Shroud of Turin
All the relics of saints are stored in itself some mystery. But perhaps the Holy Shroud of Turin - the most mysterious discovery, the history of which begins in the early twentieth century. On many questions yet to be answered. Increased interest in the relics of saints is characteristic of all peoples of all ages. Only time separates devout cannibal who ate the heart of a dead hero, and the medieval bishop who tried to taste the relics of Mary Magdalene. Much in common can be seen from the throngs of pilgrims who traveled to the Middle Ages, and modern queues stretching to the coffin with the body of any religious or secular figure.
But it should be noted that faith was the most important in the life of the pilgrims, and our interest in the dead celebrity fades quickly. But remember, when we go at a slow pace in a church or cathedral, we have a secret waiting for something - perhaps even a minor spiritual renewal - from the ceremony. In other words, we have the depth aushch believe that the sacred remains somehow magically affect us: and, interestingly, this statement is not without a reasonable grain.
Idolatry, the worship of saints, all sorts of prejudices, belief in what can be called "beneficial effects", received many labels since both entered the consciousness of people thousands of years ago. Adoration of the holy acquired grandiose scale: and it is not difficult to establish the cause of this. It is based on the idea that human virtue, Pravednichestvo or any supernatural powers do not die with the body; they continue to remain in his body and can affect any believer who somehow get close to the holy remains. Just stay Nearby medieval pilgrim would be satisfied if he just managed to look at the grave of their idol.
If the body is dismembered, says the legend, supernatural power and does not disappear; In contrast, each member has the same energy as the whole body. The same can be said about the things which touched a dead man in life, or even for those items that come into contact with his body. All these inanimate repository of spiritual power - the body, bones, hair, teeth, clothes, books, furniture, torture tools, a shroud, coffin, and (if the body is cremated) the dust - he called the "relics" and endowed with the same powers that have their owner at life.
But the process does not stop the beneficial effects. All that come into contact with the relics or exercise nearby, acquired part of their magical powers. And, accordingly, these things become truly miraculous. When, for example, the Byzantine Empress Constantine in a letter to Pope Gregory the Great in the VI century BC. e. asked him to send her to the head of St. Paul, the Pope refused her. Once, however, he relented and sent the painting the Empress, which is in contact with the head of the saint and has incorporated the miraculous power. Eyewitnesses could see how the canvas dripping blood when it was cut.
At that time, when there was this correspondence, Europe was swept by a strong religious fever associated with the holy relics. The east wing of the Christian church was more obsessive than the western; but soon embraced the excitement and the West. And after many years of Christian priests were to have any part of the holy relics under the altar of the church, and there were reasons. They like it or not, the belief in relics and miracle-working power of religion has become a symbol for the majority of their parishioners, many of which have not yet forgotten the pagan temples and ceremonies. Saints bone or anything like that was honored in every city, in every village, and it is not surprising that this increased demand has caused the appearance of fakes. In the Middle Ages, there seemed to be no limit to the credulity and enterprising crooks possessed believers. At this time, surfaced such incredible power, like milk of the Virgin Mary, the hairs from the beard of Noah, Gabriel feathers, pieces of the ark and the manna. Along with these dubious relics were objects of worship, surrounded by a halo of sanctity more visible and credibility. The first and most significant - a true cross found in the IV century in Jerusalem, Helena, mother of Constantine. By the standards of that time, its authenticity is not in doubt: this Cross healed the sick person. There were also the crown of thorns, the nails and the spear. In the world there were at least forty-three holy shroud, and each, according to the finder, is precisely the legendary painting, which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Christ on Friday.
Forty-three of the Shroud: Are they fake? This is not to say definitely, but it should be noted that some of them undoubtedly overlapping with each other, i.e. they were the same items shown in different places at different times. Some were deliberately destroyed, while others simply disappeared. Even if we turn to the most modern methods, we are unlikely to be able to establish with certainty whether a particular piece of white cloth, two thousand years ago it was wrapped the body of Christ. It seems that it does not play a big role. After all for Catholics the question of the authenticity of the relics at most does not matter: worship is not in itself the power, and the person with whom they are associated. Of course, if we are not talking about outright fakes.
