In 1961, the scientific world had spread the news of an archaeological sensation. No, the great discovery of thunder sounded not from Egypt or Mesopotamia. An unexpected finding was discovered in Transylvania, in a small Romanian village Terterii. What struck erudite men of science of antiquities? Perhaps, the scientists stumbled upon a rich burial like Tutankhamen's tomb? Or in front of them appeared a masterpiece of ancient art? Nothing like this. The general excitement caused three tiny clay table. For they were covered with mysterious patterned signs, strikingly reminiscent (as noted by the author himself has an outstanding discovery, the Romanian archaeologist N. Vlas) Sumerian pictographic writing the end of IV millennium BC. e.
But archaeologists waiting for another surprise. Tablets were found in the 1000 years older than the Sumerian! It remained only to guess: how about 7000 years ago, far beyond the famous ancient eastern civilizations, where he was not expected, found itself the oldest (at present) in the history of mankind a letter?
The Sumerians in Transylvania?
In 1965, German Sumerologist Adam Falkenshtein suggested that writing originated in Terterii under the influence of Sumer. He said MS Hood, proving that terteriyskie signs do not have any relation to the script. He argued that the Sumerian merchants once visited Transylvania, here are some of their plates and were copied by the natives. Of course, the meaning is clear plates terteriytsam was not, nevertheless, it did not prevent them to use them in religious ceremonies.
No doubt, the idea of Huda and Falkenstein original, but there is in them, and weaknesses. How to explain the gap between the appearance of a millennium terteriyskih and Sumerian tablets? And is it possible to copy that does not yet exist? Other experts associated with Crete terteriyskuyu writing, but here in time failure has already reached two thousand years. It does not remain without attention and the opening of classes N. us. On the instructions of the doctor of historical sciences T. Passek question about the visit of the Sumerians in Transylvania investigating a young archaeologist V. Titov. Alas, a consensus about the nature of terteriyskoy puzzle did not come. However, the expert-Sumerologist A.
Kifishin by analyzing the accumulated material, I came to the conclusions:
1. Terteriyskie signs - Shard widespread writing systems of local origin.
2. The text lists a plate of six ancient totems, coinciding with the "list" from the Sumerian city Jemdet Nasr, as well as printing of burial related to Hungarian culture Keresh.
3. Signs on the plate should be read in a circle counterclockwise.
4. The content of the inscriptions (if it is read in Sumerian), confirmed the discovery in the same Terterii dismembered corpse of a man.
5. Name of the local god Shaue identical to the Sumerian god Usmu. This label has been translated as follows: "In the fortieth reign for God on the lips of Shaue Elder ritual burned. This is the tenth. "
So what still fraught terteriyskie tablets? The direct answer is no. But it is clear: a study of the whole complex of cultural monuments Turdash Vinci (namely, her concern and Terteriya) may bring us closer to solving the mystery of the three clay tablets.
Cases of bygone days:
The river banks on which Burlacha ships, overgrown with grass ...
The military road that chariots were rolling, overgrown with grass crying ...
in the city housing turned into ruins.
( "Curse of Akkad" From the Sumerian poem)
Twenty kilometers from the hill is Terterii Turdash. In its bowels buried ancient settlement of farmers of the Neolithic period. Hill unearthed from the end of the last century, but never fully Dispense. Even then attracted the attention of archaeologists pictographic signs, drawn by the wreckage of the vessels. The same signs on the shards found in a related Turdashu Neolithic settlement of Vinca in Yugoslavia. Then the scientists have found signs of the stigma simple vessels owners. Then turdashskomu hill out of luck: the stream, changing its course, almost washed it. In 1961, archaeologists have appeared on the hill Terterii.
Work of scientists is nearing completion; It seemed Terteriya opened all its secrets ... And suddenly a pit filled with ash was found at the lowest layer of the hill. At the bottom - statues of ancient gods, bracelet of seashells ... and three small clay tablets covered with pictographic characters. Near found dismembered and charred bones of an adult.
