The car is one of the greatest inventions that, like the wheel, gunpowder, or electric current, have an enormous impact not only on the breed of their era, but also in all subsequent times. His multi-faceted impact goes far beyond the sphere of transport. The car has formed a modern industry, spawned new industries, tyrannically rebuilt production itself, giving it the first time, mass-and-line character. He has transformed the appearance of the planet, which is girded by millions of kilometers of roads, put pressure on the environment has changed and even human psychology. The impact of the car now so multifaceted that is felt in all spheres of human life. He became, as it were visible and vivid embodiment of technological progress in general, with all its advantages and disadvantages.
The history of the car had a lot of wonderful pages, but perhaps the most striking of them belong to the first years of its existence. There can not hit the swiftness with which this invention has developed from the emergence to maturity. It took only a quarter of a century to ensure that the vehicle of capricious and unreliable even toys became the most popular and widespread means of transport. Already in the beginning of XX century it was in its main features identical to the modern car.
We describe in a few words the principle of action and purpose of the basic units of the car in the form in which they have developed for years 1901-1902. The source of motion gasoline engine served. Gas fed from the tank to the carburetor 3, where it is sprayed and mixed with air so that flammable gas mixture is formed. A driver driving a special valve in the carburetor, can increase or decrease the amount of the mixture in the engine cylinders. With the increase in the inflow of the gas engine began to run faster, because the force of the explosion increases, and a decrease in its filing strength weakened, and the motor rotation speed decreased. This technique drivers use to this day by pressing or releasing the accelerator pedal.
The gas mixture prepared in the carburettor to the engine 1, which by means of ignition or incendiary device 4 it exploded. Successive explosions strongly heated cylinders, so that the engine needed constant cooling. Usually cooling of the cylinder walls of the workers was done by circulating water. Circulation was performed by the pump (water pump) 7 driven by a motor. To be able to use for cooling the same with water, the latter was passed through a radiator (cooler) 8, in which the water cooled air stream. The exhaust gases released into the atmosphere through the muffler 5, exhaust noise is attenuated.
engine pistons rotated crankshaft. Next, operation of the engine transmitted to the rear drive wheels by means of the clutch mechanism 9 through a transmission 13 and 10 and the driveshaft 11. Clutch allowed alienate or transfer the operation of the engine on the machine speed changes. Transmissions (gear) made it possible to change the speed of the car without changing engine speed. He represented Cardan shaft exiting the gearbox and provided with one or two cardan joints. He set in motion the differential on the rear axle.
Let us dwell briefly on the device of each of these devices. On the work of the petrol engine and the ignition plug discussed in a previous chapter. Electric ignition, gradually displacing the ignition, already applied to many early car models. current source here is the battery or accumulator. Sometimes the spark is produced by a magneto-electric machine (Magneto). The purpose of the ignition system consisted in the fact that each cylinder of the engine at the time of maximum compression piston explosive mixture slipped electric spark igniting the gas. In order for the ignition of a highly compressed mixture occurred smoothly, the current for the spark had to be on the order of 15 thousand volts. Initially, the device for ignition consisted of two parts, the power source and the coil Ruhmkorff. A special role in the system of automobile ignition plays breaker. Since the spark should slip in the cylinder accurately set point, the breaker is placed on the distributor shaft of the motor so that the motor itself operates its ignition. It is known that the first motorists had a lot of reasons to complain about the electric ignition: it has long remained moody and unreliable. A huge step forward was taken with the invention, the magneto, which was mounted on cars since 1902. In this design, we found only reliable source of power. The operation of the magneto lay already described the principle of electromagnetic induction. On the shaft of the motor is running, installed an induction coil, which revolved between the poles of a permanent magnet. At anchor coil placed winding of a thick wire, and on top of it - a winding of fine wire. By this electromagnetic induction in the secondary coil high voltage current is induced. the coil wire ends into the cylinder and closed on the electric spark. Twice in one turn, passing through the current highs, Magneto gave discharge spark.