When, however, it comes to the last of these forty-three in the linen, everything changes. Immediately I must say that it exists; it can be seen and touched. In addition, it is literally dotted with traces of the past, some of them are easy to interpret, others baffled. If it is a fake, the most clever counterfeit of all time. If it is true shroud, Sindon gospel, then this is really the first clear evidence of the Resurrection, a gift to mankind from the time of the writing of the Gospel; for some it is a confirmation that Christ did not die on the cross.
This shroud was unbalanced by scientists and led them to forget about the restraint and skeptics resulted in profound disarray. For it is now focused the attention of specialists from around the world - priests, doctors, artists, pathologists, photographers, journalists, scholars - and ordinary people. Before that, a piece of cloth in awe once the inhabitants of the French village of Lirey, today it is known as the Holy Shroud of Turin.
A simple description of this extraordinary things at once poses a lot of questions. Some of them can be resolved - most are surrounded by a shroud of doubt. In view of the shroud - a piece of linen material with weave "herringbone", such as twill, ivory size 4,4 × 1,1 m. Along the entire length can be seen two rows of burnt holes, traces of fire that nearly destroyed it in 1532. Between these rows - subtle pale spots, which, if you look from a distance, form the kind of person whose hands are crossed on his chest, front and rear.
In this image visible reddish spots, which correspond to the place and form of the wounds suffered by Christ on the cross. Another striking feature, aside from reddish spots, is that the whole figure is given in a negative display: the shadow of the - of the orbit, the gap between the fingers, the back of the cavity with the knees - depicted lighter patches on the matter. Positive image has not been seen until 1898, when a talented amateur photographer Secondo Pia named by looking into the tray with the developer, have found that the true face begins to appear before him.
All this is true. But there is a lot of controversial issues. Scientists, for example, a few years ago conducted an analysis that showed that the reddish stains on the shroud do not contain hemoglobin. "Judging by what we know about the composition of the blood is not blood," - said the Rev. David Coke, episcopal secretary general of the British Society for the study of the Shroud of Turin.
The study of the material from which made the shroud, have produced results that hardly less mysterious. It's definitely flax; and really weave, like serge. The linen cloth interspersed with tiny cotton fibers. It is known that flax was grown, spun and woven by the ancient Egyptians, and the cotton consumed for four thousand years ago in the great civilization of the Indus Valley; interweaving of "herringbone" appeared - but only in silk tissue - around the time of Christ's stay in Syria. If unable to carbon dating method (this will be discussed more later), the combination of these facts gives rise to a vague suggestion that the matter was worked out much earlier. (Many museums are kept fragments of ancient Egyptian linen, so it is not surprising that the Shroud is preserved for twenty centuries.)
What if the matter was made later? What really able to establish is the fact that it appeared in the French village of Lirey in unclear circumstances in 1350-ies (maybe) and it drew crowds of pilgrims in 1357 (probably). The first mention of it relates to 1389. The owner of the Shroud was not very wealthy family Charny; learn more about their lives, we may dispel the fog that enveloped these dates. But where the shroud came from them? And - Vai great interest in the relics that shook the Christian world in IV century - it remained in obscurity for so long? A partial explanation for the previous location of the Shroud was given after a study conducted by the Swiss criminologist Dr. Max Frei, who reviewed the already crystallized pollen found on the Shroud, under an electron microscope. But the result is again puzzled.
Pollen analysis showed that for the time during which to establish the whereabouts of the Shroud was not possible, she traveled to Palestine and in Turkey, in particular in the Anatolian mountainous terrain. Communication with the Palestinians, rather, further confuses the issue and an indication of Turkey something that explains, as it is known that a certain Shroud appeared in Constantinople at the beginning of the XIII century. (The proof of this is the message, dated 1204 year, French Crusader Roberade Clary). In Constantinople, as stated in his letter, "is, among others, the Monastery of the Holy Virgin Mary in Blasherne where the Shroud is kept, which was wrapped the body of our Lord; each Friday it unfold, and everyone can see the face (or shape, there are two possible interpretations) of our Lord. " Unfortunately, de Clary did not say anything about what happened to the Shroud after the Crusaders occupied the city. But these relics worshiped with reverence and who were so important to Christians did in the desert Anatolian steppes?
