Testimonies of Christ
Interestingly evidence Asia Minor Bishop Papias Gierapolskogo, jealously was collected in the first half of the second century by word of mouth legend church elders about the apostles and Jesus: "Matthew wrote in Hebrew, the sayings of the Lord, and the rest transferred them who as best I could» (Eus HE III.39..: 16). The fact that Matthew wrote the Gospel "in Hebrew," that is, in all probability, to the then Aramaic, and later confirmed by the teachers of the Church (Iren Haer III.1:.. 1), explaining that he did so in the interests of the Palestinian Christians, when about to leave the Jews to other peoples (Eus HE III.24: 6..): "Matthew was originally preached to the Jews; Having met the same to other nations, he gave them his Gospel; recallable by them, he left them to return their Scriptures themselves. "
On this occasion, one of the famous Church Fathers, translator of the Bible into Latin (Vulgata), Jerome (347 - 419), points (Hier Matth.12: 13.) That no one knows who is "Jewish" gospel has been translated into Greek language; ie by writing that Papias attributed to Matthew, everything went without saying now known original of the Gospel of Matthew, and believed that it is the Greek translation, made by an unknown person.
But Papias in the cited sentence mentions only the "sayings" ( "logiyah"), written by the Apostle Matthew, and says nothing about the life of Jesus. And so we have every reason to admit that, in general, no one knows is whether our Matthew translated from Aramaic, although printing iudeonatsionalnosti it certainly felt (anywhere genealogy (Mf.1: 1-17), testifying to the origin of Jesus from David and Abraham does not extend to such a high degree to the fore and so strongly emphasizes the fact that Jesus did not come for the violations, and to fulfill the Law (Matthew 5: 17) and in summing, said during the first administration of the Twelve. Jesus forbids them to turn to the Gentiles and Samaritans (Mf.10: 5).
But there is no doubt that the last processing Matthew perfected in a comparatively late epoch and in non-Jewish circles. This convinces the mandate of the baptism (Matt.28: 19), in which the full baptismal formula in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit is the prototype of the Constantinople of the dogma of the Trinity of God, while in the Acts of the Apostles to baptize simply stated only in the name of Jesus (Acts. 2:38).
In addition, in the ancient Sinai-Syriac manuscripts (Sinaitic Syriac) fundamentally different reading verse 16 of chapter 1 of the Gospel of Matthew. In the canon: "Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus." And in the Syrian version: "Jacob begat Joseph; Joseph, who was betrothed to the Virgin Mary, gave birth to Jesus who is called Christ. " Probably, here it preserved the old version, referring to the beginning of the II century, when there was established the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.
Excluding interpolation, Matthew, appears to have been created in the period between 81 and 94 years. Due to the fact that in the Gospel there is a hint about the persecution of Christians (Mf.10: 18), the time of his writing can be attributed to the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81 - 96), but about creating a place of Matthew scientists have no single point of view .
The Gospel of Mark.
Mark, or, more precisely, Markus (by Marcus), also called John, according to legend, was the son of Mary, which had a house in Jerusalem, which was often the apostle Peter (Acts 12: 12-17). Author First Letter of Peter insists that the Apostle Mark reportedly even called "son" (1 Petr.5: 13).
By origin, John was a Jew, "the circumcision" (Col.4: 10-11) and a close relative of Barnabas (Col.4: 10), the same Hellenist from Cyprus (Acts 4: 36), which, together with the apostle Paul made several missionary journeys. Mark accompanied them both traveling to Cyprus and Asia Minor, where he quarreled with Paul (Acts 12: 25; 13: 5,13; 15: 37-39).
After about ten years, already at Herone Marc in Rome (Col.4:. 10; cf. 2 Timothy 4: 11) met the apostle Peter (1 Petr.5: 13) and became his translator, as Peter did not know any another language besides Aramaic (Iren Haer III.1:.. 1; Eus HE V.8..). But in Rome, the apostle was crucified - crucified upside down, because Peter thought himself unworthy to die the same way as the Master (cf. In.21: 18-19.). There is also a tradition that Mark went on to become a bishop in Apolloniade and died in 62 (Eus. HE. II.24) ,. Here, in principle, all that is known about John-Mark of church tradition.
