Zombies - the walking dead
Who are the zombies - is not alive, but not dead creatures, which are often found in Haiti? Are zombies - dead body without a reason and without a soul? whether it is in the power of sorcerers, who conquered his own, capturing the soul?
Haitians believe in zombies, believe and fear. Do they exist? To prove this is a lot of examples and practices voodoo shows that the walking dead - devil's servants magicians. And even if the creation of such a zombie found, whether it is walking dead? Is it possible to give a logical explanation for their strange state?
"The worst thing - the eyes. And it's not my imagination. It's actually been a dead man's eyes, but not blind, and burning, unfocused, unseeing. Therefore face was terrible. So empty, as though there is nothing behind it. Not just with the lack of expression, and to the lack of ability to express. By this time I had seen in Haiti are so many things that lie outside the normal human experience, that for a moment completely shut down and thought, or rather felt, "Great God, maybe all this nonsense - the truth ..."
So William Seabrook describes his meeting with the creation of the most sinister of all the creatures of the supernatural. Seabrook came face to face with the zombies - the walking dead. And at this moment he was ready to believe anything that he had heard about zombies since his first visit to Haiti.
The fate of zombies worse than the lot of vampires or werewolves. Vampires yet returned to those whom they love. They can learn and retain. Werewolf can be hurt, and it will take human form. But zombies - automatic without reason, doomed to live in a dream. Zombies can move, eat, hear, even to speak, but no memory of his past, does not know about his present. Without a glimmer of recognition, he can look into the eyes of those who loved, or pass by his house.
No ghost, no living creature - zombie placed, perhaps forever, in the "border zone between life and death." And if the vampires - the living dead, the zombies - the walking dead body without a soul, and mind. With the help of sorcery gave him the appearance of life. They - the generation of sorcerers, who use them as their own slaves or are rented, mostly to work in the fields.
Haiti - the birthplace of this phenomenon and is replete with stories of people who have died, been buried, and after a while suddenly appeared, becoming a zombie. One of the most famous stories, first described by American writer Zora Hurston in 1938, still talk in Haiti. Charming young girl named Mary died in 1909. Five years after his death, in the capital of Haiti - Port-au-Prince, in the window of a house noticed her former school friends. The owner refused to give any whatsoever explanations, and the father of Mary he got down to business. When the house is found, neither the owners nor the girl was no longer there. Meanwhile, on the Port-au-Prince, rumors, and to reassure public opinion, the grave dug up the girl. In the coffin lay a skeleton, too long for a child. He was smartly dressed in the clothes in which buried Mary.
It was said that Mary dug witch and turned into a zombie, and when he died, his widow gave the girl a Catholic priest. Once seen her schoolmates, they said that parents could take her from Haiti to France disguised as a nun. And later there was visiting her brother.
However, it is not very typical of the stories about zombies, because the saddest thing in them - what a zombie, no one can help. Family and friends do not know most of what happened, and if they do, they are too scared to try to do something. Zora Hurston quotes the following story told by the mother of the deceased boy. After the burial, the middle of the night, his friends were awakened by a frightened woman and her daughter. It turned out that my sister suddenly heard singing on the street and the noise at night. Then she recognized the voice of his brother. Her cries woke the whole house, and looked out the window, saw the sinister procession home, wandering along the street, and a boy, who was buried yesterday. When he was barely moving the legs, caught up to the window, they heard him weeping. "But this is the horror - says Zora Hurston - suggestible these creatures that even the mother and sister did not dare to go out and try to save him." The procession was out of sight. After that, the boy's sister had gone mad.
But why Haitians are so afraid of a zombie? And what will happen to those who try to liberate their dead loved ones? Are there zombies? To answer these questions, it is necessary to turn to the past and Haiti, mainly to the beliefs and religious practices of voodoo.
Wood - a unique blend of African beliefs, Catholics going even some American Indians, and European occultism. But the deepest roots - in Africa, and the emergence of voodoo coincides with the arrival in Haiti, a large consignment of African slaves. This terrible period began in the life of mankind, when Haiti owned by the Spaniards in the XVI century and flourished in the XVII, when Haiti, the island passed to France. He became one of the richest of the French colonies, and to maintain this status, slaves were needed. European slave traders have already secured the plantations of the New World slaves from the west coast of Africa and were ready to meet the growing needs of the French. In those rare cases, when the French authorities there were legal difficulties in connection with the slave trade, they gave the argument that this is the best way to draw African pagans to Christianity. Many slaves became parishioners of the Catholic Church. However, they slightly changed the Christian doctrine, adapting them to his own temperament and needs, and mixed Christian ceremony with their religious rituals. This combination is preserved until now. Even today, despite the disapproval of the church, many Haitians profess both Catholicism and voodoo.
