geometry Austrian Simon Stampfer invented an amusing toy - a stroboscope. This device consisted of two disks rotating on a common axis. At the same disk as on the watch dial, draw figures in the different phases of an iterative process, such as certain provisions of the walking man. Another disc bonded to the first, has radial slots through which can be seen on images located behind them. With the rapid rotation of a spectator drives, looking out of the viewing window, I saw the series for a brief moment each of the pictures, but it is divided by the time in the individual phases of the movement perceived by them as a fused image is continuous movement.

In 1853, the Austrian artillery captain Baron Franz von Uhatius invented projection stroboscope - the device to display live images, combine stroboscopic circle Stampfer and magic lantern of Kircher. The value of his invention was the fact that now you can see the moving pictures on the screen. Created Uhatiusom strobe had up to 100 images, flashed for 30 seconds, that is, one second was replaced by three or four images. For each of them it has been arranged his lens. The light source is set so that the plates with pictures located on the edge of the wheel, one zadruga passed before him. This device was then widespread in many countries under the name "living paintings". In 1869, American inventor Brown perfected projector Uhatiusa, taking as a light source powerful electric arc lamp.

The big drawback of projection strobe was cumbersome. Place they occupy a lot, and it took less than a minute to demonstrate their images. However, "living pictures" for decades remained a favorite and popular spectacle. Only in the last quarter of the XIX century they were replaced by more advanced projectors, which use a transparent celluloid film is wound onto a reel. In 1888, the Frenchman Emile Reynaud created the "optical theater" is an apparatus for the projection of continuously moving characters. He had the following device. The characters were drawn on the film. Demonstrator drum rotated by two handles. Images on the film held by the lamp and projected onto an oblique mirror that has reflected on his translucent screen in the theater hall. Another device simultaneously projected on the screen is hand-drawn scenery against which the characters appear with varying postures drawn on the tape. The duration of treatment ranged from 15 to 20 minutes.

"Optical theater" Reynaud showed not just a movement. His characters and scenes acted out a pantomime. The longest of his film 36 m long, contains 500 pictures, cranked for 15 minutes Comedy Raynaud's "Around the cockpit", created in 1894, has withstood 10 thousand sessions, which shows the great interest of contemporaries to this invention, which can be considered the prototype of modern animation.

So, by the end of the 80s of XIX century image projection technique has made great strides in the transfer motion. However, to show the image it was easier than to capture him. Now let's see what achievements were in this second area.

For the first time the idea of ​​cinema developed by Thomas du Mont, who in 1859 received a patent for Multilens designed to capture individual phases of motion. Giving its speed of action description (or, later began to speak, hronofotograficheskogo) apparatus, Du Mont showed a very subtle understanding of the essence of the ongoing process. The main idea of ​​his design was as follows: 12 light-sensitive plates, attached to the endless belt, sequentially passed behind the lens, stopping in front of him on a very short time. At the same time stop the tape and opened the gate of the transmitted light on the photographic plate (shutter task - to open and close the window lens, leaving it open only certain times). Ribbon mechanism associated with the shutter, so that the film and the closure stop coincided with mathematical precision.

Alas, in reality, the unit of Du Mona is not consistent with their description and shoot them the movement was impossible. But, despite this, Du Mona rightly considered one of the forerunners of cinema - the views expressed in his patent were very deep, and it is rightly described the actions of the future movie-taking unit principle. However, to his camera has become a reality, Du Mona did not have at least four things. First of all, the sensitivity of contemporary photographic plates was clearly insufficient for high-speed shooting. To obtain good quality images they had to be subjected to light for a few seconds, while the shutter speed when shooting motion (ie, the time that the plate is exposed to light) was calculated tenths and hundredths of a second. Secondly, there was still this is essential for hronofotograficheskoy recording device as an instant automatic shutter, which would allow you to take pictures with a very short exposure (shutter speed is measured in seconds, to open and close the lens can be manually, but when shooting at a rate of 12 14 frames per second, it is absolutely impossible). Thirdly, the very method of recording on photographic plates is clearly not suited to chronophotography; It needed a new photosensitive layer to the carrier - film that could dissipate the required rate. And finally, it has not yet been invented, the mechanism of this film movement. From the description of Du Mona it shows that the film was not just a place behind the lens (which would be easy to arrange), but to take short instant stop, and at certain times, that is, to move in leaps and bounds. The invention of the intermittent mechanism turned out to be one of the most difficult problems in the history of cinema.