Since then, as a shroud made his last lapse from France to Turin in 1578, and until 1898, when she was introduced to the public for review - the last of the approximately five times in the whole XIX century. - None of these critical issues are not raised. Shroud was the Shroud - the object of profound adoration of the clergy and secular folk, the most valuable treasure of the ducal house in Savoy, which was acquired by the family de Charny in the middle of the XV century. Shroud and is now owned by Umberto di Savoia, the former king of Italy, who now lives in exile in Portugal.
Since the beginning of the XX century the Shroud has evolved from an object of worship in the puzzle to reveal that many have tried. The turning point came in the same year, when Secondo Pia entrusted with the honor of making the first images from the Shroud and on the photographic plate after developing originated, according to him, the face of the saint. All spots are on the negative Pia purchased a reverse color, made not just an image, but a real portrait, portrait, which was surprisingly alive. This discovery made a big splash. While all of the Shroud research cause to life new questions that have yet to be answered, it must be admitted that the expression on it, of course, as though alive. Anyway, no one could remain indifferent when he saw him.
Of course, once again launched a campaign to establish the authenticity of the Shroud. Rumors spread that extraordinary portrait on the negative was a mistake, or worse, the result of retouching made by Pia. Pia, who always prided himself on never retouched their pictures, was very upset; his good name was not restored until 1931, when the professional photographer Giuseppe Henri made a series of photos and got a similar result.
But that is not all. In the early twentieth century Ulysses Chevalier, a French priest and historian with a good reputation, has found that doubts about the authenticity of the Shroud occurred before, even during her stay in Liree. In 1389 Pierre d'Artsis, Bishop of Troy, was struck by the fact that hordes of pilgrims flooded his diocese, convinced that this is the true shroud of Christ. He himself was convinced that it is a fake, which is calculated - which often happened at the time - to make money. After fruitless negotiations with the de Charny, he wrote a letter of complaint to the Pope; it is a letter, along with other supporting documents, and found the Chevalier.
D'Artsis immediately proceeded to the point of his argument. Shroud of the lyre and its origin, he said, too preoccupied with his predecessors: "Lord Henry of Poitiers, who was then Bishop of Troy, a devout man, proznal about this and was moved to doubting people to do anything according to his duties, and he set about the painstaking work ... After scrutiny and study, he said that it is cheating, and told how skillfully was painted canvas, which was confirmed by the artist who made it; that is, that the Shroud is the result of human labor, not miraculous shroud. "
Yet it turned out to be fake. Or maybe not? Maybe d'Artsis interpreted his predecessors wrong? Maybe Henry, for whatever their reasons, invented the story of the forgery and artists who painted the fabric? Or - even more scary - he forced an unfortunate artist "reveal the truth"? The explanation must exist. It should be noted one obvious fact: how could the artist to paint a negative portrait of the right, if he could not see what draws in a positive display of the lack of appropriate cameras? Much more important is the fact that on the Shroud did not find any traces of paint. No brush marks or other signs of the work of a medieval artist. How did these spots are still not clear.
The first attempt to establish the cause of the natural image was to investigate another Frenchman, who proposed scientific approach to the problem. In the same year, when the Chevalier published his historical study regarding the Shroud, a biologist and almost professional artist Paul Vignon began a series of experiments that are detailed notes. The book, in which he spoke about his work, became a bestseller in 1902.
Vignon set out to find answers to the questions "how" and "what". "All of our debate, - he wrote - based on whether we can prove that the face on the shroud appeared spontaneously, without human intervention." To do this, he used art. and scientific methods. He tried to paint a picture on canvas is about the same quality as the shroud (the tissue from which the shroud is made, and in fact has been extremely thin and light). If he used enough ink to achieve a result, "drawing was erased from the slightest touch, if the fabric is folded."