In Haiti, the slaves brought from all over West Africa, but the majority belonged to the tribes, speaking in the language of Yoruba. These tribes believe in spirit possession. Separated homeland and families, transported in appalling conditions in a new country, slaves nonetheless remain committed to its traditions. They still revered magic and sorcery, and mindful of the gods and the spirits of ancestors worshiped in African forests, which formed the basis for the formation of vuduizma Haiti. The new religion united uprooted, suffering people. Therefore, the French authorities have banned it quickly. Thus, they have increased the popularity of voodoo and its sinister mystical component.
Slavery was a great business. By 1750, Haiti brought 30,000 slaves annually. One generation follows another, longing and nostalgia for the past grew and prepared the ground for the uprising. Finally in 1757, the island of Haiti tried to become independent. Rebellion fanatical runaway slaves led Makandal, but the French grabbed him and executed. Subsequent riots accelerated the proclamation of the independence of Haiti in 1804. With the departure of the French colonists, the carriers of the Catholic faith, the religion of Voodoo has spread everywhere.
Voodoo religion has two sides. One - the belief and worship their own gods - as in the classical religious denominations. But there is another, mystically tinged - voodoo black magic, witchcraft, belief in monsters, murderers, and the resurrection of the dead. The most important part of some ceremonies is blood and sacrificed pigs, chickens and roosters.
Voodoo ceremonies are held in so-called «tormelles» (pavilions). This can be a miserable hut with a dirt floor and a modern building, but in all cases with a platform for the ritual dance. It was at a dance party is going through a major experience of voodoo - Obsession perfume. Dancing, singing and drumming creates an environment in which professes voodoo, and spirit can become one, and there comes a moment when the dancers fall into a trance, which results in a loss of consciousness.
Dancing may possess any of a number of gods and spirits, the majority of whom still wear African names. At this moment, I possessed fully convinced that he was indeed "become" them and takes over its appearance, gestures and behavior. So obsessed with the ancient spirit of Pope Legba, guarding the gates to other worlds and is the god of crossroads, whose symbol - a crutch in his eyes visibly decrepit, and starts to limp. Ambient, learning spirit, running to the aid of crutches and with sticks. Sea God is invisible oars rowing. Obsessed flirtatious female deity would behave coyly and provocatively. One of the traditional goddess of Dahomey (Benin) - Agassi, a great connection and women panther, retains its power and Haiti, causing it to bend obsessed with fingers like claws. Evil spirits can cause convulsions dancing. The obsession continues for several hours, during which time people can safely walk on hot coals, immerse hands in boiling water, as well as in some African tribes, in a trance, people can chop off my fingers. Researcher Patrick Leigh Farmer, visited Haiti, offered barely-i following explanation of how an obsession can occur, or the alleged "incarnation" of God. In his book "The Tree of the traveler" published in 1950, he writes: "Every resident of Haiti, from early childhood accustomed to the moment of the Incarnation, and he knows that it is a miracle to happen in" Tonnelle ", where the very air is saturated with secrets, and drumming almost physical impact on his mind, and under the influence of drums, dance and the divine presence, he plunges into a state of hysteria and, as a consequence, self-hypnosis. "
With the electroencephalogram it was found that the human brain is extremely sensitive to influences rhythmic. Thus, changing the pitch and rhythm of the ritual ceremony, voodoo priest - Honggang - can increase the degree of suggestibility. To help enter into a state of obsession, Honggang know how to use magic powders and herbs, but they say that in the feverish atmosphere of voodoo ceremony for this may be enough, even ordinary things such as pepper.
Voodoo believe that the gods can not enter the body if the soul is still there, and it is - the moment of initiating an obsession. It is believed that the soul consists of two parts: the Big Good Angel and the Little Good Angel. First - what we might call self-consciousness. It is the essence of the human soul and makes a person who he is.