When the excitement died down, scientists have carefully examined the small plates. The two had a rectangular shape, and the third was round. In a circular and a large rectangular plates in the center is a round through-hole. Careful studies have shown that tablets are made from local clay. Signs applied on one side only. writing technique of ancient terteriytsev was very simple: risunchatye signs scratched with a sharp object on the damp clay, and then the plate was burned. Get caught these signs back in the Two Rivers, and no one would not be surprised. But the Sumerian tablets in Transylvania! This is amazing. And then we remember the forgotten signs on shards Turdash Vinci. Compare them with terteriyskimi: the resemblance was ochevmdnym. And that says a lot. Writing Terterii did not come out of nowhere, and was part of the common mid-VI - the beginning of V millennium BC. e. pictographic writing Vinci Balkan culture.
The first agricultural settlements appeared in the Balkans in VI millennium BC. e., and a thousand years engaged in farming on the entire territory of South-Eastern and Central Europe. As the first farmers lived? At first they lived in mud huts, cultivated the land with stone tools. The main crop was sown barley. Gradually changed the appearance of the settlement. By the end of V millennium BC. e. there are the first houses made of mud. Houses were built very simple: to put a frame made of wooden poles, it adjusts to the walls, woven from thin rods, which are then smeared with clay. Heated dwellings vaulted ovens. Is not such a house is very similar to Ukrainian hut? When he was dilapidated, it demolished, leveled the place and built a new one. Thus, the ancient village gradually grew up. There were a century, farmers, and gradually began to master axes and other tools made of copper.
And it looked like the ancient inhabitants of Transylvania? Numerous statues found during excavations, can partially recreate their appearance. Here we fashioned man from clay head. Quiet manly face, a large aquiline nose, hair combed parted, and the back in a bun. Who portrayed the ancient sculptor? Leader, a priest or a tribesman - hard to say. And it is not so important. What is important to us is not a frozen statue, and is performed according to certain strict rules, and the human person - the ancient inhabitants of Transylvania. He looks at us as if from the depths of seven thousand years!
But women are highly stylized image. The body is covered with complex geometric patterns that form an intricate pattern. The same pattern is found in other cultures figurines Turdash Vinci. Apparently, it's tangled lines had some meaning. It was this tattoo, which may have adorned themselves with fashionable women of the time, and in all that hid some magic sense, it is difficult to answer; Women do not like to reveal their secrets.
Of particular interest is a large ritual pitcher belonging to the early period vinchanskoy culture. In it we see a pattern, probably the appearance of the sanctuary, and the image is again very similar to the sanctuary of the ancient Sumerians. Again, coincidence? But the two sanctuaries are separated by almost twenty centuries!
Word on clay tablets.
The first rectangular plate coated with a symbolic image of two goats. Between them, put the ear. Perhaps the image of goats and ears of the community has been a symbol of well-being, based on occupation was agriculture and animal husbandry? And maybe it's the hunting scene, according to N. Vlas? It is interesting that this story is found on the Sumerian tablets. The second plate is divided by vertical and horizontal lines on small plots. On each of them scratched various symbolic images. Does this totems?
Circle of Sumerian totems known. And if we compare the figures on our plate with the images on the ritual vessels found in excavations in Jemdet Nasr, again struck by a striking coincidence. The first character in the Sumerian tablets - head of the animal is likely a kid, the second shows a scorpion, a third, apparently - human or deity head, represents the fourth fish, the fifth sign - some structure, the sixth - a bird. Thus, we can assume that on the plate shows the totems, "goat", "Scorpion", "Demon", "fish", "depth-death", "bird".
Totems terteriyskoy plates not only coincide with Sumerian, but located in the same sequence. What is this, another amazing coincidence? Probably not. Graphic signs coincidence could be accidental. Science similar matches known. Strikingly similar, for example, the individual characters mysterious writing proto-Indian civilization of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa with signs written Kohala Rongorongo distant Easter Island. But the coincidence of totems and their sequence is hardly accidental. It suggests the origin of the religious views of residents and Terterii and Jemdet Nasr from a common root. It seems, in our hands is a kind of key to the decipherment of writing Terterii: not knowing what is written, we already know in what order we should read. Therefore, the inscription can be decrypted by reading it counterclockwise around the hole in the plate. Of course, we will never know how the language sounded Terterii residents, but we can set the value of their patterned signs, based on the Sumerian equivalents.
