Unknown sea creature
In the afternoon October 31, 1983 repair team Marin County, California, working on the site haiveya number 1, just where it passes over the ocean right below them stretched the sandy beaches of Stinson Beach, and behind them - the vast Pacific Ocean shortly before two hours Head Brigade stopped for a smoke and looked at the sea - something not very clear and large floated on the surface toward the shore He immediately called a friend, Matt Ratto, took the binoculars and looked closer.
Right at the bottom, below them, the most interesting objects for observation was kupalytsik-nudist. But through the glass of the device Ratto, who took the binoculars from a friend, I saw a huge, dark color, an animal half a kilometer from the previous target. This he had never seen:
thin, thirty meters in length, with three vertical humps! Since autumn day was first observed by Ratto ... sea serpent. He clearly saw the animal stuck his head out of the water and looked around. Then change direction by turning sharply; head went under water again, and the creature leaned farther out to sea. Another witness, a truck driver Steve BIOR, identified by eye movement its speed - 65-70 km per hour. Bio-D, who saw only two humps, creature seemed like a long eel. The five workers in the day saw the same creature, and their descriptions matched in the details - that concerned the size, color and habits. Another witness, Marilyn Martin, probably not wanting to stained its reputation, generally refused to testify in public. But his daughter told him that he could clearly see the monster, and described him as chetyrehgorbuyu creation - the largest of those that he had ever met.
Another witness saw a snake in the day - 19-year-old Roland Kerry. Later, he told reporters that a week ago, had seen this creature and told this to his girlfriend, but she laughed at him. | But now he could see everything perfectly and will not laugh at yourself! |
Three days after the incident in Stinson Beach I saw a group of people like a monster in 600 kilometers to the south, in Costa Mesa. Young Hutchinson, 19-year-old serfist, told that it rose out of the water near the mouth of the river of Santa Ana, just three meters away from him. First Hutchinson refrained from talking about it, believing that he would be considered insane. But, after reading in the newspapers about the case in Marin County, surrendered:
"It was exactly the same as it described the work - long black eel."
Throughout this century the mysterious creation were constantly people around the Pacific coast, but no one could not tell what kind of animal is involved. Scientists are inclined to the version that the case in 1983 - it is the remains of a whale surfaced, glistening in the sunlight. Others felt that it was a herd of porpoises, stretched in a chain. Ratto and Hutchinson rejected these suggestions:
both knew that represent a whales, and were firmly convinced that what they had seen no cetaceans!
Of course, it may well be that the two of them, and others, too, are faced with some already well-known phenomenon, but failed to recognize it. It is not excluded that the case was October 31 and the draw of All Saints' Day, or mass hallucination. Or in the news programs embellished their testimony, but in fact it was a ghost.
On the other hand, the witnesses of Stinson Beach and Costa Mesa really could see the unknown science of marine life, even a representative of an ancient, extinct fauna, as one biologist. It could be any creature distant era, the existence of which science has no idea.
Monster - is, by definition, is something that can not be squeezed into the usual framework of the well-known; too strange, too huge, ridiculous, scary, evil, too dangerous to be real. At the dawn of history, people invented tales of fantastic monsters - huge and secretive creatures, a very rare and little-known. They have captured the imagination of poets, sailors, church leaders, and just ordinary people, attracted charlatans and seekers of fame and easy money. And do these things consistently eluded hunters hiding in the most hidden corners of the planet, in the seas and oceans, rivers and lakes, mountains and forests.
Huge unexplored depths of the seas always inhabited a variety of known and unknown animals. Who just did not draw on its cartographers portulanah - spiny and winged, horned and fanged, with and without tentacles. Some of them, like a giant octopus, moved from the legends and myths headlong into pages of zoological textbooks. Others, such as giant sea snake (it is not clear whether this is a reptile at all?), Waiting for more, it seems, for the hour.