Without the Big Little angel and the body lose their connection. During obsession displaced more, and the person ceases to be itself, and becomes the deity, which took his body. Usually obsession runs itself, and Big Voodoo Angel returns to his seat. But sometimes this can only happen with the help Honggang. After the death care must be taken to choose the new home of the liberated soul body. The soul, which at first holds on the river bottom, during a special ceremony called hunganom and placed in consecrated box that replaces the physical body. So it becomes an ancestor spirit, he gives advice and protects his family.
The idea of the soul is the basis of many superstitions voodoo, including belief in zombies. At the time of displacement of the soul may fall into the hands of the devil. Of course, have a body without a soul, which is to replace the deity is very convenient, but they, with the help of diabolical machinations, may take possession of the sorcerer
Voodoo sorcerers, or Bokor - being pretty terrible, they communicate with the dead, and for himself, or for the benefit of its customers, the most sinister practice witchcraft. Sometimes Honggang and Bokor - one and the same person: the priest of voodoo, like any other, must be familiar with witchcraft in order to successfully deal with it. Today Honggang may impose a curse using white magic and black tomorrow to use spells. They can cause both good spirits and evil, for example, Zandora that turns people into snakes or vampire bats. Voodoo nevertheless of the opinion that this Honggang will never be engaged in witchcraft, and of course, there Bokor, who have never been priests of voodoo. Bokor led by secret societies, worship the devil, and going to cemeteries, where the ceremony is performed sinister cult of the dead.
These wizards of the cemetery land and the bones of the dead are made special powder "to send down a dead man" on the enemy. The powder scattered near the door or on the victim way of its sequence may lead to paralysis or death if it is not time to take countermeasures Honggang. Another method of fighting is to dress up the corpse of the victim's clothes and hide in a secret place, where it will rot, and the poor victim - go crazy in her quest. As the researchers note, if the potential victim knows what is happening, and believe in the power of magic, you can easily achieve the desired result.
Haitians tell heartbreaking stories about how sorcerers used the corpses. William Seabrook in his book "The Mysterious Island", written in 1936, brings the story of a young woman Tussel Camilla and her husband Matthew. On the first anniversary of their wedding Tus-sel, shortly after midnight, he called his wife to celebrate this event. He insisted that Camilla was wearing a wedding dress, and she, frightened, obeyed. They entered solemnly removed, lit candles, room. Also they had four other guests in evening clothes. But nobody congratulated Camilla. Tussel apologized for them, promising that after a feast and dance with her man. His voice sounded strained and unnatural Camilla, and suddenly she saw his fingers still one of the guests uncomfortable squeeze a glass of wine is poured. Taking the candle, Camilla stared into the faces of visitors and found that he was in the same room with the four corpses.
The woman fled in panic, but later never recovered from this nightmare. The next day, her friends are back there and found everything as she had described, but there was not a silent guest, nor Tusselya. Then he said that Tussel left the island.
Legend or fact? Evil sorcerer plans, husband or wife imagination? Haitians, Seabrook told the story, believed that fact. They knew many more such stories. Children in Haiti are growing among the tales of black magic, ghosts and witches. Mothers do not allow children to play with his shadow and say that if they will misbehave, they will take Bokor, or Tonton Macoutes - the wandering wizard voodoo. Last threat became a reality when in power in Haiti came dictator Francois Duvalier, as his mercenaries nicknamed the Tonton Macoutes.
This atmosphere of fear and superstition gave rise to the belief in zombies. Believing in the cult of the dead is not very hard to believe in the possibility of black magic to force the body to move and execute the will of others. Many would say that it is the intention had Tusselya relative to its guests. Of all the pitfalls into which the unwary person could fall by witchcraft, the most terrible - zombies, because even the most sophisticated is not easy to deal with it. In the late 1950s, Alfred Metro, the author of the book "Voodoo in Haiti", examined issues related to zombies. He writes: "In Port-au-Prince generally a bit, even among educated people of that kind would not have believed this sinister history."
One such sinister stories recorded by Metro - about a young girl who had rejected the offers powerful Honggang. He withdrew, muttering threats. Pretty soon, she fell ill and died. It so happened that the coffin was too short, and to deploy a girl, she had to bend her neck. At this time, a candle standing near the coffin, fell and scorched her leg. After some time, people demanded to see the girl, apparently alive. It is recognized by burns and curved neck. It said that a jealous Honggang turned her into a zombie and used as a maid, but due to the increased interest in this story has been forced to release it.