He experimented with a "contact theory": stuck his beard, carefully daubed face and beard red chalk, lay down on the bench and ordered his assistants to put a piece of cloth to his face. The results are documented and described, were extremely unsatisfactory. "One can say with certainty - he said - if a crook in the Abbey Lirey acted in the same way as we tried to do it, he would never have made the portrait, which would stand the test of photography. Even if on the shroud in some places a few facial features blurred, the proportions have remained extremely loyal; and a striking impression, which makes the face, achieved only through the perfect harmony of all features "(experiments that produced by other researchers using the same schemes, have led to approximately the same conclusions).
Then Vignon learned another theory: projection. Careful studies have shown that the spots on the canvas correspond to parts of the body that come into contact with him or were at a distance of not more than one centimeter. Their intensity is inversely proportional to the distance: when the distance was more than one centimeter (half an inch), the image is missing. It seemed that the picture turned out due to "some kind of radiation from the body." Vignon turned to the Bible and wondered how to ensure that the myrrh and aloe used in burial, acted in such a way as to create a negative image on the linen. The answer, a proven track record, reads: ammonia evaporated from the body to the fabric, already soaked in a mixture of aloe and olive oil. And this ammonia, continued to argue Vignon, sweat stood out: a person who is experienced in initiating or flour, sweat heavily saturated with urea.
"We now know what name to give to this phenomenon, if komuto will want to invent a new word:" veyporograficheskie prints »(vapour - steam, vapor).
Veyporograficheskaya theory really was not supported by today's sindonologov who try to challenge the version of the chemical. But many other versions Vignon - who were brutally attacked after publishing - were confirmed in subsequent experiments, as well as its conclusions on the medical unit. He studied blood spots shown on Pia photos, and came to two conclusions. The first - is that they correspond exactly to the wounds that had been inflicted prior to and after the death of a crucified victim. The second was the fact that no medieval swindler, who was under the rule of the Christian tradition and who did not have sufficient knowledge about the anatomy, I could not play with such precision these spots.
One of the claims Vignon, which still support the later researchers, due to the location of the nails on his hands. They were not on the brush as traditionally considered and wrists; confirming Vignon pointed out that the body suspended on the hands, soon to fall under its own weight. He also suggested the reason - is now also supported by the majority of researchers - having a lot of marks in the form of tiny Guirec in most parts of the image: they can only arise as a result of attacks by the Roman flagrumom (flagrum), a whip with two or three whips, at the end of each were double balls metal or bone. Tools that scourged Christ, is now given a name.
Medical researchers have added a number of points to a huge list of coincidences between the Crucifixion and the picture that presents us the shroud. For example, a great spot on the wound on the side of the same as described in the Gospel and modern medical knowledge. In some places the spot "did not appear" -from which it can be concluded that the blood was mixed with a watery fluid. St. John wrote that "one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water"; although our century luminary is not fully understand the nature of this liquid water, they admit that her appearance in this case, quite likely.
In addition it should be noted that the angle at which there are blood stains on his hands, corresponds to the real state of affairs. He really should be such that if the living body is hung on the cross. An increase in the chest, which shows the Shroud, is related to the primary cause of death: suffocation.
However sindonologam seems to have something to add to this list a lean man, who was wrapped in a shroud, she died the same death as the Christ. Chances are that in the history of repeated case where the crucifixion victim underwent the same Godparents flour and received the same wound, can be calculated mathematically, while the number of deviations from the "scenario" comes to billion. But even if the probability of such an order is not enough proven - is the answer to only one piece of the puzzle. Vignon, laboring over the mystery of the Shroud at the turn of the century, felt that he had discovered and a method and means for drawing the image, and because of this, drew conclusions about the authenticity of the Shroud. Modern authorities, though, and recognize medical research compelling, yet claim that the question of the place and time while it is impossible to answer unequivocally - as it is not fully solve the mystery of the method and means. They are normally considered virtually impossible to image was applied to the shroud of the hand of man, but then do not go.
Probably do not need to remind you that you must first find the exact and indisputable answers to four questions to answer the main risk, fifth: "Who?". During the early quests it seems that information gleaned from letters d'Artsisa give a big advantage to supporters version of forgery, and only after the appearance of photos Henry (who were much better pictures Pia) started to get stronger the movement of those who believe in the authenticity of the Shroud. Finally, doctors and scientists have a high-quality images, with all the necessary details and increases.