So in general, the engine work was carried out. Now how is transmitted motion. When the engine starts operating force is encountered it is not instantaneous. Therefore, at the time of starting the engine had to be disconnected from the gearbox, that is, idle (in the first car that was especially important, as the launch was made by hand, by turning the special crank, it is clear that the man was not under force to do this if to the engine is under load). Moreover, disconnecting the motor load is absolutely necessary when switching rates. This disconnection happened (and is happening) by means of the clutch mechanism. In the early years of the car's clutch and disengage the engine produced by moving the drive belt to the working pulley on the pulley of idling (more on this coupling device will be discussed a little later). But in the last years of the XIX century it replaced by a more perfect grip via a truncated cone. To do this, the engine operating shaft and the output shaft is supplied with cones, so that was part of one cone to the other, with a smaller cone wedging in a larger, connecting with them in a single whole. Special spring constantly pushing the inner cone in a flywheel forming an outer cone, and this was achieved by a strong bond. To stop this clutch, it was enough to click on the special pedal. Applied in this effort led to the disconnection.
For clutch gearbox was (or velocity). What is it for? There are times when simply increasing the supply of gas is insufficient to ensure that the car has overcome an obstacle (for example, climbing or just a bad way). Transmission (speeds) just served to more drastic adjustment of the engine efforts. Purpose it consists in the fact that, without changing the motor speed, the gear change rotational speed (and hence the drive wheels). The first cars were only two transfers and implement them by means of belts. However, the belt drive for long kept in practice. Gradually come to the conclusion that the velocity changes satisfactorily resolve the problem can only be combined via gears, which can make three or four speed forward and one for reverse. For the first time such gearboxes were installed on cars of firm "Panhard and Levassor" in the early 90-ies of the XIX century. Consider the effect of this is still very simple in structure of a transmission. If there was a transmission, with the output shaft M force would be transmitted to the motor shaft P, and with it, by means of a bevel gear, on Q zubchatki differential rotational wheel R. In this case committed to rackwheel Q per minute same speed, as does their working shaft engine. But then, when between the motor and the wheel is placed gearbox, the output shaft as it is cut into two parts. In this case the input shaft P receives the movement from the motor and the output shaft S sends it to the rear axle. Both shafts are connected by a system of gears (gears). B and a pinion shaft S are fixed, and the gears A and B on the shaft P put on a movable carriage which can be moved by means of the gear lever. Assume AB driver moves the carriage so that the produced gear A gear teeth engaged with a. What do we get? If the motor does 1,200 rpm and the diameter A is equal to 10 cm and a diameter equal to 20 cm, the shaft will make the P 1200 rev / min, and a shaft S - half, i.e. only 600. In this case, if circumference bevel gear four times less zubchatki Q, impellers will make a total of 150 rev / min. Assume the carriage is moved so that the catches on the B b. If B is equal to the diameter of 8 cm and a diameter b - 12 cm, the shaft speed S will be 800 / min, and the wheel will make 200 rev / min. Similar considerations apply even to the two combinations of gears Ab and Ba, and thus we get a very simple explanation of the four-steps gearbox.
This is followed by a cardan. Even before the first inventors faced the problem of transmitting motion from the engine to the wheels. The fact that this transmission can not be rigid. In fact, the motor is firmly connected to the frame, but the frame is not connected rigidly with the wheels, via a system of springs. Since the car jumps up on irregularities, the working shaft of the engine and the rear axle is continuously up and down relative to each other, and the displacement is greater, the worse the road. If the working shaft is rigidly connected to the rear axle, the slightest shaking would lead to its failure. Thus, the transfer must be flexible, that is, one in which the rear axle could move freely up and down without losing the connection to the motor. In the first car driven by the engine to the drive wheels carried out by means of a chain drive, which is widely used in bicycles. The chain gave the necessary flexibility and has many advantages, but it very quickly polluted and require almost daily care. Therefore, very soon it was replaced by a propeller shaft. (This transfer between the two shafts was invented by an Italian Cardano in the XVI century).
Connection with the axis of the rear wheels, too, presents certain difficulties. In the chapter on the wheel, already mentioned, that the crew driving on rough roads or turns its wheels are different ways, that is rotating at a different speed. For the driven wheels are not rigidly connected to the axle, this is done automatically. But the drive wheels can not be easily put on the axle as it is passed through to the motor rotation axis. However, they can not be rigidly connect, as in the process of movement will be slippage of one wheel slip or the other, which greatly impairs the machine control - it does not answer the helm and at high speed can not fit into the rotation. For compounds with an axis of the rear wheels serves as a differential, which makes it possible to rotate the driving wheels independently, without losing communication with the motor. To understand the principle of differential action, mentally cut the back into two half-line axis. At the outer ends of the semi-axes are planted wheels and to the internal - two bevel gears positioned opposite one another in parallel. These gears are interconnected by two bevel gears, pinions and enclosed within a durable ring that wraps around the device.
