Who killed Charles XII?
In 1874 in Russia came to the king of Sweden Oscar II. He visited St. Petersburg, visited the Hermitage, in Moscow, visited the Kremlin, the Armory, where with unconcealed interest considered trophies captured by Russian soldiers at Poltava, the stretcher Charles XII, his cocked hat and gloves. The conversation, naturally, could not touch this remarkable personality, and King Oscar said he was interested in a long time mysterious and unexpected death of Charles XII, followed the evening of November 30, 1718 under the walls of the Norwegian city Frederiksgallya. While still heir, in 1859 Oscar with his father, King Carl XV, was present at the opening of the sarcophagus of King Charles XII.
The sarcophagus with the coffin of Charles XII stood on a pedestal in a recess near the altar mnogopudovye Carefully lift the stone cover and opened the coffin.
King Charles was in much faded, half-rotted jacket and boots with soles dumps. On his head sparkled made of sheet gold funerary crown Through constant temperature and humidity of the body is well preserved. Preserved even the hair on the temples, once fiery red and darkened skin on the face to olive green
But all present involuntarily shuddered when he saw a terrible pass-through wound in the skull, veiled with a cotton swab on the right temple discovered an inlet from which black rays diverge deep cracks (the bullet was started with a little distance and had a great stopping power). Instead, the left eye was a huge wound, which included three free finger ...
Carefully examining the wound, he conducted the autopsy Friksel professor gave his opinion, and his words were immediately recorded in the minutes: "His Majesty shot in the head from a gun flint"
This conclusion was sensational. The fact is that in all the history books claimed that King Charles fell, struck by the kernel.
"But who made this tragic shot?" - Asked Carl XV.
"I'm afraid this is a great mystery that will not soon be able to uncover. | It is possible that the death of His Majesty is the result of carefully | prepared by the murder ... "
How did this happen?
In October 1718 Carl moved to the conquest of Norway. His troops reached the walls of the well-fortified fortress Frederick Gall, located at the mouth of the river Tistendal, near the Denmark Strait. Army was given the order to begin the siege, but the soldiers, tsepenevshie from the cold, could hardly dig their picks frozen ground in the trenches.
Here's how to describe further events Voltaire:
"Points of November (December 1 and n. A.) The day of St. Andrew's at 9 pm Carl went to inspect the trenches and did not find the expected success in the works, seemed very unhappy.
Mefe, a French engineer, who led the work, began to assure him that the castle will be taken within eight days.
"Let's see," - said the king, and went to bypass operation. Then he stopped at the corner, at the turn of the trench and, resting his knees on the inner sloping trench, leaning on the parapet, while continuing to look at the working men who worked in the starlight.
King leaned out over the parapet almost to the waist, presenting himself thus target ... In that moment beside him were only two Frenchman - one of his personal secretary Sigyur, clever and efficient human, age, ringing his service in Turkey and who was especially committed; other - Maigret, engineer ... A few steps from them are;
Xia Count Schwerin, head of the trenches, giving orders to Count Pos-se and Adjutant General Kaulbars.
Suddenly Sigyur and Maigret saw that the king falls on the parapet, emitting a deep breath. They approached him, but he was already dead: canister weighing half a pound hit him in the right temple and blew a hole into which you can put three fingers; His head fell back, his right eye went inside and left completely jumped out of orbit ...
Falling, he found the strength to the natural movement of his right hand on the hilt of his sword, and died in this position. At the sight of the dead king Maigret, original and cool people, I have not found anything else like to say: "The comedy is over, let's go to dinner."
Sigyur ran to the Count Schwerin tell him what had happened. They decided to hide from the troops of the news of the death of the king, until notified by the Prince of Hesse. The body was wrapped in a gray cloak. Sigyur put on his wig and a hat on the head of Charles XII, the soldiers did not know who was killed in the King.
Prince of Hesse immediately ordered that no one dared to leave the camp, and ordered to guard all roads leading into Sweden. He needed time to take action to ensure that the crown passed to his wife, and to prevent claims on the crown of the Duke of Holstein.
