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Axe


Axe
For many millennia of its early history, people did not know use of metals. The basic material for the manufacture of the first tools were stone, and that stone-bound first great discoveries in the history of mankind. Not every stone can make a good tool. The earliest were made of pebbles, much later the man has mastered the flints. The shore of the seas, the rivers, especially riverbeds of mountain streams, rich in pebbles of different sizes, shapes, colors and breeds. Break in the shape of these stones is very comfortable to grip by the hand. Therefore, it is oval and flattened pebbles was ancient man material for the manufacture of its first working tool — hand-axes. The work required two stones: one (softer) served as a blank, and the other (from solid rock) — for strikes. Padding began with the narrow end. After the first blow on the workpiece surface is formed a depression in the shape of a shell. It served as a striking platform for further processing. Master continued to unjam the verge of cleavage that one or the other side of the stone. With each new shock has increased the number of impact sites, and the workpiece gradually took the necessary form.

this Work demanded a lot of patience, concentration and skill. Any strike was a kind of creative act. Every wrong done, the cleavage led to the fact that the workpiece is deteriorated, and the treatment had to start. The natural desire of man to avoid this unpleasant result. Therefore, stone processing machinery gradually became more complicated. An important step in this direction was made when the use has entered a new instrument, the bump plays the role of the modern chisels or adzes. As he used a sharp hard stone or the horn of a red deer, distinguished by high hardness. Attaching the bump to the desired point of the workpiece and hitting it with another stone or a wooden mallet, the master could much better coordinate the force and direction of impact. The chip was long and thin, and the product took more than the correct form.

But to finally subdue the material man had to master the technique that allows to remove the extra layers of stone literally millimeter by millimeter. With such precision it was possible to give the preparation any conceived form. This is made possible when the shock techniques began to complement the extractor. Giving a few strokes of the stone on the appropriate form, the master set aside the mallet and began to act like a chipper with a chisel, removing excess material in thin layers. It is curious that this work is quite beyond the power of modern man, which squeezes on the dynamometer average of not more than 60 kg. in order to cope with the compacting equipment, the human hand had to be at least six times stronger. That is the power of a Neanderthal, which, according to scientists, is not inferior to the strength of the current gorilla.

Hand ax was the first great invention of ancient man greatly facilitated his life. With the help of the ax, holding it differently, for the dumb, for the sharp end, it was possible to grind and crush plant foods, to scour and clean the crust, crush the nuts, separating roots and branches, loosen the earth in search of root crops, kill small animals. It was a versatile tool with many different functions. Simultaneously with the chopping in the service of man turned out to be flakes from flint — a variety of the tip, piercings, ancient scrapers. This simple tool has enabled man to skin the carcass, cut the skin, separate the meat into pieces.

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