The movement of the motor M through a clutch V, A transmission shaft and bevel gear PQ box is transmitted to the differential K, which bolted to gear Q and rotates with it. On the inner side of the box planted two bevel gears, the satellite EE, from which the driven bevel gears FF, tightly impaled on the ends of the semi-axes S and T, connected to the rear wheels G and D.
When the vehicle is going straight, the rear wheels rotate at the same speed, therefore, EE satellites experiencing the same pressure and thus remain stationary. This differential entire box can be viewed as monolithic system, acting as if the half-line S and T are rigidly interconnected. But if the vehicle makes a turn, the wheel facing inwards, has a greater resistance to the driving force. In this case, one F gear starts to rotate slower than the other gear F, associated with the outer wheel. Consequently, the satellites begin to rotate around its axis and the force is transmitted to the inner wheel on the outer. For example, if the gear Q (and the associated differential box) makes 100 revolutions / min, the wheel 80 starts to make D rev / min and G wheel 120 rev / min.
All these devices have had the first cars (same way as many other attributes of modern motor vehicles: the suspension system, steering arms, brakes, bearings, etc.), from which one can conclude that the gasoline car, as a vehicle, with the beginning had considerable perfection. This was made possible thanks to the fact that the automotive industry has shifted many years experience in the use of other land vehicles: horse-drawn carriage, bicycle and paromobiley. The car is very much indebted to his predecessors, and our story will serve as a further proof of that.
Thus, for example, suspension, suspension, steering and brake device got the car from the carriages and horse-drawn carriages. Even in 1640 the Englishman Blount built the first crew with steel C-shaped springs, and in 1804 the English master Ellot invented the so-called elliptical or "recumbent" spring. In 1818, Ackerman invented a device to control the crew. The design of the front axle Ackerman consisted of three parts - the mean, stationary, fixed by means of springs on the frame or on the carriage body, and two end parts (pins) connected with the central part by hinges. By turning wheels with pins on which they rotate, turning around a vertical hinge axis. Similarly, the front axle is arranged.
Solid rubber tires were first installed on their coaches in 1847 invented the Englishman Hank.
The immediate predecessor of the petrol car became paromobil. The first practical steam car in force is considered a steam wagon, built by the Frenchman Cugnot in 1769. Carry up to 3 tons of cargo, it moved at the speed of 2-4 km / h. Were she and other shortcomings. Heavy machine very badly helm, constantly run into walls of houses and fences, producing destruction and suffering considerable damage. Two horsepower, which developed its engine was given with difficulty. Despite the large volume of the boiler, the pressure falls rapidly. Every quarter of an hour to maintain the pressure and had to stop to kindle the furnace. One of the trips over the explosion of the boiler. Fortunately, he survived Cugnot.
Followers Cugnot were luckier. In 1803, we already know Trivaytik built the first steam car in the UK. The machine had a large rear wheels 2 of about 5 m in diameter. Between the wheels and the rear part of the frame was mounted boiler that served standing on the footboard fireman. Paromobiley was equipped with a single horizontal cylinder. From the piston rod through a connecting rod-crank mechanism revolved leading gear, which meshes with another gear fixed to the rear wheel axle. The axis of the wheels pivotally connected to the frame and turned with a long arm the driver sitting on the driver's seat high. Body suspended on high C-shaped springs. C 8-10 passenger car developed a speed of 15 km / h, which is undoubtedly a very good achievement for that time. The appearance of this amazing car on the streets of London has attracted a lot of onlookers, did not hide his delight.
Later paromobili improved. "Golden Age" paromobiley refers to the 20-30-th of the XIX century. Several dozen steam omnibuses designed and built at this time Englishmen Gurney and Walter Hancock. Steam omnibuses Hancock used on suburban routes near London. On good roads, they developed up to 30 km / h. It was much more than the speed of mail coach. With the development of the railways steam omnibuses gradually disappeared, but the construction of the steam car continued later. Through the efforts of many inventors succeeded in the end create a powerful and compact steam engine, which allowed to develop a good speed. In 1888, the great French engineer invented Serpolle generator with instantaneous vaporization. This generator is a spiral steel pipe, flattened so that the internal channel received form narrow capillary gap. Spiral was surrounded by cast-iron casing. This boiler design provides extremely rapid vaporization. And a spiral pre-heated, and the water coming into the final, evaporated almost instantly. With this boiler paromobil easily developed speed up to 140 km / h and for a long time could compete with gasoline cars. However, the weak point was paromobiley boiler, making them very economical. Efficiency even very good road steam engines was only 5-7%. It finally determined the fate paromobiley - they gave way to cars with internal combustion engine. However, the era of steam vehicles not been in vain. Some important elements of modern cars emerged in this era. The most remarkable of the invention can be considered two: in 1834, an American engineer Roberts invented the differential and in 1843 Hill invented gearbox.