We proceed to the reading of the circular plate terteriyskoy. On it are drawn written symbols separated by lines. Their number in each square is small. So, writing tablets terteriyskih as archaic Sumerian writing was ideographic, syllabic signs and grammatical indicators did not yet exist.
On a round plate is written the following:
4. NUN KA. SHA. UGULA. PI. IDIM KARA 1.
"Four Faces of God ruler Shaue mind Elder burned deep one."
What meaning is contained in the inscription?
Again begs comparison with said contact document from Jemdet Nasr. It contains a list of the main sisters priestesses who led the four tribal groups. Perhaps the same priestess-ruler were Terterii? But there is another coincidence. The inscription of Terterii Shaue mentioned God, and God's name is shown in the same way as that of the Sumerians. Yes, apparently, terteriyskaya plate contained a summary of the ritual burning of a priest who had spent a certain period of his reign.
So who were the ancient inhabitants of Terterii who wrote "in Sumerian" in the V millennium BC. e., when most of Sumer still did not exist? The ancestors of the Sumerians? Some scientists believe that prashumery split from prakartvelov in the XV - XII millennium BC. e., having gone from Georgia in Kurdistan. How could they pass their writing peoples of South-Eastern Europe? The question is important. And the answer to it yet.
The ancient inhabitants of the Balkans had a marked influence on the culture of Asia Minor. Especially clearly seen in touch with her culture Turdash Vinci on pictographic signs on ceramics. Signs sometimes completely identical vinchanskim were found in legendary Troy (beginning of the III millennium BC. E.). At the same time they appear in other parts of Asia Minor. Distant echoes of writing Vinci contains a pictographic script of ancient Crete. We can not agree with the proposal and the archaeologist V. Titov that primitive writing in Aegean countries has its roots in the Balkans IV millennium BC. e., not far emerged under the influence of Mesopotamia as previously believed by some researchers.
It is also known: the creators of Balkan culture Vinci in the V millennium BC. e. broke through Asia Minor to Kurdistan and Khuzistan, where at that time settled just prashumery. And soon, in the area there is a pictographic writing protoelamskaya equally close and Sumerian and terteriyskoy.
The conclusion: the inventors of the Sumerian writing was, paradoxically, not the Sumerians, but the inhabitants of the Balkans. Indeed, how else to explain that the ancient writing in Sumer, dating from the end of the IV millennium BC. e., there was a sudden and already in a completely developed form. The Sumerians (like the Babylonians) were the only good students, apprehended pictographic writing of the Balkan peoples and further develop it in cuneiform.
Branches of one tree
Among the issues that have arisen in the course of studying terteriyskoy finds particularly important to me to be two:
1. How did the writing and terteriyskaya to a system of writing, it was attached?
2. What is the language spoken terteriytsy?
B. Perlov is certainly right in asserting that Sumerian writing has appeared in southern Mesopotamia at the end of the IV millennium BC. e. somehow suddenly, in a completely finished form. It was written on it the oldest human encyclopedia "Harrahubulu" fully reflected the outlook of people X - IV millennium BC. e.
The study of the laws of the internal development of the Sumerian pictographs shows that by the end of the IV millennium BC. e. pictographic writing as the system is in a state of not becoming and decay. Of all the Sumerian writing system (there are about 38 thousand of signs and variations) was used a little more than 5000, and all of them came out of the 72 nests of ancient symbols. The process is polifonizatsii (ie raznozvuchaniya the same sign) nests Sumerian system began long before that.
Polifonizatsiya gradually corroded the outer shell of the complex mark in as many nests, then destroyed the interior design of the sign in the nests poluraspavshihsya and finally completely destroyed the nest itself. Disbanded slot symbols on Polyphonic beams long before the arrival of the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. Interestingly, in writing protoelamskoy, existing simultaneously with the Sumerian also on the Persian Gulf, there is a similar phenomenon. Protoelamskoe letter also reduced to 70-sockets symbols, which are split into 70 polyphonic beams. And protoelamsky sign and Sumerian are the internal and external decoration. But protoelamsky has also pendants. Therefore, on my system it is closer to the Chinese hieroglyphics.