It died at the age of 36 years, Karl XII, King of Sweden, experienced the greatest successes and most cruel vicissitudes of life ... "
Voltaire's story written by eyewitnesses who were still alive in his time. However, Voltaire says that Carl was killed "in a half-pound of buckshot." But forensic investigation proved conclusively that the king was killed by a bullet. Who conducted the autopsy professor Friksel, naturally, could not answer the question: it was the handiwork of the killer or who sent it was a sniper shot from the walls of the fortress?
Russian public did not remain indifferent to the results of the investigation in Stockholm. The most unexpected was that the gun that had killed the Swedish king Karl, suddenly found in Estonia, at the family estate Kaulbars. About this in his memoirs told the 50-year-old Baron Nikolai Kaulbars in 1891. The very fitting, as a family heirloom, 170 years handed down from generation to generation. On the death of King Nicholas Kaulbars he told some interesting details. In particular, he wrote:
"Consideration of the circumstances in which it happened, excludes any possibility of the defeat of the enemy bullet, and currently there is no doubt that the king was killed by his personal secretary - French Siquier (Sigyurom) Despite this, even to the last time a lot has been written about the mysterious the death of the King ...
During my beingness military agent in Austria, one day in conversation with the Swedish envoy, Mr. Ackerman, we raised the issue of the mysterious death of the Swedish king Charles XII; and I am not without surprise, I learned that in Sweden before the last time on this occasion there were even expressed in print the most divergent views - and that this question is still is still considered not quite clarification.
I immediately told him that the data is in the chronicle of our family, from which it appears that Charles XII was killed in the trenches under Fridrihsgallem personal his secretary, the Frenchman Sigyurom, and that the union, who served as an instrument of death of the king, is still kept in childbirth our estate Medders, province of Estonia, Vezenbergsko th district. "
Next Kaulbars wrote that after King was found dead in a trench Sigyur disappeared. His apartment was found, said fitting, blackened only one shot. And many years later, on his deathbed, Sigyur said that he - the murderer of King
Kaulbars version was not new, and involvement in the murder of Charles Sigyura denied even Voltaire, and when Sigyur was alive and was on his estate in the south of France. Voltaire was able to double-talk to the old man before he went to the other world.
"I can not ignore a slander, - Voltaire wrote. - At that time the rumor spread in Germany that Sigyur killed the King of Sweden. This brave officer was in despair at such a calumny. One day, telling me about it, he said, "I could have killed the Swedish king, but I was filled with such respect for this character, that even if wanted anything like that, they would not dare!" I know that he Sigyur It gave rise to such charges, to which part of Sweden believed until now. He told me that, while in Stockholm, he was in a fit of delirium, muttering that he had killed the king, and, delirious opening a window, asked for forgiveness from the people of this regicide. When on the recovery, he learned about it, I almost died of grief.
I saw him shortly before his death, and I can assure you that not only did he not kill Charles, but he would have given a thousand times to kill himself for it. If he was guilty of this crime, it is, of course, it would be with a view to provide service to some state that it would be good rewarded. But he died in poverty in France and needed help
Kaulbars sent to Stockholm two photos of the union and the wax replica of the one bullet, if it survived. The bullet that was compared to the holes in the skull, and it turned out that they were "not on the outer contour of, or largest does not meet her." In addition, it was found that the inlet is located in the skull is slightly higher output, ie, the king was struck by a projectile flying on a downward path, and therefore, a bullet fired from the enemy fortress. But the king was out of the reach of gunfire!
"Carbine Kaulbars" from which he was allegedly killed Carl, belongs to a type of flint threaded fittings of the XVII century. Short, outside faceted and very thick trunk, a small caliber, inside contains a direct and fairly frequent rifling. On the outer edges of the barrel is engraved the following inscription:
Adreas de Hudowycz. Herrmann Wrangel v Ellestfer - 1669.
It has been suggested that the lower sign - the name of the gunsmith, makes fitting and the top - one of the owners, to the transition fitting into the hands of Baron Johann Friedrich Kaulbars, ancestor Nicholas.