Wheels with spokes, lightweight tubular frame, bearings and pneumatic tires the car got off the bike.
The car in the modern sense of the word appeared only after the creation of compact and economical internal combustion engine, which produced a genuine revolution in transport technology.
The first car with a gasoline engine built in 1864 by the Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus. Carried away by pyrotechnics, Marcus once set fire to an electrical spark a mixture of petrol vapor and air. Struck by the force of the explosion that followed, he decided to create the engine, which would have the effect has been applied. In the end he managed to build a two-stroke gasoline engine with electric ignition, which he set on the common carriage. In 1875, Marcus has created a perfect car.
Official fame inventors car belongs to two German engineers - and Daimler Benz. Benz designed a two-stroke gas engines and is the owner of a small factory to produce them. Engines have good demand, and enterprise Benz flourished. He had enough money and leisure for other developments. Benz's dream was to create a self-propelled carriage with an internal combustion engine. Benz own engine is four stroke engine and Otto, not suited for this, since they have a low speed (about 120 rpm). At a certain decrease in the number of revolutions they glohli. Benz knew that the car is equipped with this engine will stop in front of each tubercle. We needed a high-speed engine with good ignition system and apparatus for forming a combustible mixture.
The design of the machine and engine to her Benz created and thought through for 20 years. Finally he managed to collect the appropriate four-cylinder engine rated at 0, 75 hp, equipped with heavy horizontal flywheel and shaft speed of 300 rev / min. As fuel Benz used gasoline, the ignition of the combustible mixture was carried out by means of an electric spark, and served as a source of power battery, with which the current fed to the induction coil Ruhmkorff. However, all this acted very badly: because of problems in the system of the first trip Benz ignition were sheer torture, and often ended with the stalled car delivered back home in his horse-drawn. For combustible mixture Benz has created one of the first in the history of carburetors. Motor was surrounded by a metal casing with a free space between it and the cylinder surface. This space was filled with cooling water. The cavity under the hood was connected by two tubes with a special water tank. According to one tube, heated water is flowed into the tank, according to another flows to the cooler cylinder. The flow of water was set by gravity. Made in "bicycle era", the first car was very similar to a tricycle. It had a tubular frame, tangentor spoked wheels and a chain drive. Its speed reaches 13 km / h.
Directly connect the engine to the rear axle was impossible due to a very high motor rotation speed. In order to from a large rotational speed jump to moderate Benz introduced in his car a simple mechanism, later known as the clutch. The model for this, he served as widespread at the time in the production of belt drive. (She was irreplaceable, when it was required to transfer force from the general movement of the source to the individual.) This show consisted of two wheels with smooth rims (called pulleys) and a belt slung between them. Of these two wheels it is the leading one, and the second driven, the belt serves to transfer motion. The same transfer had to first of all vehicles. On the motor shaft pulley placed in the Benz car, which was twice the width of the belt width. Nearby is an intermediate shaft, which were two of the same diameter pulley, and the width of each of them is equal to the width of the belt. With a fork embracing the top belt can easily move it from one pulley to the other, thereby causing coupling and uncoupling. One of these pulleys - working - was firmly attached to the shaft, the other - blank - sat freely. With the endless belt by rotation of the shaft passed second additional shaft on which the two small gears are planted tightly at the ends (gears). After exchanging the endless chain gear connected to the large gear of the rear axle. The latter gears are rigidly connected to the rear wheels, freely sitting on the axis. If during operation of the motor belt pulley was at work, the wheels of the car began to spin. To stop it, enough with the help of a fork and a free arm to transfer belt on the idler pulley.