As before, it is believed that the deep continental rivers and lakes are generally recognized habitat huge freshwater monsters, for example, the monster of Loch Ness or mysterious Ogopogo, Shana, Moraga -Many of them are named after the pond, where supposedly live.
While the lake and land monsters hiding in natural shelters, the oceans are themselves a huge unexplored edge, quite inaccessible to study. There may be lurking creatures, are very reluctant to the world or not go into the light of God ... Those whom we rarely see, can only be the microscopic drop of the mysteries of the vast ocean, which we did not drink ever.
Most ocean researchers limit their activities relatively narrow continental shelf surrounding continents. This shelf is 7 percent of all underwater areas and does not give the slightest hint of the topographic diversity of deep-sea regions - continental slopes, deep sea canyons, faults, abyssal desert plateaus. Such plateau, lying at a depth of 3 thousand meters, occupy almost half the surface of the globe. Sometimes they are interrupted crevasses and gorges. One of the most interesting - deep canyon Mindanao, descending to a depth of 9000 meters! Just three kilometers from the center of the depth of the plateau rises the world's largest sredinnookeansky Ridge - 3.5 thousand meters. It stretches for 50 thousand kilometers beneath the surface of the three main oceans.
All that we know about the life of the underwater world - the result of recent research using the latest advances in technology. Using sonar, scientists have created detailed maps of underwater regions of the planet. But it examined only a tiny part of this world, and very few people, what other forms of life can meet the pioneers among the depths of underwater canyons and valleys. Over the last decade opened a lot of "new" aquatics - creatures that have eluded man for thousands of years.
One of the most incredible stories (except, of course, the "classical" and well-known history of the coelacanth) is associated with a giant squid. For thousands of years about it legends, and then for decades he was in oblivion, until it was finally recognized as a specific zoological object. But the giant octopus, so to speak, is "semi-recognized."
While both of these representative of cephalopods (cephalopod) are characterized by long, muscular limbs with suction cups and developed eyes, biologists perceive a clear distinction between ordinary squid and octopus. In the first ten limbs, two of them - especially long, it's tentacles. Squids - active predators, concise, streamlined body that is created for victims of persecution.
Octopus is more rounded, they have eight legs, they are slow, rarely leave their underwater haven. But for centuries the two images of the giant cephalopods are so messed up and so often mixed, which sometimes is difficult to understand who they are. Often, the characters of the ancient myths and folklore are the elements of both creatures and even the characteristics of cetaceans.
The first who described the giant cephalopod was Homer, who lived in the VIII century BC. In his "Odyssey," he describes the terrible monster Scylla, which - despite the odd appearance of six dog heads on six necks of teeth in three rows and twelve feet - most likely, the common octopus in the mythical setting. As this cephalopod, she waits for prey, hiding in a cave. But Scylla teeth in three rows resemble rows of suckers squid, octopus rather than the mouth.
Medusa is another monster from Greek mythology, can also be a giant cephalopods. Her hair is the matted snakes - obviously limbs that and squid, and octopus are growing directly from the scalp. The eyes of Medusa that turns people into stone, reminiscent of great evil, almost human eyes a giant squid or octopus huge. After a dramatic meeting with diver octopus poor boy told that he was almost hypnotized - so strongly affected him this look, "concentrated in itself all the hatred and threat." Only a sudden movement of the animal withdrew the plunger out of his stupor and in fact saved him.
In the period preceding the Middle Ages, the giant cephalopods reappeared, already in conjunction with the whale as "the island of the Beast" - so huge that inexperienced sailors confused it to the mainland, and only landed on it with horror convinced that the earth is something underneath moves. Scandinavian character kraken was first mentioned in the manuscript around the year 1000 and continues to live in the northern sagas over the centuries.
One the most expressive legend tells of a bishop, we stumbled on the island until they were never visible, and ordered his rowers to row it. He landed on it and served a prayer at the opening of a new earth. When he pulled away, it was surprised to see that the island has disappeared!