In subsequent decades, all these problems have been resolved one zadruga. Richard Maddox in 1871 developed suhobromzhelatinovy ​​photographic process (to improve it in 1878), which made it possible to reduce the shutter speed when shooting to 1/200 of a second. This discovery allowed to start photographing the movement. It is believed that the onset of the experiments put chronophotography American photographer Edward Myuybridzha. The reason for this was the story of one bet. In 1872, millionaire Stanford, a great lover and connoisseur of horses, bet with his friends, who did not believe that a racehorse during his movement raises all four legs. To convince them otherwise, Stanford invited Myuybridzha and instructed him to shoot all the phases of movement of the horse. The task was far from easy. To fulfill the order, Myuybridzh set along the racing track multiple cameras are connected to the gates stretched across the track thread. Running past the camera, horse tearing thread and took a picture. As a result of many experiments Myuybridzhu managed to get some good pictures, in which the individual phases of movement of the horse were removed. By the way, it turned out that Stanford is quite right - the horse is really the transition to canter repelled from the ground and all the legs as it flew into the air. Millionaire won his bet and Myuybridzh continued the begun business and soon became famous throughout the world for its remarkable images of moving objects. Later, by making the appropriate selection, Myuybridzh photos pasted on the strobe, rotating which could be seen, for example, an acrobat, doing jumping over his head, running deer, horses, jump, and similar subjects.

These were the first steps of instant photography. Inadequate technology created for the fans of this kind of photographic art a lot of trouble, because it was impossible to stay in the movement itself. The then cameras were allowed to take only one item, which is located directly in front of the lens, that is, moving on a known line. Only in this way it could be to place along this line several cameras, as did Myuybridzh who used sometimes to several tens of cameras. This fact is extremely narrowed possibilities chronophotography In 1882, French physiologist Etienne Marey, who studied the flight of birds and insects, figured out how to get out of this difficulty: he created a special photographic gun, which allowed to significantly speed to shoot the individual successive phases of continuous movement. The gun was placed shifting mechanism, similar to the hour. When pressing the trigger mechanism is started to rotate the plate, which was done for the second 12 shots. Thus Marey filming the flight of birds. He was the first to solve the problem of capturing a motion device.

Taking on record was a complicated and time-consuming. Therefore, a major event in the history of photography, and a significant step towards the creation of cinema was the invention of film. Even in 1877, the outstanding Polish photographer Leo Varnerke (most of his life took place in Russia and England) invented the world's first camera with a roll of paper tape bromine-silver colloid. In 1886, French photographer Augustine Prince collected hronofotografichesky unit with 16 lenses adapted for shooting consecutive phases of motion. Here, photosensitive paper tape was applied for the first time in the history chronophotography which is wound onto the drum in the same way as in the camera with rollers held behind the lens and wound onto another reel. 16 lenses arranged in four rows, and each had its own gate. Princes also succeeded in projecting the photographed image on the screen. (The chapter on photography, has been described in detail the process of obtaining the positives and negatives, so we will not dwell on it. We only note that tapes hronofotograficheskih devices (as later for movie cameras) were prepared in the same way as in ordinary photography, that is, first received a negative (image with the opposite arrangement of light and shade), and then with his other band printed positive. But due to the fact that the tape is long, very processing technology is quite different from conventional photography.) Prince was the first to implement the idea of ​​cinema - he could only take the movement, but also to project it on a screen. But all of his equipment was still very primitive. Projector also had 16 lenses. To rewind the tape to cut through Prince came up on the edge of her special hole - punching, which gets teeth wheel tape mechanism. However, paper, as we have said before, because of its rough opaque structure was unsuitable material for photography. In addition, it is often torn during rewinding. For the film needed a flexible, robust and at the same time, it is a transparent material. It is these properties had celluloid - one of the first in the history of plastics, synthesized in 1868 by the American chemist Hayet. In 1884, John became Karbut produce celluloid photographic plate, and since 1889, George Eastman began to apply in cameras flexible celluloid film.

Thereafter chronophotography began to develop rapidly. In 1888, German photographer Ottomar Anshyutts invented instant focal plane shutter, which could shoot with shutter speeds up to one thousandth of a second. The introduction of this shutter speed is extremely easier to shoot. Now there was no need to create complex camera with 12-16 lens, and only had to do one. In 1888, Prince received British patent on the device with one lens and the paper tape (he soon replaced it with celluloid). This apparatus is made of 10 to 12 images per second. In the same year, Marey abandoned mobile rigid plates and began to use a long strip of paper with the photosensitive layer, allows you to shoot some slow motion. In 1889, the Prince created a projector with a single lens and arc lamp. So, at the end of the 80s almost all the difficulties that stood in due time before Du Mohn, were successfully resolved. Staying up to date - creating intermittent mechanism, since even the tape when shooting did not give a quality motion picture.

The first in the history of primitive intermittent mechanism was invented in England. English photographer William Friese-Greene was working on the same problem that Marey and Prince. Like them, he first applied light-sensitive paper tape, which is supplied on the edges of perforation. Since the paper tape was torn, in his hronofotograficheskom unit in 1889 Friese-Greene recently appeared for the first time applied the perforated celluloid film. Then he turned on to the appliance intermittent mechanism.

