For almost a thousand years of the history of rocketry took a huge way from the primitive "fire arrows" to the most powerful of modern launch vehicles capable of orbit multi-ton spacecraft. Invented the rocket was in China. The first documentary evidence of its combat use associated with the siege of the Mongols of the Chinese city of Pien-King in 1232. Chinese missiles launched from the fortress and then strikes fear in the Mongolian cavalry were small bags stuffed with gunpowder and attached to the boom conventional bow.
Following the Chinese began to use incendiary rockets Indians and Arabs, but with the proliferation of firearms missile lost its importance for many centuries were driven out of the wide military use.
Once again, the interest to the rocket as a weapon to combat awoke in the XIX century. In 1804, significant improvements in the design of the rocket made a British officer, William Congreve, who was the first in Europe was able to organize mass production of military missiles. The weight of his rockets reached 20 kg, and the range - 3 km. With the proper skill they could hit targets at a distance of up to 1000 m. In 1807, English is widely used these weapons in the bombardment of Copenhagen. In a short period of more than 25 thousand rockets were fired on the city, leaving the city was almost completely burned. But soon the development of rifled firearms made use of missiles ineffective. In the second half of the XIX century they were removed from service in most states. Again, almost one hundred years, the rocket had resigned.
However, various projects use jet thrust even at that time there were then one, then another inventor. In 1903 he published the work "The study of outer space rocket appliances" Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. It not only Tsiolkovsky predicted that the missile would be ever so vehicle that will bring a man into space, but also the first to develop the concept of a new liquid propellant engines. After that, in 1909, the American scientist Robert Goddard first suggested the idea of creating and using a multi-stage rocket. In 1914 he took out a patent on the design. The advantage of using multiple steps is that after the depletion of the fuel tank level is discarded. This reduces the weight that must be overclocked to even higher speeds. In 1921, Goddard conducted the first test of its liquid jet engine that ran on liquid oxygen and air. In 1926 he made the first public launch of the rocket with liquid propellant, which, however, rose by only 12, 5 m. In the future, Goddard paid much attention to the stability and controllability of the missiles. In 1932 he launched the first rocket with gyroscopic rudders. In the end, his missile with a launch weight of 350 kg, rising to a height of 3 km. In the 30 years of intensive work on the improvement of rockets were already in several countries.
The principle of operation of the liquid jet engine in general is very simple. Fuel and oxidant are in separate tanks. Under high pressure, they are fed into the combustion chamber where it is stirred vigorously, evaporate, react and ignited. Formed in this way the hot gases are ejected with great force back through the nozzle, which leads to a reaction rod.
However, the actual implementation of these simple principles hampered by the great technical difficulties and faced the first designers. The most pressing of these issues were sustainable combustion of the fuel in the combustion chamber and cooling the engine. Very uneasy were also questions about the high-energy fuel for the rocket engine and how to feed the fuel into the combustion chamber components as for complete combustion to release the maximum amount of heat they were well mixed and sprayed uniformly with each other throughout the volume of the chamber. In addition, it was necessary to develop a reliable system, regulating the engine and rocket control. It took a lot of experimentation, mistakes and failures, before all these difficulties were successfully overcome.
Generally speaking, liquid engines can run on a single-component, the so-called unitary fuel. In itself can act as such, concentrated hydrogen peroxide or hydrazine. When combined with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 catalyst with high heat decomposes into oxygen and water. Hydrazine N2H4 decomposes under these conditions for hydrogen, nitrogen and ammonia. However, numerous tests have shown that the more efficient engines are working on two separate components, one of which is combustible, and other oxidants. Oxidants were good liquid oxygen O2, nitric acid HNO3, various nitrogen oxides, and a liquid fluorine F2. As fuel may be used kerosene, liquid hydrogen H2, (in conjunction with liquid oxygen, it is extremely effective fuel), hydrazine and its derivatives. In the initial stages of the development of rocketry as a fuel commonly used ethyl or methyl alcohol.
For better mixing and atomization of fuel (fuel and oxidant) are used special nozzles located in the front part of the combustion chamber (this portion is called the camera head nozzle). It usually had a flat shape formed from a plurality of nozzles. These nozzles are in the form of double tube for simultaneously supplying the oxidant and fuel. fuel injection came under great pressure. Small droplets of fuel and oxidant at high temperature to evaporate each other and engage in intense chemical reaction. Main fuel combustion occurs near the nozzle head. At the same time greatly increased the temperature and pressure of gases, which are then poured into the nozzle and at high speed breaks out.
The pressure in the combustion chamber can reach hundreds of atmospheres, and therefore the fuel necessary to supply oxidant at a still higher pressure. For this purpose, the first boost rockets unused fuel tanks of compressed gas or vapor fuel components themselves (for example, liquid oxygen vapors). Later apply special steel high-performance high power pumps driven by gas turbines. For the promotion of the gas turbine at the initial stage of the engine fed hot gas from the gas generator. Later they began to use hot gas produced from the most fuel components. After the dissolution of the gas turbine into the combustion chamber and used for rocket acceleration.