Centuries later, in 1852, the other Scandinavian priest has published a book about sea monsters. In his "Natural History of Norway" Erik Ludvigsen Pontoppidan, bishop of Bergen, describes the Kraken as "a large, flat and with many arms or branches." Moving back into the circle was being half English miles, and was like, at first glance, a few separate islands, and his hands reached the size of an average-sized ship masts. Pontoppidan further reported that the monster could sink big ships - the property attributed to long giant squid.
At the beginning of the last century, a giant cephalopod require academic sacrifice - at least figuratively. French naturalist Pierre Denys de Montfort, attracted by rumors of sea monsters, conducted a thorough analysis of the messages, as well as food residue, taken out of the stomachs of blue whales. In 1802 he published his "Natural History of shellfish," but this work is only braked further research, it does not having advanced. Denis de Montfort was accused of unfair selection of material, in the pursuit of sensationalism and intentional publication of exciting illustrations. The scientific world has subjected him ostracized and turned away from the researcher, ended his days in poverty in a roadside ditch.
Yet life went on. In mid-century Danish zoologist Johan Iapetus Stenstrup offered readers an essay about the Kraken, collecting all the accumulated information - certificates and drawings. In 1842, he gave a presentation at a meeting of the Scandinavian Society Naturalis-t'ov. By the time Stenstrupa reputation as a scientist has been considerably tarnished. He denied that the man and the mammoth lived in the same epoch, and it was waiting for the same ignominious end as de Montfort. But he was luckier. By this time began to appear scientific evidence, and managed to get Stenstrupu throat and beak of a giant squid washed up on the coast of Denmark in 1853. Four years later he published a scientific description of the species.
So the creature was named.
But despite this, these data continue to remain in doubt. And then there was the sensational, but it is real evidence. November 30, 1861 the French gunboat "Alekton" stumbled upon a giant squid near the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands). The commander Lieutenant Frederic Bouyer Maria decided to sing-1 his mother. One of his companions shot at the monster, but missed, j After a long struggle, he still managed to harpoon and tighten the rope around the neck I. However, when they tried to raise the body on the deck, it | It slipped and fallen in all water, except tail. When "Alekton" i came to Tenerife, Bouyer has shown a fragment of the tail to the French con | Sulu and made an official statement in the Naval Office, j
A month later, a message about the incident was presented fran-i tsuzskoy Academy of Sciences. In the majority of skeptics it is not produced long 'zhnogo impressions, but in the 70s of last century near the shores of Newfoundland and Labrador events took place, by which the existence of giant squid has been questioned. For unknown reasons, a huge number of these creatures was to die and their bodies pave the islands coast. Many of them were the prey of hungry dogs and fish, but also the science gathered their harvest.
One of the largest squid ever recognized by science, was a monster, appeared off the coast of Thimble-Tickle, Newfoundland, in 1878. November 2 Sperring Stephen and his two companions were fishing and suddenly spotted near the shore huge thing. Assuming that it is a fragment of a sunken ship, they came and found stirring in the mud, not had time to go deep to ebb cephalopod with glassy eyes. The three men picked up helpless creature hook and dragged to the shore, where he was hanged on the tree, so it is not crawled back into the sea. This remarkable instance have a length of about 6 meters and 10-meter long tentacles. His eyes were 9 cm in diameter, suction cups - 8 centimeters. Fishermen chopped it to feed the dogs, but before that the squid has been carefully examined by the local priest Moses Garvey, who wrote about the discovery in the Boston newspaper.
Oceans from time to time is the world of monsters, similar to the beast-of Thimble Tickle. 9-inch trace of suckers found on the body of the whale seems to be evidence of the existence of the octopus of more than 30 meters in length. But it's not very strong evidence, as the track can grow with a whale ...
At the beginning of the XIX century, another mysterious sea monster - the sea snakes - survived his finest hour. Between 6 and 23 August 1817 more than a hundred reputed witnesses saw a huge sea monster, to parade near the port of Gloucester, Massachusetts. Since the time of skepticism markedly diminished, the scientific world reacted to the reports with great interest.