This wizard guided desire for revenge - a common cause to turn into a zombie does not please a man. Sometimes, if there are suitable corpses, they turn into a zombie, to be used simply as a cheap labor force. In more rare cases, they - with the agreement of the victim diabolical forces that charge in human hearts for services rendered. And if Christians talk about selling his soul to the devil, voodoo followers sell the souls of others. In exchange for power, wealth, or other benefits should be given to the soul of the most expensive and close friends. Each year, a terrible procedure is repeated until there is no one from the family, who could be invited, and then have to give your own soul. And the body, like the bodies of all others, becomes a zombie.
Such a contract is concluded through Bokor, and only they can create zombies. As soon as it gets dark, witch saddles his horse and rushes to the victim's home. There, pressed his lips to the crack in the door, Bokor "sucks" the soul and puts it in a sealed bottle. Shortly thereafter, the victim becomes ill and dies. After the burial, at midnight, Bokor and his assistants came to the grave, she digs it and says the victim's name. In response, the dead man tries to raise his head, because Bokor owns his soul. Once that happens, Bokor, - for a split second - pulls out a bottle of soul and puts under the nose of a corpse. Now, the dead man revived. Bokor pulls him out of the grave, and connects to a full revival hit on the head. Then he carefully digs the grave, so that no one realized what had happened.
Initially, Bokor and assistants carried by the victim of her own home. They say, then it will never be able to learn and try to go back there. Then it was withdrawn in the house Bokor or voodoo palace and give a special infusion. Some believe that this is an extract from the poisonous plants such as belladonna or Datura (grass Dzhimsona). In colonial times slaves poisoned their masters. Others say that it is prepared from the drops dripping from the nose dead.
There are other ways to catch the human soul. You can put it under the pillow of the dying vessel with magical items and herbs, which "will involve" the soul. Soul insect or small animal can replace the human. In none of the cases the victim does not realize what is happening. You can even pick up directly from the soul is already dead. But whatever method is used, on the edge of the grave part of the soul remains the same, and the case can be considered done after taking the magical drug. The victim becomes a zombie - a terrible, resigned walking dead, ready to fulfill the sorcerer desires.
To the sorcerer could not get the body and turn it into a zombie, held a grand job. A family that can afford it, concreted pit. Others are buried in their own garden or on the side of the road with heavy traffic. As for the purpose of Bokor is only good fresh corpse, relatives can have grave duty as long as the body begins to decompose. Sometimes the body kill again, piercing the head or introducing poison, sometimes suffocating. Sometimes buried with a knife in his hand, that he defended himself. Often in the grave the body lay face down, and in the dead man's mouth stuffed with ground or sewn lips, that when the sorcerer will say his name, he could not respond.
If a person has become a zombie, then saved from eternal trance can only tasted salt (often a symbol of white magic). After that, the zombie instantly aware of the situation, understand that the dead and returned to the grave forever.
In his book "The Invisible," British anthropologist Francis Huxley brings a story about zombies, which he told a Catholic priest. This zombie hanging around his own village and eventually was taken to the police station. But the police were too scared to do anything, and just left it on the street. A few hours later someone the courage, gave a zombie drink salt water, and he murmured her name. Then he heard his aunt, who lived nearby. According to her, he died and was buried four years ago.
They called priest and zombie opened his name wizard who made him and a few zombies to work for him. Frightened police sent a letter to the sorcerer, which offered to take her back zombies. But two days later the zombies really died - possibly because of the revelations made him kill himself a sorcerer. Warlock was arrested, but neither his wife nor the other can not find a zombie.
In all the stories about zombies is an element of understatement. As if missing some important facts. But Catholic and Protestant priests tell stories that are hard to believe. About how they had seen with their own eyes the deceased, led the funeral service, the coffin lid shut and throwing earth on the grave, and after a few days or weeks met "former client" with frozen eyes and lack of facial expressions. Insane, but not dead.