Cooling initially tried to solve the problem by using special refractory material or special coolant (e.g., water). However, there was gradually found a more profitable and efficient method of cooling by using one of the most fuel components. Before entering the chamber from a fuel component (e.g., liquid oxygen) held between an inner and outer wall and carried off with a significant portion of the heat from the most heat-stressed inner wall. Perfected the system was not at once, and therefore, in the first stages of creating their missile launches were often accompanied by accidents and explosions.
To control in the first rockets used air and gas rudders. Gas rudders located at the outlet of the nozzle and creating control forces and moments due to deviations resulting from the gas jet engine. In form they resembled the blade paddle. During the flight, the rudder quickly burn and destroy. Therefore, in the future of their use declined and began to apply the special control of rocket engines, which were able to rotate relative to the mounting axis.
In the USSR's missile tests on liquid engines began in the 30s. In 1933, the Moscow Group for the Study of Reactive Motion (GIRD) has developed and launched the first Soviet rocket GIRD-09 (constructors, Sergei Korolev and Mikhail Tikhonravov). This missile with a length of 2 to 4 m and a diameter of 18 cm had a launch weight of 19 kg. Fuel weight, consisting of liquid oxygen and condensed gasoline was approximately 5 kg. The engine developed a thrust of up to 32 kg and can operate with 15-18. When you first start due to the burnout of the combustion chamber gas jets began to break out from the side, which led to a dip in the rocket and its gentle flight. The maximum altitude of 400 m.
In subsequent years, the Soviet missile crews spent a few more runs. Unfortunately, in 1939, Jet Research Institute (which in 1933 was transformed GIRD) was defeated by the NKVD. Many designers were sent to prisons and camps. Korolev was arrested in July 1938. However, Valentin Glushko, the future chief designer of rocket engines, he spent several years in the Special Bureau in Kazan, where Glushko was listed as the chief designer of propulsion systems for aircraft, and the king as his deputy. For some time, the development of rocketry in the USSR ceased.
Much more tangible results achieved by German researchers. In 1927 there was formed a society of interplanetary travel, which was led by Wernher von Braun and Klaus Riedel. With the coming to power of the Nazis, these scientists began to work on creating military missiles. In 1937, there was a rocket center in Peenemunde. In its construction for four years, 550 million marks were invested. In 1943, the number of core staff in Peenemunde was already 15 thousand people. Here are Europe's largest wind tunnel and the factory for the production of liquid oxygen. In the center were designed flying bomb "V-1", and the first in the history of serial ballistic missile "V-2" with a launch weight of 12,700 kg (ballistic called such a missile, which is controlled only at the initial portion of the flight, after turning off the engine she flies how freely thrown stone). Work on the missile began in 1936, when Brown and Riedel were assigned to assist 120 employees and several hundred workers. The first experimental launch of the "V-2" took place in 1942 and was unsuccessful. Due to the failure of the missile control system crashed into the ground at 1, 5 minutes after the start. A new start in October 1942 was a success. The rocket rose to an altitude of 96 km, it reached the range of 190 km and was torn in four kilometers from the intended target.
When creating this missile it was made many discoveries, then widely used in the rocket, but it was also a lot of flaws. On "Fau" was first applied to turbo-pump feeding fuel into the combustion chamber (this is usually applied to the displacement with compressed nitrogen). To promote the gas turbine using hydrogen peroxide. Cooling first tried to solve the problem by using the combustion chamber walls thick steel sheets with poor heat conductivity. But the first few starts have shown that because of this the engine quickly overheats. To reduce the combustion temperature, it was necessary to dilute ethanol 25% water, which in turn greatly reduced the efficiency of the engine.
"Fau" began serial production in January 1944. This missile with a range of 300 km carrying a warhead weighing up to 1 ton. Since September 1944 the Germans began shelling their territory of the United Kingdom. Total 6,100 missiles and conducted 4,300 combat launches were made. Before England cried down missiles in 1050 and half of them exploded directly in London. As a result, it killed about 3 thousand people, and twice as many injured. Maximum flight speed "V-2" reached the 1, 5 km / s, and the altitude - about 90 km. Neither intercept or shoot down the rocket, the British had no chance. But due to imperfect targeting system, they have generally been quite ineffective weapon. However, "the V" in terms of development of missile technology is a giant step forward. The main thing was that the future missile believed worldwide. After the war, rocket got in all the states strong state support.