(The experts who worked on another front - the Bible, virtually deadlocked in the Gospel there is nothing that would provide indisputable proof of authenticity or falseness of the shroud and approval, first expressed in the letter d'Artsisa, that "if.. had it been, it seems extremely unlikely that the holy Evangelists have neglected them, "it remains in force.)
Parisian surgeon Pierre Barbet learned greatly enlarged picture wrist wounds and then conducted experiments with an amputated hand to check whether you can stick a nail in a strong grip carpal bones in this place. And I find out what you can: the nail penetrates into the small slot in anatomy called "cavity Destin" by expanding it. Further investigation revealed a surprising feature: nail vonzenny wrist, affects the median nerve, causing thumb cramped, pressed against the palm. On the Shroud can not distinguish between the position of the thumb. Milan, Professor of Forensic Medicine Dr. Giovanni Dzhudika-Kordilia examined the wound on the shroud and made a list of bruises and swelling on the face, which, again, correspond to the description of Christ given in the Bible.
Returning again to France, where Vignon again went to work, this time from the point of view of the historian. A careful study of hundreds of early Christian icons shown that they not only depicted the face of Christ, as it were, in accordance with a certain model, but this model is comprised of about twenty small features which would be meaningless if it were not considered in the same context. All the faces of Christ looked like a stylized display of what we have seen on the shroud.
Among them are: the fold in the form of an "open box" between the eyebrows, two V-shaped folds in and below it, a short line across the forehead, another line in the throat (in fact, a double fold on the matter), the fuzzy split beard and a deep depression from the nose to upper lip.
Early icons painted on the template and related to the VI century BC. E., Have a single source of inspiration: the image, known as the Holy Face of Edessa. Edessa, now called Urfa, is located to the north of the modern Syrian-Turkish border. It is important to note that the Byzantine Greeks called this way acheiropoetos, or "not made by human hands." While the holy face - also known as the Holy Mandylion - disappeared, copies are preserved as evidence that it is the image of Edessa helped bring artists memories of the Shroud in the iconographic tradition. From this it follows that the Shroud is related in time and space with the lost holy face.
This assumption was published before World War II, it remains a matter of intense interest of researchers and the Shroud seems the best way to resolve the historical and geographical puzzle. Not long ago, British sindonolog put forward the theory that the Shroud and the Holy Mandylion - the same; that the Mandylion - Shroud of it, folded and presented in a way that could be seen only one person. It was confirmed that after staying in Edessa during the four hundred years, Mandylion was taken to Constantinople in the year 944 BC. e .; Shroud, said Robert de Clari, was lost during the IV Crusade in 1204.
A study by Dr. Frey pollen found on the Shroud confirms the version of the Mandylion. He said that, of course, belongs to the pollen of plants growing around Anatolia. It was a fact unknown sindonologam to mid-1970s. By 1969, they really do not have anything specific other than photos; these relics were folded as in the crypt of the Cathedral of Turin, where they are vigilantly guarded and were not available for study.
In 1969, however, the Shroud of keepers enabled sindonologam much progress they have allowed a group of priests and scientists (among whom was Professor Dzhudika-Kordilia) for the first time to see with their own eyes the holy relics. The group asked for permission to take a small sample of tissue for further research, the day after the demonstration of the Shroud on television it was done. Sample analyzes have shown, among other things, that the material contains tiny cotton fiber, that "blood spots" do not contain hemoglobin and that "blood" is not leaked between the fibers of flax - and "it would seem to preclude tissue contact with body fluids, whether blood, paint or anything else.