From 1885 to 1893 Benz sold 69 cars of this model, whose production has adjusted at the factory. Since 1894 he began to produce four-wheeled vehicles "Velo", a two-cylinder engine and pneumatic tires. After this trade went briskly. In one 1894 was sold 67 cars. Further production volumes grew: in 1896 at the 181 Benz bought the car, and in 1900 - already 603.
Simultaneously Benz started the production of Daimler vehicles. In 1883 he made his first gasoline engine to be used for transport. Like Benz, Daimler considered exemplary feature of the "transport" an important engine of its rotation shaft frequency, provides intensive ignition of the combustible mixture. Already the first Daimler motors have speed to 900 revolutions per minute, that is 4-5 times greater than that of the stationary Otto gas engines. They were calculated solely on liquid fuels - gasoline or kerosene. Ignition as in stationary engines, spark tube occurred. Due to the high rotational speed "vehicles" engines were much smaller and lighter than stationary. To protect the motors from dust and dirt surrounded them with special covers. Provision of cooling water jacket and the radiator plate. To start the engine served as a handle.
In 1885, Daimler has put its gasoline engine on a bicycle, and in 1886 - on the four-wheel carriage. In 1889, this car was displayed at the exhibition in Paris, where the French manufacturers Panhard, Levassor and Peugeot bought a license to Daimler engine. This transaction was very important for the history of the automobile.
Rene Panhard and Levassor Etienne since 1886, were co-owners of the company, manufactures woodworking machines. In 1891 the company produced its first car with a V-shaped engine Daimler (daymlerovskim there was only the engine, the rest of the car design - a completely original). In the same year it was made more perfect car that caused a sensation. The history behind it got the name of the first "real" car. The car was located in the front of the frame under the hood of the engine and the present gear gearbox at the rear and four front velocities. The success that befell the first "Panhard" was not accidental. For ten years this company cars remained the most perfect car. That they were first delivered solid rubber tires, and the most advanced Daimler engines with carburetors. In 1896, Panhard Levassor and developed a system of truncated cone clutch, which replaces the old belt drive.
In 1894, the first in the history of car racing on the highway Paris - Rouen (127 km). To participate in them allowed vehicles with any engine. Applications filed 102 riders. However, only 21 cars was able to take the start (14 of them have internal combustion engines, 7 - steam engines), and finished the race just 13 petrol and 2 steam car. The first prize was shared by "Panhard" Levassor (who himself was driving) and "Peugeot" with Daimler engines. They showed an average rate of 20, 5 km / h. These two machines have also been recognized as the most cost-effective, safe and easy to handle.
Cars quickly improved further in 1891, Edouard Michelin, the owner of the rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, invented removable pneumatic tire for bicycles (Dunlop tire chamber was filled in and glued to the rim). In 1895, it started production of removable pneumatic tires for motor vehicles. For the first time, these tires were tested in the same year on the race Paris - Bordeaux - Paris. Equipped with their "Peugeot" with easy access to Rouen, and then was forced to retire from the race, as the tires continually pierced. Nevertheless, experts and motorists were hit machine running smooth and comfortable driving on it. Since then, the pneumatic tire gradually came to life, and they were equipped with all the cars. The winner in these races was again Levassor. When he stopped the car at the finish and set foot on the ground, he said: "It was madness. I was doing 30 kilometers an hour! "Now, the finish line is a monument in honor of this momentous victory. It knocked out the words Levassor included in the story. Unfortunately, this wonderful designer and racer during the race 1896 Paris - Marseille - Paris suffered a severe accident, and died shortly thereafter. After his death, the firm "Panhard" could not hold the dominant position in the market. It was transferred to the company Daimler.
In 1890, Daimler, united with a rich entrepreneur Duttenhofnerom created a joint-stock company "Daimler Motor". In 1891 he released the first four-car engine. the firm does not ladilis at first, but then quickly went up the hill. A new era in the history of the car began in 1901, when the company "Daimler Motor" first "Mercedes" was released. (Gottlieb Daimler had already died, but his son Paul, a great designer and a smart businessman, worthy to continue his work.)
The first "Mercedes" had already all the features of a modern car: the frame of pressed steel profiles, cell bronze radiator, this gearbox and four-cylinder engine capacity of 35 hp, which allowed to reach speeds of 70 km / h. This beautiful, elegant and reliable machine had incredible success. She won a lot of races and has generated a lot of imitations. We can say that with the advent of the first "Mercedes" car childhood ended and began the rapid development of the automotive industry.