Split the mainland and a Sunken
If you look at a map, it is easy to notice the striking similarity coastlines of Africa and South America, Australia and Africa, Australia and the Indian subcontinent - as if a whole fragments pilfered by an unknown force and separated by ocean expanses ...
Probably the first who drew attention to the similarity of the outlines of the western coast of Africa and the east coast of South America, was an English philosopher Francis Bacon. In 1620 he published his observations in the book "The New Organon", without giving them, however, no explanation. And in 1658 the Place Abbé F. conjectured that the Old and New World were once one continent, but split after the Flood. This view was accepted by the scientific world of Europe. A hundred years later, in 1858, the Italian Antonio Sin der Pellegrini tried to reconstruct the original position of the continents and drew a map of where the African-America united in one continent.
Finally, the idea of "continental drift" formulated by the German scientist Alfred Wegener, by specialty - a meteorologist. In 1915, after five years of research, he published a work entitled "The Origin of Continents and Oceans", which on the basis of geological, geographical and paleontological data showed that once the world there was only one, built of granite rocks, the mainland, to which Wegener He gave the name of Pangaea (from the Greek words "pan" - the universal and "Gaia" - Earth), and only one ocean - Panthalassa ( "thalassa" in Greek - sea). According to Wegener, about 250-200 million years ago, Pangaea under the influence of Earth's rotation force was split into separate units, and further action is "pushing" the rotational forces of the Earth, resulting in the built of granite blocks "drifting" on the denser layers earth's mantle - basalts.
"Wild imagination"! That was the verdict of the majority of world scientists Wegener's hypothesis. According to opponents, the movement of continental masses science is not fixed, Wegener was unable to explain the reasons for the drift of continents and the nature of the conveying forces. In hopes of finding new evidence of his hypothesis, Wegener in 1930 he went to Greenland and died there ...
... Forty years later, the Tokyo combined Oceanographic Assembly, the hypothesis of continental drift was officially recognized by the overwhelming majority of geologists and geophysicists of the world.
As shown by recent studies Wegener proved absolutely right. He even managed to accurately name the date of the collapse of Pangaea - 225 million years ago. Initially, Pangaea supercontinent broke up into two - Laurasia (north) and Gondwana (South), who shared and single Pantallassu Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and Tethys. If the first still exists, the Tethys died about 6-7 million years ago, and it remains today are Mediterranean, Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral seas. Further fragmentation of continents, caused a storm of tectonic processes, has led to the emergence of today's continents and oceans.
And there were other continents - in addition to the currently existing?
... "The boy Tea Vaca said:
- Our land was once a great country, a very big country.
Kuukuu asked him:
- Why does a country become a little? Tea Vaca said:
- On her he lowered his staff Uvoke. He lowered his staff on the area Ohira. The waves rose, and the country had become a little ... "
This story of the natives of Easter Island; contained in the book of Kondratova "Mysteries of the Great Ocean", some say the indirect confirmation of the fact existed on the site of the current Pacific and perished millions of years ago the continent Pacifis. Its remains can be found today in America, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica.
But why in the memory of the inhabitants of the islands of Polynesia are still preserved the traditions of bygone land under water? Why are the same and there are legends about the other two hypothetical continents - Atlantis and the Arctic?
It is possible that the process of destruction of the ancient continents ended relatively recently and is preserved in the historical memory of humanity ...
"The leader said that his land is slowly sinking into the sea. He called his servants, men and women, children and the elderly, and put them on two large boats. When they reached the horizon, the leader saw that the whole earth, with the exception of a small part of it, called the Maori, went under the water. "
Such stories known to the set, and they are written not only on Easter Island. By the way, I have repeatedly expressed the opinion that the construction of the colossal Easter Island - the remnants of a civilization that once existed on Pacifis. The well-known Soviet geologist Academician Obruchev wrote in 1956: "It can be argued that in the heat of the Earth's equatorial belt mankind already at that time, when both near-polar regions were still covered with snow and glaciers, reached a high cultural development, built beautiful temples to deities; pyramids as tombs for kings, and on Easter Island stone statues were erected to protect against some enemies. And there is an interesting question: the death of other cultures and their structures some catastrophe was whether caused? We have to remember that the Ice Age, created on Earth in both polar zones of huge masses of snow and ice, gradually weakened under the influence of the sun and could not help but cause some disaster. "
In 1997, American geologists have discovered new traces of Pacifis. It has long been observed that some geological fragments of Alaska, California, the Rockies do not meet in its composition structure of the structure of the American continent. The same atypical forms are in Australia, Antarctica and the other adjacent to the Pacific islands and continents.
These geologic anomalies are associated with the collapse of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, of which once included Africa, South America, Australia, Antarctica, and the Indian subcontinent and Madagascar. Another part of the continent was Pacifis, which disintegrated into small fragments. Part Pacifis wide fan "profit" to the other continents. Geological studies have shown that about one hundred million years ago to the west coast of North and South America - in Alaska areas of California and Peru - have been attached sufficiently large fragments Pacifis. Other fragments Pacifis were flooded, and some of them joined with Australia, Antarctica and New Zealand.
Geologists believe that Pacifis first "broke away" from the ancient Gondwana, and contributed to the collapse of Pacifis active geological processes taking place on the globe in the area of present Pacific Ocean about 150-100 million years ago.
Research dead Pacifis shed light on the evolution of the problem and the "drift" of continents, as well as the mechanism of occurrence of the oceans.