He was not used well-known scientific method for the dating of carbon-14. Journalist Robert Wilcox, who wrote his book "The Shroud," just as the days of the show it on television, received explanations about it. "Test - I said Monsignor Jose Kottino representative archiepiscopate in Turin - suggests the burning piece of material, a very large part will be destroyed. In addition, there is no guarantee that the test will give an accurate result. Carbon-14 can give you a date with an accuracy of plus or minus one hundred years. "
Thus, the attempt to establish a more or less exact date were discontinued at the beginning. And despite the fact that the Commission has a lot of work was carried out in 1973, the question of the method and means remained as topical as ever. Soon, however, there is a new theory that tries to answer the question "how?", Which immediately attracted the attention of the public, for it is in this area should in the future to make discoveries about the nature of the Shroud. Essentially, this theory appeared long before the experiments of 1973, but remained unnoticed until a certain time.
Geoffrey Ashe, who was not sindonologom, in 1961, decided to try to draw a picture that resembles what we see on the shroud. "The main reason - he said - why Negatin image on the shroud is a masterful portrait, that the brighter regions correspond to where the body bulges in contact with the tissue or within a short distance from her. The body portions located farther from the fabric, the darker the image on it. This gives a more or less regular gradation of light and shade. A positive image is reversed: the closer, the darker. I asked myself how it is possible to convey such an image on the canvas? "
It seemed to him that the solution in the heat or radiation exposure to the material, to varying degrees depending on the distance from the body. To test his hypothesis, he took a decorative copper horse, heated it on the kitchen stove and wrapped with a handkerchief. "As a result we got a partially scorched fabric, the image on which is like what we have seen on the shroud. Photographing confirmed: negative was an exact reproduction of a copper horse. " He did not believe that the Shroud was forged in a similar way. Then we have to admit that it is true? "We have to choose - continued Ash - between a miracle and incomprehensible - between the miraculous resurrection and absolute mystery." It is possible, though it is contrary to all known laws of nature, that the Resurrection of Christ was accompanied by the release of some radiation: "We can not know."
Since the mid-1970s that the radiation theory, or the theory of thermal effects, strengthened and enriched with a variety of evidence, and is today the leading. "The next chapter of the book - says Kanont Soke, - must have been written by scientists"; sindonologiya really stood now in the upper layers of the stratosphere research. Spectral analysis of the energy of the photon, neutron fluxes, Kirlian photography, instant photolysis - these terms are not part of the vocabulary of the common man, as well as the concepts behind them, are not available for the understanding of the layman.
The necessary equipment, by the way, applies even more to the stratosphere, and to the very cosmos. For example, by an imaging analyzer VP-8 used during the flight to the moon in 1976, two young captain of the US Air Force revealed one of the most striking facts about the Shroud. John Jackson and Eric Jumper missed portrait on the shroud through the analyzer and instantly get an accurate image in three dimensions, however fuzzy contrast on the screen. No photo above did not give such amazing results.
In 1978, the search for truth led researchers of the shroud to the most complex scientific mechanisms. The holy relics of X-rayed (which was to show some of the chemical elements make up an image on it); were made infrared and ultraviolet photography (since verified the authenticity of works of art); radiographic X-ray tests were performed; and also made a lot of pictures to the computer analysis. and samples were taken for analysis of ions; it was an attempt to determine what constitutes stains on the shroud. Again there was a question about the carbon test - machinery it has since greatly improved - and it is hoped that there will be the required authorization.
One thing, however, we can say with certainty: The Shroud of Turin is not inclined to disclose his secret home. Many years of heated debate raging around the piece of linen that is stored in the city of Turin. Computer regained a human face on the seal on the famous Shroud of Turin. Maybe this is the true face of Jesus Christ? Scientists baffled giclée print of a human figure. Such an image, it appears, can not be obtained by any of the presently known methods of science. For those who believe it is a confirmation of the authenticity of the relics, because according to tradition in the fabric wrapped Christ's body after the crucifixion.
If this is true, then the age of the shroud should be about two millennia. However, in 1987 a group of scientists at the blessing of the Vatican conducted a study on the tissue by the method of radiocarbon dating. And the results of this test, it would seem clearly dispelled the myth of the great shrine. Researchers cut from the Shroud square of four by four centimeters, divided it into four parts, one for the left control of the Vatican, and the three were taken to laboratories in Zurich (Switzerland), Oxford (England) and Tucson (United States). Their findings coincided approximately - 21 experts from three laboratories has put his signature to the document, which stated that the shroud was made in the XIV century, and not 1 as Christians believe. Like, no matter From how to get the picture and who is depicted in this painting could not be wrapped around Jesus Christ.