Regarding the Gospel of Mark witness speaks the same Papias. That's it from the words of Prester John notes: "Mark, the former interpreter of Peter, wrote down, as I remember exactly, though not in order, all that is said and done the Christ, for he is not himself heard and accompanied the Lord and heard and accompanied it, as I said, Peter, who preached, applying to the circumstances, and did not intend to repeat the procedure all the conversation of the Lord, so that the brand can not be blamed if he wrote down some things as remembered; he cared only about making do not forget and do not distort the fact that he had heard »(Eus HE III.35:.. 15)
In the fragments of the letter of Clement of Alexandria (. Ca 200 g) states that were in use three of the Gospel of Mark: 1) The canonical; 2) "forged", written by a certain preacher named Carpocrates; and 3) the secret Gospel allegedly written by Mark for the "elite» (Filson T. V. New Greek and Coptic Gospel Manuscripts -.. Biblical Archeologist 1961 XXIV I, p 6)...
Mark was intended primarily for Christians of pagan origin, and not for the Jewish Christians. This, for example, demonstrated by the fact that in the text Aramaic expression translated into Greek (Mk.5: 41; 7:34; 15:34), and speaking of the customs and rituals associated with Judaism, the author thought it necessary to explain their meaning (Mk.7: 3-4), which, of course, it would be unnecessary for iudeohristian. Mark compared with the book of Matthew, less cluttered with the details of sectarian tension. Of the three synoptic Gospels is the oldest and original document (cf. Mk.15:. Mf.27 23 and 34).
Requisite also be noted that verses 9 - 20 Chapter 16 is a later interpolation. These poems, called in the science clause (from the Latin "clausula" -. "Finally", "end"), neither in the Vatican nor in Sinai, or in other authoritative codes.
The assumption is that the Gospel of Mark came to Rome, to some extent confirmed by the fact that in the Greek text of the Gospel we meet so many Latinisms, which we can not find in any other book of the Bible (eg, instead of the Greek hekatontarchos (Matt. 27: 5), the Latin analogue kentyrion = centurio (Mk.15: 39,45)). However, there is a view that the Mark appeared in Syria. Researchers disagree on the definition of the date of creation of the Gospel of Mark. We can assume that it was created in the period between 60 and 70 years, that is, before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, because it is from this event will be associated "end of the age" (Mk.13: 2.4).
The belief that the Gospel of Mark came last in the system, forecasters, and the author simply cut the Gospel of Matthew and Luke, does not hold water. The fact that, basically, where the first and third Gospel agree with each other, where they agree and Mark, and vice versa, where the first and third evangelists diverge narratives they diverge and second evangelist (more usually absent on these facts to Mark). It is easier to assume that the authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke had before them the gospel of Markovo, because we assume the opposite is almost impossible - is unlikely to Mark at reduction would be guided by the consideration that the post in his work, it is necessary only that enlist the support of both the Gospels.
After quote: "Matthew published among the Jews in their own language in the Gospel while Peter and Paul preached the gospel in Rome and founded the ecclesia. On their departure (. Death - RH) Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, gave us in writing what was preached by Peter "- Irenaeus continued:" And Luke, Paul's companion, outlined in the book preached to them (Paul -. RH) the gospel »(Iren Haer III.1:.. 1). So we turn to the Gospel of Luke
The Gospel of Luke.
It is unlikely that he, the apostle Paul could decorate their teachings any memories of the life of Jesus, for he turned to the Christian faith after the death of the Founder. When Paul said: "according to my gospel" (Rom 2:. 16; cf. 2 Tim.2: 8), - then, of course, he was referring to the gospel by word of mouth rather than any work written by him.
If you wonder why the third Gospel is attributed to Luke and why he, the Evangelist, is considered companion of Paul, the answer to this question appears in the book of Acts, for in this work, the narrator places acts as a companion of Paul (Acts. 16: 10-17; 20: 5-15; 21: 1-18; 27: 1-28,37). And since the same companion of Paul the Apostle was accompanied to Rome and since the letters written, perhaps Paul during his Roman imprisonment, incidentally mentions the "Luke, the beloved physician" (Col.4: 14; Fil.24; cf. . 2 Timothy 4: 10), and that was the double assumption that it was Luke was the companion of Paul, and that he, Luke, the author of the Acts of the apostles, and, consequently, of the Gospel, as the preamble to both works.
The fact that the author was a physician, it is clear from the text of his works, in which we find a lot of medical terms (for example, «hydropikos» (Lk.14: 2), «mania» (Acts 26: 24), and others.), Corresponding to terminology such ancient physicians like Hippocrates and Dioscorides. From the text of the Gospel of Luke as it is clear that the author was well acquainted with Greek and Roman literature. He knew the literary canon of the time and in accordance with them prefaced their works introductions.