August 14 Monster revealed himself to a group of 20-30 people, among whom was the magistrate Gloucester Lonson Nash. On the same day several boats set off to chase the monster, and in the afternoon the ship's carpenter Matthew Gaffney spotted the "strange marine animal, like a reptile." He saw only a part of it for about 10 meters, carefully aimed his gun and fired. Gaffney believed that he was, but the animal, it seems, did not show concern. It is rather abruptly turned to the boat, and were in it feared that the creature attacked. But instead it plunged into the water like a stone, passed under the boat and came up on the other side, continuing to frolic without paying the slightest attention to the people. Later Gaffney said that the monster with smooth skin and dark in color, with white throat and belly. It was really huge - about 12 meters long, and the size of the head with the barrel desyatilitrovy. Moving vertically, like a caterpillar, it develops a speed of 35 to 50 kilometers per hour.
These and subsequent testimony became the object of a thorough investigation of the special committee of the Linnean Society of New England. Under the direction of this society magistrate Nash released a questionnaire of 25 points and collected a significant amount of evidence firsthand. Most evidence coincided with the description Gaffney, moreover, they contain additional information. Other reports had new information, such as multihump back (up to ten humps) and that it moves through vertical meanders. The head is protruding out of the water for 12-24 centimeters, like a crocodile or turtle.
Modern authorities agreed that Gloucester monster can not be a snake - a reptile can not squirm upright and straight away under the water. But then the Linnean Society did not have such information. Believing in the fact that the sea serpent - the reptile, community members decided that it must certainly lay eggs somewhere on the coast. After all, there were also reports that being chosen on the sand in the harbor! This information is only added fuel to the fire. Eggs, however, are not found, but two guys ran into some meter creature that looked like a black snake with humps on its back. Linnaean Society immediately issued a statement: "This is a baby!"
Creating been studied and baptized Scoliophis stianticus - Atlantic humpbacked snake. She was the subject of numerous publications in scientific periodicals.
In Europe, reacted to this discovery far more skeptical, and after some time, the French zoologist Charles-Alexandre Le Syuer found that Scoliophis - not that other, as usual with a snake twisted due to illness or injury to the spine. Scientists have long mocked their American counterparts, and all the events of Gloucester thus became discredited, thereby harming the history of j sea serpent as a whole. 1
Meanwhile, like sea creatures continued to meet at the coasts of New England and Canada, but it took many years before people began to treat such evidence seriously again.
These "pads" pushed away serious people from the study of mysterious sea creatures. But then came 1848, and with him there is evidence of several British naval officers who violate the skepticism of European scholars.
August 6 Her Majesty's ship "Daedalus" was near the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Africa. Suddenly, the midshipman saw something in the sea, rapidly approaching the sailboat. He immediately put the officers in popularity. Seven crew members, including the captain of the ship of Peter MacKay, well spotted what they called a giant sea serpent. Being visible part had a length of over 20 meters in diameter, but not more than 30 centimeters. The color was dark brown, yellowish-white on the throat with something like a mane, like a beam of algae at the end. Moving at a speed of 18-20 kilometers per hour, it seems, did not make crimps - neither vertical nor horizontal, or even made visible to the eye jerks. "It has always kept his head like a snake, three feet from the surface, and never strayed off course."
When the "Daedalus" and returned to Plymouth on this case, the message appeared in the London "Times", the Lords of the Admiralty demanded a detailed report. McKay wrote the official report, and he was released. Rose noise. Since the description has been typical in the message believed. McKay and his officers had a reputation for honest people, but the British, who for so long fed hoaxes could not "immediately" to believe in the monster. Unable to find any argument against this evidence, skeptics have turned to their usual arguments, and after a while broke scientific debate.
Doubts called themselves the testimony of witnesses. Even if their reputation was beyond suspicion, the scientific potential is clearly limited. The sailors, priests, ordinary travelers often do not have the skills of scientific observation, could not determine the value and nature of what they see why, in spite of centuries of incoming messages from around the world, no scientist is not seriously interested in the sea monster.