Western experts, who previously held a religious point of view, were ready to admit defeat. And then ... I came to the aid of Russian scientist. It is difficult to suspect of religious fanaticism Dr.Sci.Biol Dmitry Kuznetsov. He had a distinguished academic career. Not for the theological works, and for achievements in science, he received in 1983 the Lenin Komsomol Prize, and in 1986 - the Council of Ministers of the USSR. And he defended his doctorate in 1989 with a degree in "Polymer Chemistry".
Now he is a little over forty, but he is already working priglashennymym professor in Los Angeles, reads biopolymer textile chemistry course. And in the Russian Sedov is the head of the laboratory, named in honor of its founder - the outstanding Russian mathematician and philosopher Eugene A. Sedov. The reputation of a brilliant scientist with a world name would strongly stained fascination with mysticism. But this weakness (in terms of science) Kuznetsov is not seen.
"My idea of the shroud are made up of three interrelated problems, - said Dmitry Anatolyevich. - When it was done the painting, as it turned out image of a man and who, in fact, shows - Jesus Christ or the other person? I believe that the answer to the first question the scientific methods can be found. In the second question, I am not strong, but I know that physicists to answer it can not yet. And the third question, I am convinced of it, it has nothing to do with science and is only a matter of faith. So, my profession gives an indication of the first problem. "
Equally values its reputation comrade Kuznetsov Andrey Ivanov. He is a candidate of technical sciences on specialty "spectrometry", a prolific inventor, successfully supplementing its practical findings of its basic research veteran collaborator. As the saying goes, a cold mind is good, but two - better. After minus multiplied by minus gives plus. So it happened in their studies of the Shroud of Turin. "It is strange that the major experts are not taken into account in their work known factors that could cause the shroud rejuvenating effect," - said Dmitry Kuznetsov, - some of them opened it is our laboratory ".
Of these factors Dmitry Anatolyevich told at the European conference on radiocarbon dating, which took place in England. The report has become a real sensation. After he came to the famous chemist Kuznetsov Guy Burt - the vice-president of the National Geographic Society and a member of the subcommittee on the study of the Shroud of Turin Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The venerable scholar suggested Russian counterpart connected to the research.
It was agreed in the model experiments to answer the question: is it possible to change the isotopic composition of linen fabric in a fire when she was subjected to thermal and gas influences? The question did not arise by chance. It is known that in 1532 the Shroud was badly damaged during a fire in the monastery church of the city of Chambery of the Duchy of Savoy. The fabric in many places had "burns", and from the water, which put out the fire, leaving gray spots.
In the Dukes of Savoy (later king of Italy) were good chroniclers. They are documented in great detail all the circumstances of the fire. This made it possible to reproduce it in the laboratory. Flames raged for about six hours, and a third of that time the monks were trying to save the shroud by spraying with water strongly red-hot in the fire silver shrine, where he kept sacred. But as it was composed of the shroud and to what temperature Haskalah cancer, because the fabric was burned silver melt with a melting point of 960 degrees Celsius?
Based on these data, Sedov lab could reproduce and independently fire conditions in Chambery. "But we did not take on this responsibility - admitted Kuznetsov - decided to share it with other professionals. Seek help from the highest engineering fire-technical school in Moscow and a similar institution in the city of Lyon. Both Academy reconstructed fire conditions: suggested possible concentration of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases, water vapor and silver cations. " From these data was created gas mixture is fed into an incubator, where the piece of cloth. Scientists are treated in the various pieces of textile, among which was the pattern, woven, two thousand years ago. This tissue is found during an excavation in Israel - perhaps similar cloth was wrapped around Jesus Christ.
The experimental results were stunning - under the influence of simulated conditions the content of carbon-13 and carbon-14 in the filaments is much increased, that in terms of the method of radiocarbon dating is a sharp "rejuvenation" of the fabric. Conclusion: Previous studies have determined the age of the Shroud of Turin could greatly underestimate him.