Zora Hurston wrote that the missionaries sometimes these creatures lead changed Bokor voodoo sorcerer, or a widow, to get rid of them Hurston visited Haiti, she happened to see, touch and take pictures of zombies. She photographed zombies Felicia Felix-Mentor, who died of a sudden illness in 1907. In 1936, she was found. She wandered naked along the road near the farm of her brother. And brother and husband know her as a woman that personally buried 29 years ago. Felicia was in such a terrible state that she was sent to the hospital, where after a few weeks of her and saw Zora. "It was horrible - she wrote later. - White face with dead eyes ... Eyelids - completely white, as if the acid burned. What could she say? And get in return? I could only look at her. But bear this spectacle long been impossible. "
So, zombie, or something like them, exist. But are they really - the walking dead? How can a dead body to give the appearance of life, Montague Summers, an expert on witchcraft and black magic, wrote: "No doubt, you can use black magic to create the appearance of" life "of a dead body - it will move and speak, but, according to sorcerers themselves, to impose a curse a long time, without periodic renewal - a feat that only by the most dishonest magicians, deep in the depths of hell. "
In the case of Felicia Felix-Mentor is unlikely even the most hellish spell can withstand 29 years. A more plausible explanation is that the so-called zombies never die. Some believe that a zombie - just double the deceased person. But if this is so, then why the double always looks and moves like a zombie? For zombie characteristic absent expression ustremlen- 'ny look down, pale face and shuffling gait. They do not realize when they are accessed, and their own nasal speech is almost always pointless. Most often it is just guttural sounds resembling grunt.
Almost always they are the signs of mental disability, and perhaps many of met a zombie - really just a weak-minded, which the family carefully hides, pretending that they are long dead, yet suddenly they meet someone, maybe a lot years later. Alfred Metro disguised as zombies showed "an unfortunate lunatic." It was a crazy girl who ran away from home, where parents usually keep it under lock and key.
Haiti Researchers note that the zombies are not treated worse than the mentally retarded; the latter, in order to achieve submission, usually beaten. When William Seabrook slightly moved away from the shock caused by the sight of "burning, unfocused and unseeing eyes", he also came to the conclusion that a zombie, which he saw were "just miserable crazy human beings, idiots, who were forced to work in the field", and not poluozhivshimi corpses.
But what about the witnesses who swear they saw some dead zombies? Are they lying? And not all zombie idiots initially. Some friends are remembered healthy, intelligent people. It's pretty tough questions.
The answer to them can be obtained from an unexpected source - the old article 246 of the Criminal Code of Haiti. "It is also an attack - it is written there - is the use of the substances in which the subject is immersed in a more or less prolonged lethargy, regardless of the purpose of use of the substance and implications. If the subject is buried in a state of lethargy, it becomes an attempt of premeditated murder. "
From this it follows that the zombies can really be a man whose relatives buried and mourned, and Bokor, as in the legend, pulled out of the grave. But he was buried alive, steeped in death-like trance, from which can never quit.
The well-known doctor in Haiti in an interview with William Seabrook said that at least some of the zombies, with whom he had to deal, were victims of this kind of errors, intentional or accidental. Zora Hurston discussed the case with doctors Felicia Felix-Mentor. She writes: "We have long built theories explaining the emergence of zombies. This is certainly not the case of the resurrection of the dead, but rather they were immersed in a state very close to death with the help of some drugs - a process for their manufacture may have been exported from Africa and passed down from generation to generation ... They obviously destroy the part of the brain that controls speech and mind. Victims can act and move, but are not able to formulate their thoughts. Two doctors, a strong interest of these funds, and could not find a way to manufacture. It's a mystery, and dedicated would rather die than tell ".
Almost certainly the idea of zombies came from Africa, where it is still affected by the races legendary stories about how sorcerers resurrecting the dead. However, the real zombies - the specificity of Haiti. Of course, the skeptic may say that the so-called zombies - only lunatics ilі people plunged into a trance, but some are not doubtful cases can be explained only on the level of magic. Today, voodoo is often used to attract tourists, and colorful presentation with a demonstration of white magic, is equally pleased with both natives and foreigners alike. Francis Huxley talked about the judge who saw hunligan pulled the corpse out of the grave and revived. The judge found the tomb of the tube through which air is supplied to the surface. In fact, the corpse was an assistant Honggang and could breathe freely in anticipation of their own resurrection.
Haitians, of course, aware of similar hoaxes. But, unfortunately, most of them still believe in zombies, fear and joins their ranks they simply in the blood. It may well be that a zombie is not removed from the grave, but with the help of special means to immerse in state close to death. But who's to say which is worse? In any case, zombies - is one example of the walking dead.