The following are engraved the names of the persons constituting the closest entourage of King Charles XII at Fridrihsgallem:
Reinhold loh v. Vietinghoff.
Bogislaus VD Pahlen.
Hans Heinrich Fersen.
Gustaw Magnus Rehbinden.
lonannFndrichv. Kaulbars. 1718.
Data reported Kaulbars forced Swedish criminologists for a new investigation. In 1917 he was re-opened the sarcophagus and took hurt authoritative commission composed of historians and criminologists. experimental shots were fired on the dummy, measure angles, ballistics is calculated, and the results are carefully processed and published. But a definitive conclusion could not reach the commission.
The examination showed that, while in the trench, Karl XII because of the great distance was virtually invulnerable to gun fire from the walls Fridrihsgallya. And for the ambush conditions were ideal. When Charles came to break the trench and, leaning out over the parapet, looked at the walls of the fortress, it was perfectly visible against the white snow. To make an aimed shot at a target was not difficult. Shot excellent sniper bullet hit right on the head. The shooter was back at an angle of 12-15 degrees, slightly rising, which is determined by the inlet and outlet openings in the skull of Charles.
The latter fact suggests that the position has not been chosen by chance: at the sound of the shot, accompanied Carla people involuntarily turned their eyes towards the enemy, to the walls Fridrihsgallya and arrows in the meantime disappeared.
Who shot the Swedish king?
romantic hypothesis has recently been suggested that the name of the murderer supposedly engraved on the nozzle stem among other names - Adreas de Hudowycz (Adreas Gudovich), who allegedly was a Serb named Adry Gudovich and the Serbs allegedly had a special reason for the murder of the Swedish king. "He had a Serbian origin, and in the service of the Polish king Augustus. In 1719 he was in his hands got a diploma certifying except Serbian, and his Polish title of count for special merits ... In the same year he went to Russia, entered the service in the Russian army officer, where he was born the son of Basil Gudovich (1719 -1764). But further, this name is not lost among the Russian noble families ", and so on. D., And so on. N.
According to this passage, under unknown Serb named Andrew (not Adry - that name in Serbia is not) Gudovich obviously meant Andrey Pavlovich Gudovich that at the beginning of the XVIII century with his brother Stepan moved to Little Russia and served in the Ukrainian Cossack shelves he was really the son of Basil Gudovich (died in 1764) - General podskarbi Little grandson Basil, Ivan, the field marshal of the Russian army in 1797 was granted the title of count of the Russian Empire the fact that supposedly someone from Gudovich in 1719 I received from the Polish King August "diploma certifying, in addition to Serbian, and Polish Count's dignity," in the annals of history until now information was not as for the "Serbian" origin Gudovich, something about it, too, so far nothing was known Gudovich - old Polish noble family ancestor - Stanislas, Emblem Odrovonzh nobleman, in 1567 received a certificate the name of the king Gudaytse why there was a surname Gudovich His direct descendant (great-grandson), descended from the youngest son of Stanislaw, Ivan and Andrey Pavlovich was Gudovich
However, there was another Andrew Gudovich - grandson of AP Gudovich, friend and closest associate of Emperor Peter III In 1762 he was sent to Courland for the preparation of the election of the Duke of Courland uncle Emperor - Prince George (George) of Holstein Not when there appeared his name on notorious choke Kaulbarsa9 And anyway - what is the origin of "fitting Kaulbars" what his istoriya9 How he autentichen9 really out of it was killed, king Charles, after examination of this kind would not podtverdila9
At King Charles I had many enemies and without any mythical Serbs has long been discussed in the version that the king could kill British agents or the Swedes - the opposition, supporters of the Prince of Hesse Most likely, the second - because after the death of Charles "Hessian party" prevailed in the domestic political struggle and He ascended the throne stavlennitsa "Hessians" Ulrika Eleonora official investigation into the death of Charles was not the people of Sweden announced that their king killed the kernel, and the lack of the left eye and a huge wound on his head is not in serious doubt in this