Apparently, Luke was a citizen of Syrian Antioch, doctor, educated Hellene who took the Christian faith (Eus HE III.4:.. 6). However, it is possible that he was not from Antioch, and from Philip (Renan E. J. Apostles - SPb., 1906, page 10 -.. 14). It has been suggested that Luke was volnootpuschennikom, which granted freedom to some wealthy family (maybe kratistos Teofilos), because the name of Lucas - frequent slave nickname of Lucanus.
Confirmation that Luke was not a Jew, can be considered the fact that he does not know the topography of Palestine, all mixes it with Judea (Luke 23: 5); He thinks that it is possible to pass from Capernaum to Jerusalem between Samaria and Galilee (Lk.17: 11); Jerusalem temple he represented something of an oratorio, which go to pray (Luke 2: 37; 18:10; 24:53); Luke also no words and proper names of Semitic origin - no Gethsemane, or even Calvary (Luke 23: 33; cf. Mk.15: 22; Mf.27: 33.).
The so-called Antimarkionskom prologue (.. 2nd floor in II) on this occasion said: "Luke - a Syrian, a native of Antioch, a doctor, a disciple of the Apostles. He later followed Paul until his martyrdom. Perfectly serving the Lord, he had a wife and children. Filled with the Holy Spirit, he died in Boeotia in the age of eighty-four years. As has already been written in the Gospel: in the West - Matthew, Italy - Mark, then Luke through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit wrote the gospel in Achaia »(Leon-Dufour X. Les Evangiles synoptiques - Robert A., Feuillet A. Introduction a. la Bible:. Vol 2. Tournai, 1959, p 253)..
Luke conspicuous absence of any mention of Paul's letters, as they are known, were long forgotten and only reappeared in '95 (Kosidowsky Z. The Bible; The Tale of evangelists). Based on the foregoing, it can be argued, that the Gospel of Luke was created in the period between 82 and 94 years. We note in passing that the German theologian O. Pfleiderer (1839 - 1908) came to the conclusion that "The Gospel of Luke tells nothing about the supernatural birth of Jesus," the story of the virgin birth came only later and was introduced into the text by inserting the verses 1: 34 et seq. and words like thought in verse 3:23.
The Gospel of John.
The Apostle John Zebedee for his missionary work was exiled by the Roman authorities on the island of Patmos (Rev. 1: 9), and then, perhaps during the reign of Herve (96 - 98), moved to the city of Ephesus (Eus HE III.20: 9..) - the capital of the province of Assiya in Asia Minor - and died in the reign of Trajan (98 - 117) (Iren Haer II.22: 5..).
Polycarp, a close disciple of John, often refers to the Synoptics, in his letter to the Philippians does hint that he is familiar with the Gospel of John. Papias, also adjoining the school of John, and if not his former pupil, according to Irenaeus (Iren Haer V.33:.. 4), communicated with his immediate disciples - Papias, collecting oral stories about Jesus did not say, far as we know, not a single word about the "life of Jesus", written by the apostle John, and this - a fact all the more significant that Papias, bishop of Asia Minor, and as a friend of Polycarp (Iren Haer V.33: 4..), would have detailed information the apostle, who spent many years in Ephesus.
The first mention that the Apostle John wrote his Gospel at Ephesus, refers to the 70-th years of the II century. Thus, Irenaeus after mentioning that Luke wrote his Gospel with the words of Paul, says: "After John, the disciple of the Lord, was reclining on his breast (John 13:. 23.25; 21:20 - BC), also He published the Gospel during his stay in Ephesus of Asia »(Iren Haer III.1: 1; Eus HE V.8:.. 4..). However, Irenaeus does not explain whether he heard about it from Polycarp, a teacher and student of John (Iren Haer II.2: 5; Eus HE V.23,24,25,29,42....). Around the same time, Bishop Theophilus of Antioch (.. Eus HE IV.24: 1) also spoke positively, that the author of the fourth Gospel - the Apostle John (Theophilos Ad Autolycum II.22; see Theophilus, bishop of Antioch To Autolycus..... - M., 1865). And it's the same thing about 200 (?), Confirmed the Canon Muratori.
However, Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus HE VII.25:.. 1-27) have found full heterogeneity of the Gospel of John and the Apocalypse (Revelation of John), and modern science has proven that when the apostle John is the author of the Gospel, that he could not be the author of the Apocalypse , and vice versa. From the religious point of view, these books occupy the opposite poles, which can take only the New Testament writings. Apocalypse, in which paganism, that is something that does not belong to the Jews, it is the beginning of anti-Christian (Rev.2: 9; 3: 9), is the most Judaic OF NEW book of the covenant, while the author of the Gospel of John, in which the word "Jew "almost a synonym for" enemy of God ", is alien to Judaism even more than the apostle Paul. It is hard to imagine a stronger contrast than that which exists between the author of the Apocalypse, who sees in Jerusalem, while the "new", the center of the kingdom of Christ (Otk.21:. 2.10 et seq), and the author of the fourth Gospel, in which Jesus Jerusalem rejects the significance and Mount Gerizim, and encourages the worship of God "in spirit and truth" (John 4: 21,23).
If you remember about the two brothers, the children of Zebedee, and bring down fire from heaven on the Samaritan village (Luke 9: 54), and given them the nickname of the Sons of Thunder (Mk.3: 17), we can safely assume that the zeal and fervor were characteristic trait the two brothers, which is found in the author of the Apocalypse, tells the story of the fiery lake of boiling sulfur (Otk.19: 20; 20: 10,14-15; 21: 8). John probably differed extreme intolerance, which, for example, showed, according to the Gospels, in their protest against the man, cast out demons in Jesus' name (Mk.9: 38; Luke 9: 49). If you believe Irenaeus, who, referring to Polycarp, claims that John belonged to the fanatical hatred of the heretic Cerinthus, "There are those who heard him (Polycarp - AD.), John, the disciple of the Lord came into the bath and saw in it Cerinthus, ran without myvshis, from the bath and said, "Run away, so as not to fall bath, for it the enemy of truth - Cerinthus" »(Iren Haer III.3: 4; cp Eus HE III.28..... 6), - that, therefore, the above-noted trait preserved by John and in his old age.
Proof neapostolskogo origin of the fourth Gospel can serve as preserved in Asia Minor story told to us by Eusebius, referring to the letter of Irenaeus to the Roman bishop Victor in the second half of the second century, there was disagreement between the Christian communities of Asia Minor and Rome over when to celebrate Easter Eucharist . In this dispute, which was first discussed by about 160 years, the Roman community was expressed for the right to celebrate Easter on the Sunday following the Jewish Passover; Polycarp, in contrast, defended Asia Minor the custom of celebrating Easter on the day on which the Jews ate their Passover lamb, that is, the 14th of Nisan (in practice, after sunset, the Jews considered it has already come the 15th day of Nisan); Polycarp while referring to the fact that on this day he was celebrating Easter, "living with John, our Lord's disciple» (Eus. HE. V.24). However, according to the Fourth Gospel, Jesus ate the Passover not before his death, and the last calendar day vecheryu arranged earlier. Therefore, the author of this Gospel had no reason to insist on the celebration of the Eucharist on a day on which, according to him, Jesus did not eat in the evening, and suffered and died. Haoborot, "rule" John, as evidenced by Polycarp, consistent with what is reported in the first three Gospels.
Time the Gospel of John is determined by a period of 95 to 100 years., Although there is a view that it appeared one of the first with respect to the Gospels, including the synoptic, because in it, except the coincidence with the oldest in the Synoptics system of the Gospel of Mark, there coincidence, not excluding of phrase, with the Dead Sea Scrolls, which Christians could be found, perhaps, only to the 73 years. Hekotorye part of John's Gospel was probably added on later - that the whole 21th chapter verses 20: 30-31 represent, apparently ending the ancient gospel. Many other places are traces urezok and amendments: In.7 verses: 12:33 22 and owned, apparently, the same hand that In.21 verse 19 (see also:. John 3: 22 and John 4: 2).
In 1920, in Egypt, Bernard P. Grenfell (Bernard P. Grenfell) was discovered by a small papyrus fragment of the Gospel of John. Sheet size of this fragment is as small (64 to 89 mm), as well as its volume (only five verses of chapter 18: 31-33 and 37-38). However, this fragment of papyrus (P52) is the oldest list OF NEW covenant known to date. He comes, obviously, from Oxyrhynchus and dated to around 130 a year. That is, by this time John had already spread and reverence.