Robin hood: myth or reality?
More than six centuries of living legend of the noble bandit, and scientists still have not managed to establish whether there was actually Robin Hood.
"Robin was proud robber - unknown author wrote" The Ballad of Robin Hood "at the end of the XV century, representing his hero. - He lived, not knowing fear and cheerful songs he loved "
In each of the four stories that make up the ballad, the reader meets the intrepid leader of the Forest Detachment "merry bandits" who attacked the rich and helped the poor. In the first novel by Robin lends money and his faithful squire Little John impoverished knight, to avenge greedy abbot. In the second - the cunning forces hated the Sheriff of Nottingham to dine with him venison, which the robbers produced in the birthplace of guardian of order - Sherwood Forest in the third - Robin discovers disguise of King Edward, who incognito coming to Nottingham to investigate violations of the law by local rulers, and goes to him The final part of the service of ballads, published in 1495, tells the story of Robin's return to the Rogue fishing and betrayal Kirkleyskogo abbess of the Abbey, which takes it to the bloodletting of death when it comes to her convent to undergo treatment.
These are the first written stories about Robin Hood, who, no doubt, told and retold at least during the preceding century and a half later and overgrown with new details. In 1819, Walter Scott used the image of Robin Hood as a prototype of one of the characters in "Ivanhoe" novel, and today the noble robber remains a popular hero of children's books, film and television.
It is not difficult to explain why such a long popularity of Robin Hood. Proud and independent, he confronted those who, taking advantage of his position and wealth, deceived and oppressed common people. But he remained loyal to the king and did not reject religion - among his supporters was even a wandering monk, funny fat brother so. The identity of Robin Hood is so attractive that historians have long been looking for a prototype of the legendary hero.
The publication of the poetic masterpiece of William Langland "Piers Plowman", which came out in 1377, there is reference to the "poetry of Robin Hood." A contemporary of William Langland Geoffrey Chaucer in "Troiluse Krizeyde and" mentions "hazel bushes where Robin walked fun." Moreover, in the "Tale of Geymline", which was included in Chaucer "The Canterbury Tales", also shows the hero-thief. several historical figures was found, which could serve as a prototype for the legendary Robin.
As for the 1228 and 1230 years of registries census listed the name Robert Hood, nicknamed Brownie, which said that he was hiding from justice. Around the same time there was a popular movement led by Sir Robert Thwing - rebels raided the monastery and handed the loot to the poor grain. However, the name Robert Hood was quite common, so scientists are more inclined to believe that the prototype of Robin Hood was a certain Robert Fittsut, a contender for the Count Hantingdonskogo title, who was born about 1160 and died in the 1247th In some references the years even appear as dates in the life of Robin Hood, although the written sources of that time did not contain references to the rebellious aristocrat named Robert Fittsut.
Who was the king in the days of Robin Hood.
The dating of historical events, the foundation stories of Robin Hood, is further complicated by the fact that the various English monarchs mentioned in the various embodiments of the legend. One of the first historians involved in this problem, Sir Walter Bower, believed that Robin Hood was a party revolt in 1265 against King Henry III, that was headed by a royal relative of Simon de Montfort. After the defeat of Montfort many rebels to disarm and continued to live as a hero Robin Hood ballads. "At this time, - Bower wrote -znamenity robber Robin Hood ... began to enjoy great influence among those who have been disinherited and outlawed for taking part in the rebellion."
The main contradiction Bower hypothesis is that large onion, mentioned in the ballads of Robin Hood, has not yet been invented in the time of the uprising de Montfort
The document 1322 is referred to "Robin Hood's Stone" in Yorkshire From this it follows that the ballads, and perhaps himself the owner of the legendary name was by this time a well-known tend to look for traces of authentic Robin Hood in 1320-ies are usually offered to the role noble robber Robert Hood - tenant of Wakefield, who in 1322 took part in the uprising under the Earl of Lancaster leadership in support of the hypothesis provides information about that in the next year, king Edward II visited Nottingham and took into his service as a valet of a Robert Hood which paid a salary for the next 12 months All these facts are in good agreement with the events set forth in the third part of the "Ballad of Robin Hood"
If we take as our starting point the mention of King Edward II of, it turns out that the hero-thief made his feats in the first quarter of the XIV century, however, in another version, he appears on the scene as a brave warrior of King Richard I of England, whose reign had on the last decade of the XII century
With the certainty of Robin Hood can assert only one legend about him constantly replenished with new items so, in the early ballads is no mention of the girl Marianne, beloved Robin for the first time it appears in the later versions of the legend that arose at the end of the XV century giant nicknamed Little John is present in the troop of robbers in the initial version of the legend, and his brother, so there is a much higher first Robin - just a farmer, but over time it becomes a noble exile
Now, most researchers agree that Robin Hood just symbolizes a certain type of hero-thief, who glorified in the transmission from one generation to the legends, at least since the beginning of the XIV century Robin Hood, in the words of one scholar, is "the pure creation of the People's muse" The invention of an unknown author, who wanted to celebrate the common man who fought for justice this explains the universal appeal of the noble robber, so aptly expressed in his farewell blessing of the author to the hero, "Lord, have mercy on his soul, for he was a good thief and always helped the poor"