But the situation changed dramatically in 1905, when two respected naturalists, members of the Zoological Society of London finally saw a huge, unknown to science sea monster.
December 7 naturalists EJ. B. Meade-Waldo and Michael J.. Nicholl cruised on a yacht Prince Kroufordskogo "Valhalla" along the coast of the Brazilian state of Paraiba. Suddenly Mid-Waldo noticed a wide, about two meters long, fin cut the water a hundred yards from the ship. Looking closely, he saw the body of impressive size under the water surface. Just as he pulled out the binoculars, above the water there is a huge head and neck. Only the visible part of the neck was about two and a half meters in length and width with a person of average fatness. The head was appropriate size and looked like a turtle, and his eyes, too; and head and neck from the top were dark brown and become whitish down.
Certificate Nicoll was like watching a Mid-Wald with a single caveat: according to him, it was a mammal, not a reptile, though, as he claimed, he "does not guarantee the accuracy."
Both of these messages are not significantly different from many others, but they are less remaining disputed by scientists. And yet Mid-Val-up and Nicholl were a rare exception to the rule. Surrounded by myths monster always brought on much ridicule on those who saw and described many of the past forever repudiated their statements flatly denying everything they saw. Now even impossible to calculate how many observations have not brought any results for one reason, that the witnesses of what happened, "basking in the sun too long" or "enough surpluses."
As soon as steam ships sailing supplanted messages of unknown or obscure animals seen on the high seas have become less and less to do. Captains of ships would no longer need to be removed from the beaten paths of the ocean, and this, according to some of cryptozoology, the reason that the evidence was less. The noise of the engines for certain animals warned of approaching danger. According to the famous Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl, "we often furrow the sea with the included engines, pounding pistons, water and foaming at our sides; then we go back the same way and declare that the range of the ocean can not see anything! "So there is nothing surprising in the fact that these days the sea serpent often seen from the shore or from small sudenyshek plying along the coastline. Maybe that's why the California coast so attractive today for the monster. Here, apart from being indefinite,
seen in 1983, Stinson Beach and Costa Mesa, visited and other mysterious visitors: in San Martin there was something called the Bo-Bo, Montreuil visited the old man, and San Clemente, visited the eponymous monster, the most famous of them all.
First introduced between 1914 and 1919, it is the creation entered again into the water, foam exterior Santa Barbara Strait between the islands of San Clemente and Santa Catalina. Over the years, members of the American Club "Tuna" sport fishing is often seen monster and always informed about it, thereby increasing the glory of your club. Their descriptions were so similar that one of the reporters said: "It's like a gramophone record and each witness will scroll through it again and again." But, as a journalist, of all people, he asked one by one, "and none of them did not know that I talk with others about the same monster." Skeptics could only wonder how members of the club in detail for hours discussing the most incredible story of their lives, while their descriptions are not merged into a single one-piece version - but the question is still open.
Until the mid-1960s, all posts had one thing in common - they were subjective oral reports of those who claimed to have seen the monster. And in 1965 there was a different kind of proof. French photographer Robert Le Serrek said that he managed to make the first real pictures of a sea serpent. According to his story, the meeting took place off the coast of Queensland, Australia, December 12, 1964. He silently sailed on a boat with family and friend Henk de Jong at bay Stoynheyven, when his wife noticed a huge elongated object on the sandy bottom in less than one meter eighty centimeters from the surface of the water. De Jong thought at first that it was a large sunken tree trunk, but then it became clear: it is a living being, it wriggled like a giant tadpole with a large head and converging tapered snake body. Le Serrek took a few pictures and then drove to his motorboat closer and began to take off camera. Now it became discernible five-foot laceration on the back and wide head, resembling a snake.