In the era of Fuxi (2852 -... 2752 BCE) nomadic Aryans invaded China from the northwest and brought to a fully formed script. But ancient Chinese pictographs preceded the writing culture Namazga (Central Asia). Separate groups of characters in it have both the Sumerian and Chinese counterparts. What is the reason for writing systems similarities among such different peoples? The fact that they have one source, the disintegration of which occurred in the VII millennium BC. e.
Over two thousand years before the collapse of Elam-Chinese area of contact with cultures shumeroidnymi Guran and Iranian Zagros. Eastern area of writing opposed the west, took shape under the influence of pre-shumeroidov Gora (Ganj-Daro). Subsequently, it emerged from the writings of the ancient Egyptians, Cretan-Mycenaeans, the Sumerians and the terteriytsev.
Thus, the legend of the "Babylonian" pandemonium and decay of a single earthly language is not so groundless. For comparing the 72 nests Sumerian writing with the same slots symbols of all the other writing systems, one is struck by their concurrence, not only in the principles of design, but also on the internal content. Before us, as it were fragments complementary units disintegrated single system. When the reconstructed symbols of this writing IX - VIII centuries BC. e. is compared with the signs, symbols of Upper Paleolithic Europe (20 -... 10 thousand years BC), it is impossible not to pay attention to them is not a coincidence.
Yes, the writing system of IV millennium BC. e. not appeared in different places of our planet, but merely a consequence of the development of autonomous fragments disintegrated single prasistemy religious symbols that arose in one place.
But what language spoken by ancient terteriytsy? Let us take a look at the ethnic map of Western Europe VII - VI millennium BC. e. At this time, there was a population explosion as a result of the Neolithic Revolution. For several centuries the population increased 17 times (from 5 million to 85). There has been a shift from gathering to floodplain agriculture. The excess population in the Balkans, the ancestral home of the Afro-Asiatic peoples, led them to a wide resettlement in less populated areas where the Neolithic revolution has not yet occurred. The attack was carried out on the Danube to the north and south through Asia Minor, Near East, North Africa and Spain. Taking advantage of the huge numerical superiority, the original Semites from the east and from the west prahamity Proto-Indo-Europeans was wiped away to the north (in the areas recently liberated from the glacier).
Bright picture of the struggle of the peoples have survived, by the way, in Celtic mythology. Proto-Slavic names of the Celtic gods indicate that it is not to conquer the enemies of the ancient Slavs were bright banner prakeltov in the eyes of France, becoming their gods. Celtic "ancient Slavs" - danantsy kind of Goria (ie "Goryanov") subjugated pragrekov Harz and then entered into a long struggle with the original Semites Danube cultures. This is reflected in India's (Manu Svarozhich) and in the Greek myths.
The war was very severe and long. Allies Proto-Indo-Europeans were far from their shumeroidy Iranian Zagros committed Neolithic revolution earlier and jerked in Asia Minor in the east. Afro-Asiatic mites were severed. Hamit threw main forces at the Egyptian theater of operations, as Semites - into Greek and Asia Minor, where they were eventually repelled the invasion shumeroidov, the ancestors of the ancient Egyptians. However, it was a Pyrrhic victory. Afro-Asiatic offensive ran out of steam.
And in the VI millennium BC. e. accomplished the Neolithic revolution and the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Turning to the distant-pasture cattle, they have gained power over the limitless expanse of the Great Steppe. Prahamity Celts were assimilated throughout Europe and the original Semites fled to the lower Danube.
Between Indo Denmark and Pomerania and the original Semites Thrace to top V millennium BC. e. It formed a huge buffer zone (Upper Danube, Carpathian, Ukraine) with very special people. Later, the kernel (Baden culture) was the source of the ethnic group of Lesbos, Tripoli and Troy. That is why, and there are good reasons to link the inhabitants of the region (including terteriytsev and Trypillians) with praetruskami what convinced and anthropological data. Praetruski something completely original Semites expelled from the rest of the Balkans in the end of V millennium BC. e. Asia Minor and the Near East. Thus, they cleared the way for the Indo-pastoralists, triumphantly advancing from the north.