The film at the Friese-Greene came from a supply roll to a receiver. Last, using the handle, a rotatable arm, powered by a continuous movement. Shoulder carrying a rotating roller, received by the spiral movement of the cam, and took the position shown in dotted lines; while moving it pulled down the film, which then remained motionless until the roller moved away by the spring. Concurrently with departure shoulder shutter is opened by the same spiral cam. The latter was constructed on a shaft driven by hand. Each revolution thus exhibited a single film frame. Already in 1889 Friese-Greene was shot in his first film, Hyde Park, and showed it to the photographic convention in Town Hall. In 1890, a public demonstration of his films at the Royal Photographic Society. A film camera Friese-Green with perforated celluloid tape had all the elements of the film, except for technically perfect intermittent mechanism of intermittent movement of the film. However, its machines were very complex, and in this form could not get wide distribution. Moreover, outside of England for his invention almost nothing was known.

In the mid-90s, several inventors approached the creation of cinema. In 1893 he created his own peep show Edison. This device was a box with an eyepiece through which the viewer is watching. The eyepiece was seen frosted glass on which was projected from the bottom image captured on film. In the same year, Edison established his studio in which the first on the American continent movies were filmed - his short, 20-30 seconds demonstrations. Tape length not exceeding 15 m. In the studio filmed the famous dancers, acrobats and trained animals. In April, 1894 in New York on Broadway first Kinetoscope parlor was opened. After paying 25 cents for admission, the audience walked along the row of peep show, and looked through the eyepieces and included employee peep show one after the other. Soon, Edison made a peep automatic - machine started to operate after lowering into the slot coins in denominations of 5 cents. Without a doubt, peep show was an outstanding technical achievement. Yet it still was not the cinema. Intermittent mechanism he did not have. Meanwhile, the main part of the film, the "heart" movie-taking and film projection apparatus is precisely intermittent mechanism for rapid, discontinuous change of image. The invention is committed intermittent mechanism, which allowed the set frequency at the same time to carry out a rapid intermittent movement of the individual moving images and their immediate arrest, was the event, which also marked the birth of cinema.

In 1893 Marey hronofotografichesky created a new unit with a celluloid film. The film is moved intermittently, making instant stop at 20 individual images per second. However, the mechanism of intermittent movement was extremely primitive. It consisted of an electromagnet and the pinch roller. At the time of the roller shutter to attract and stopped the film. This mechanism has been very rough, so the machine Murray can not technically be considered satisfactory. Nevertheless, in the same year, Marey took some great movies about the movement of living beings.

In 1894, Georges Demeny created the first perfect movie camera with intermittent mechanism. This intermittent mechanism was a disc with "finger", rotating in a clockwise direction.

In 1895, a film projector and movie camera patented brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere, used as a jump gripper mechanism ( "fork"). In the summer and autumn of the same year they took ten short films by 16 m, which formed the basis for commercial sessions end 1895 - beginning 1896. In December 1895 the first cinema in the basement "Grand Cafe" on the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris was opened. Judging strictly in fact, the grapple - is the only original invention Lumière, though not the most successful (already in 1896 grapple was replaced by another, more perfect intermittent mechanism - Maltese cross). However, it is on their machine had the most great fame. During the first half of 1896 the cinema Lumière was shown in all the European capitals, and was a huge success.

In April 1896 Victor Kontensuza Byuntsli and first used in the movie camera four-bladed Maltese Cross - the type of intermittent mechanism that prevails in today's movie camera.

Kontensuza had a small business in Paris and was a skilled mechanic. He designed several famous movie cameras for kinofirmy "Pate". The four-Maltese system consists of a master disc that has one pin (eccentric), and the clutch disc equipped with four slots. When moving a finger drive plate is included in the drive plate slot and rotate it 90 degrees. This sprocket is rotated by 1/4 turn. Clutch disc during one revolution makes four stops, and stop duration three times longer movement. The four-cross linked with a jump sprocket moves the film. Standing frame is determined by the time needed to drive plate pivot 270 degrees. After that finger again enters the next slot with four-cross and then turn it 1/4 turn. Thus there is an intermittent film motion.

Since its inception cinema has gained immense popularity. The comparative cheapness of tickets and the rapid growth of the network of cinemas made him the first place among all public entertainment. Early cinema was still very imperfect: paintings strongly blinked, the image was jumping around the screen, often it was quite dark, but still the audience came from these films to the delight and the shaft valyl in cinemas. The commercial success of the new invention has surpassed all expectations. (Capital one of the first kinofirmu "Pate" in just 14 years has increased 30 times - from 1 million to 30 million francs.)

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