At this point, the children of Le Serreka scared to death. Adults have brought them to the shore on the boat, while they themselves continued observation. Since there remained motionless - was seriously injured, or even dead - they crept closer, spotted two eyes at the top of the head and evenly brown stripes running along the black body. Le Serrek other thinking how to get him to move, but they were afraid that it may turn the boat. Yet we dare to dive to get a better look at all, with the camera for underwater photography and scuba same gun.
Under the water was darker than the top, and at a distance of 6 meters could not see. One thing was clear - it is a real giant - from 25 to 30 meters in length and meter jaws and chetyrehsantimetro-Vym eyes are closed eyelids seemed to pale green. Suddenly, when Le Serrek started filming, the monster suddenly slightly opened mouth and slowly, with the threat, he turned towards the people. Friends quickly surfaced. Quickly climbing into the boat, they saw that the animal was gone. Le Serreka wife saw it swam towards the open sea, making horizontal twists - typical for eel or reptiles, but not for a mammal.
In earlier times, naturalists tried to write down all sea snakes in a single zoological registry. Today, almost all the researchers involved in maritime riddles, convinced that these beings belong to different species. What is seen, for example, with the yacht "Valhalla", just like the San klementskogo monster, like an eel on jellyfish. Not all agree that it is all about reptiles. Most likely, this is not a reptile simply by the term "sea serpent" - a tribute to the good tradition.
Belgian scientist Bernard Heuvelmans made a classification of a wide variety of messages. Not every scientist and not even every creep-tozoolog agree with his classification, but without exception, bow to his titanic work. For ten years Eyvelmans collected and analyzed 587 cases, which he took to the real and false random observations of sea snake in any form. Throwing errors, hoaxes and lengthy descriptions, he singled out the characteristics of the nine distinct categories snake: long-necked "sea horse" multihump, "with lots of fins", giant otter, giant eel, sea mammal, "the father-of-turtles" and "zheltobryuh ".
Some experts, including the most Eyvelmansa believe that it is at least several unidentified marine animals, and most likely - a giant eel. Others are in favor zeglodona, primitive whale extinct creatures whose remains were used for the construction of the aforementioned contact "psevdozmeya" big hoax of the XIX century. The rest tend to the conclusion that it is representative of the kind of long-unresolved long-necked northern leopard seals (pinnipeds living in Antarctica).
One of the most popular and stable versions - sea serpent - long-necked dinosaurs surviving variation, the carcass of one of them caught the Japanese trawler. In fact, the coelacanth discovery proved that supposedly extinct animals can easily live up to the present day. But let plesiosaur is a bit "different" (it was described as a snake swallowed a barrel), but because he could not "behave differently", and this is sure the majority of experts. He was very small, the neck did not differ special mobility. Vertical twists were apparently not under force, and speed was not the one that long-necked sea serpents ...
Skeptics tend to a variety of explanations for the phenomenon of sea serpent. Classic dates back as far as 1803, and is alive to this day, although it has undergone temporary changes. For example, take into account the ability to curl into rings. Large land snake is very suited to these descriptions, especially pythons ... But even if they were large enough to be sea serpents, they obviously would have to adapt to the harsh northern climate. And they squirm upright and not under force, as it has successfully done by our characters.
Another popular explanation - herring king, fearsome, like a snake inhabitant of the oceans, silver, with bright red fins, starting right from the head, and pectoral fins paddlelike. Although the herring kings and reach a length of 10 meters, their habits (inability to vertical meandering and bright color) makes them quite different from sea serpents.
The list of candidates for the title of sea snake is very long and includes even logs and seaweed.
The debate seems to be going on among the Orthodox, requiring solid physical evidence, and less aggressive opponents, asking for at least a fragment of a study. "Many people base their arguments on the basis of fragile accidental evidence - written Leblon and Siebert in his work, trying to protect the sea serpent - and narrow-minded orthodox repeat and repeat, that could not be more in the nature of large of undiscovered animals and that the sea serpent - hallucination error or fruit beliefs. " But scientists still recognize: "To all believed, not enough yet one - body. It is not. And it is a fact "