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Bottle machine


Bottle machine
Glass industry was one of those industries, which until the beginning of the XX century has not been affected by mechanization. Production of glass articles, in particular bottles, and manually remained entirely dependent on the skill and experience of glass blower. Blowing was carried out using an iron tube length of 1 to 1, 5 m. One end of the tube is slightly enlarged cone and served for typesetting glass opposite (nipple) has been rounded. He took into his mouth blowing. About one-third of the tube to protect your hands from the heat shut wooden rim. Before dialing the molten glass mass tapered end of the tubing was carefully cleaned and heated in the oven heat. Dipping is then heated in the end of molten glass, several times turned up, with plenty of easy to molest her and welling in the form coma. Ostuzhivaniem naborki while rotating the glass tube was adjusted to a density at which its shape smoothing possible. Then we take the nipple in the mouth and force the air blowing through a pipe received at the other end with the desired smooth bubble wall thickness.

Bottle Cutting began with jars that turned into a bullet through simultaneous blowing and pulling iron slingshot in the form V (fulyazkoy). To make the elongated pellet warmed in an oven fire, then did a big tube and a fairly strong swing in a circle from the top down, making pellet stretched and took shape. She then invested in wood or cast-iron form, which sealed. This wizard is strongly blowing into the bottle, to give more soft glass to complete the harassment to the mold. Newest trimmed neck of the bottle: it seized the iron tongs with rounded ends, freed from the neck of the tube, heat it up and using decorative scissors that occurred at the ends of the corresponding value of the neck projections, made of glass on the neck thickening increase.

Numerous attempts to mechanize this complex production process were unsuccessful. The situation changed radically only in 1905, when American Michael Owens took out a patent on shestirukavnuyu vacuum machine - the first in the history of the bottle a blowing machine.

Owens machine consisted of two parts: the machine itself and the cup of molten glass mass to a semi-liquid state. Bowl spinning machine using electric motors about their axes in opposite directions. As with the manual production of bottles of dressing included several successive operations, but they are all performed automatically. Set the desired glass portion was carried out with the help of special vacuum heads (inside them created discharged state). The machine had its circumference by vacuum typesetting six heads, each of which was put on a blank mold. Finishing place in finishing forms. They also had six. Whenever it was necessary to absorb the next portion of the glass, the machine fell; composing head while submerged in molten glass. This happened six times per rotation of the machine, so that all vacuum head made one absorption. When lifting the machine will automatically cut off the trailing knife for head harness inlaid glass, which fell back into a rotating bowl.

First, Owens, like other inventors thought do without a rotating bowl and tried to take the glass from the furnace directly. However, by dipping a relatively cold parison and backward falling molten glass bath in the cold place harness suction cooled significantly. So suck it with a new batch was impossible. To get around this difficulty, Owens added to its rotating cup design, which was a filled with molten glass and continually warmed by the reservoir. In this way, we managed to constantly sum up to the blank forms of the new machine untouched portion of the glass surface. Places chilled dipping forms heated through heating of a rotating bowl, and also due to heat from ambient and inflowing fresh glass.

The following working operations were pre-blowing, sending bullets, the final blowing and eat products from the machine.

The first machine can produce 10-20 (according to weight) bottles per minute. But it was not the limit. Work slowed down due to the fact that we had to swing the heavy body of the machine. Later designs (from 1911 - in desyatirukavnoy car) Owens moved to the lowering of the individual suction hoses only (sections) with composing heads (suction forms). Due to this rotation of the machine became more calm, and greatly reduced power consumption by it. Furthermore, tremors were excluded, and it became possible to increase speed, so that productivity in the later models reached 90 bottles per minute.

Owens Bottle Machine has made a real revolution in the glass-blowing fact, perhaps the most significant in the entire history of five thousand years of glassmaking. However, the introduction of this machine has encountered considerable difficulties. In 1908, the German Union of manufacturers of bottle production Owens bought his patent for 12 million marks. This, however, was not done in order to start the use of his car, but just the opposite purpose - to prevent the mechanization of the industry. Manual production of bottles had an extremely beneficial alliance, as it allows him to maintain monopolistic high prices for this type of product. However, the idea of ​​manufacturers did not pass - shortly bottle machines appeared on many glass factories. In the United States was formed group "Libby - Owens - Ford Glass", which was soon to control the production of bottles in the United States and many European countries.

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