The United States was first in more favorable conditions, many German rocket men led by Brown after the defeat of Germany were brought to America, just as some ready "FAU". This potential served as the starting point for the development of the US missile industry. In 1949, by setting "V-2" on a small research rocket "Wack-Korporel" Americans have carried out its launch to an altitude of 400 km. On the basis of the same "Fau" under Brown's leadership was in 1951 created the US ballistic missile "Viking", developed a speed of about 6,400 km / h. In 1952, the same Brown worked for the US ballistic missile "Redstone" with a range of up to 900 km (it is this missile was used in 1958 as the first step in deriving the orbit of the first American satellite "Explorer-1").
The Soviet Union had to catch up with the Americans. Create your own heavy ballistic missiles is also started with a study of the German "V-2". For this group of designers (among whom were Korolev and Glushko) was sent immediately after the victory in Germany. However, they failed to get any of the finished whole "Fau", but by circumstantial evidence and numerous testimonies idea of it was written a fairly complete.
In 1946, the Soviet Union began its own extensive work on the creation of automatically controlled long-range ballistic missiles. Organized Korolev NII-88 (later TsNIIMash in suburban Podlipki, now the city of Korolev) immediately received considerable funds and a comprehensive state support. In 1947, on the basis of "V-2" the first Soviet ballistic missile R-1 was established. This first success was given with great difficulty. When developing missiles Soviet engineers are faced with many challenges. Soviet industry has not released when required for rocket steel grades, was not required and the necessary rubber plastics. Enormous difficulties were encountered when working with liquid oxygen, since all available instantly while lubricating oil thickens at low temperature, and the rudder stopped working. It was necessary to develop new types of oils. The general culture of production in no way did not correspond to the level of missile technology. Precision parts manufacturing, welding quality for a long time left much to be desired. Tests carried out in 1948 at the Kapustin Yar, showed that P-1 is not only superior to "V-2", but inferior to them in many ways. Almost no one start does not pass smoothly. Triggers Some rockets were postponed due to problems many times. Of the 12 designed to test missile with great difficulty, managed to run only 9. Tests carried out in 1949, we have already given much better results: 16 of the 20 missiles hit the specified rectangle of 16 by 8 km. There was no failure in starting the engine. But even then it was still a lot of time before you have learned to design reliable rockets that were launched, flew and hit the target. In 1949, on the basis of P-1 was developed in-1A geophysical altitude missile with a launch weight of about 14 tonnes (with a diameter of about 1, 5 m, it was the height of 15 m). In 1949, the missile delivered to a height of 102 km container with scientific instruments, which is then returned safely to the ground. In 1950, F-1 was put into service.
Since then, the Soviet missile crews have relied on their own experience, and soon surpassed not only their teachers-Germans, but American designers. In 1950, a fundamentally new ballistic missile R-2 was created with one main tank and a separating warhead. (Fuel tanks in "Fau" was suspended, that is, do not carry a no load power. The Soviet designers initially adopted this scheme. But later they switched to using carrier tanks when the outer shell, ie the rocket body, served as walls fuel tanks, or, equivalently, the fuel tanks were missile casing.) the size of P-2 was twice as P-1, but through the use of specially designed aluminum alloy superior to its total weight of 350 kg. As fuel is still used ethanol and liquid oxygen.
In 1953 he was adopted by a missile P-5, with a range of 1,200 km. Built on the basis of its geophysical rockets B-5A (length - 29 m, starting weight of about 29 tons) can lift loads to a height of 500 km. In 1956, tests were conducted missile R-5M, which brought the world's first space through the head of the nuclear charge. Its mission ended genuine nuclear explosion in a given area of the Aral Karakum 1,200 km from the launch pad. Korolev and Glushko then received a star Hero of Socialist Labor.
Until the mid-50s all Soviet missiles were single stage. In 1957, a new cosmodrome in Baikonur successfully launched military intercontinental multistage ballistic missile R-7. This missile is about 30 m long and weighing about 270 m composed of four blocks of the first stage side and the central unit with its own motor, which served as a second stage. The first stage used RD-107 engine, the second stage - RD-108 in an oxygen-kerosene fuel. At the start of all engines included both developed a thrust of about 400 tonnes.
On the advantages of multistage rockets in front of single-stage mentioned above. There are two stages of layout. In the first case, the most massive rocket, located at the bottom and is triggered at the beginning of the flight, called the first stage. Usually it is installed second missile smaller size and weight, which serves as the second stage. It may in turn be placed rocket third and so on depending on whether steps as required. This type of missile with a serial arrangement of steps. R-7 belonged to a different type - with longitudinal separation steps. Individual blocks (engines and fuel tanks) of the first stage were placed in it around the body of the second stage, and at the start of both stages begin motors operate simultaneously. After running out of fuel first stage units were discarded, and the engines of the second stage continued to work on.
A few months later, in the same 1957, this is the rocket put into orbit the first ever artificial satellite.