The return of Martin Bormann?
Each of us has his own biography. A few lines: date of birth, place of study work, marital status, party affiliation, and the proportion of merit - and the point. Driving is monotonous: for celebrities and commoners.
Describe the life of this man seemed extremely difficult matter. He had a lot of biographies. More precisely, the first forty-five years of his life were studied thoroughly. Historians almost no questions. Start date: June 17, 1900. Family: son Sgt. The first meager entry: Field artillery during the first world, and later the Local Inspector. The first feat: the murder of his schoolteacher.
First arrest: one year in prison. The consignment. Rallying series, campaigning, party lists. 1929. Wedding. A witness at the wedding - himself "Adolf-lawyer." Many Germans name it is known, they are proud of their Adolf. First child. Then another nine children.
Career advancement. "Gold Party". First Hilfskasse - relief fund for those affected in street battles with the "red". Then - Foundation of Adolf Hitler. Huge financial flows: taxes, donations, compulsory contributions. And the constant competition, which is necessary to get ahead, to outwit, to suppress. The new property, new countries, human garbage: Slavs, Jews, prisoners. Nicknames: "the gray cardinal", "Iron Chancellor", "Machiavelli at his desk." Title: Secretary of the Fuhrer. The return service: wedding Hitler. A witness at the wedding - he, Martin Bormann. April 29, 1945.
A new life began in the evening on May 1. Bormann had seen on the street. He got out of the bunker. He went somewhere. He was sure that will be saved. He sent a telegram to Karl Doenitz, the new president of the Reich. He hurried to meet him. Then a man named Martin Bormann disappeared.
However, it is also subjected to correspondence to the court, was sentenced to death. But who has seen this man? No one.
But the light appeared a scattering of ghostly figures. Each - their own destiny. And every life continues Martin Bormann. Who is he now? Manfredo Berg? Kurt Gaucho? Van Klooten? Jose Pessea? Luigi Bolilo? Eliezar Goldstein? Josef Jana? Martini Bormadzhone?
Where is he hiding? In one of the monasteries of Northern Italy? Or, in Rome, in the Franciscan convent of Sant Antoni? Or Benedek-Latin Abbey in the north-east of Spain? Or become a millionaire in Argentina? Or priest in Poland? Or settled in Chile?
What was the cause of his death (in fact thereof in the early 1990s, almost no doubt)? Stomach cancer? Lungs' cancer? Cirrhosis of the liver?
Where is he buried? The Paraguayan town Ite? In an unmarked grave in the land of Albion? The luxurious crypt at the Rome Verano cemetery?
When it was? In 1952 in Italy? Or in 1959 in Paraguay? Or in 1973 in the USSR? In Argentina in 1975? In the UK in 1989? Or maybe he was killed by a shell explosion still on that memorable evening all historians, May 1, 1945, and further outlines biographies - only involuntary fabrications Professionals and amateurs of sensations?
Over time, hundreds of versions depict the postwar fate of Bormann, three researchers began to seem the most plausible.
First version. Bormann escaped to South America aboard a German submarine. He picked up a "gold party" in the hope away from Europe to approve a new - fourth - Reich. He settled on a ranch near the border of Brazil and Paraguay. He belonged here thousands of square kilometers of land.
The second version. In the fall of 1939, almost the Second World, Bormann recruited by Soviet intelligence. Throughout the war cheerful, energetic boss of the Party Chancellery and the "most loyal ally" of the Fuhrer worked for tips. A few days before the victory, convinced that Hitler was dead, and his body was burned, Bormann with a sense of accomplishment went to the location of Soviet troops.
The third version. Bormann out of the bunker. He was in a hurry to Doenitz, to convey the will of the Fuhrer. Suddenly, there were Red Army.
They stopped him, but not knowing released. Bormann was in a hurry, but there again, the soldiers noticed. Russian were everywhere. Bormann confused. Hiding was no longer possible. Going on the way, he picked up a capsule of potassium cyanide, and now that the situation was hopeless, could only take advantage of it. He swallowed the poison. His body was found, not identified, was buried. Bormann continued to live in the minds of people and in the guise of Bormadzhone, Goldstein, Berg ...
In recent decades, interest in his person is not quenched. Bormann was feared. This cheerful, energetic boss, endowed with an excellent memory, he knew how to work like anyone else. This clever, quirky schemer capable of outwitting any, was "controlled by Hitler" (the writer J. Lang). Among the many unscrupulous National Socialists were in power, recalled Albert Speer, one of the leaders of the German military industry, Bormann, particularly stood out for its brutality and cruelty.
Decisiveness Bormann liked Hitler. He remembered the young man who is ready to risk their lives to seek retribution. Many years later, Martin feat was marked by the highest Nazi award - the Order of blood.
At the end of 1920 Bormann and Hitler became close friends. On the day of his marriage to Martin Gerda Buch, daughter Reichstag deputy party leader gave the newlyweds a huge limousine and myself, personally, was their witness.
In thirty years, Borman - and did not finish the way, school, - in charge of all the financial affairs of the party, as well as to dispose of property of the Fuhrer, buying land and houses for him. The Obersalzberg in southern Bavaria, Bormann bought several private properties, and if the owners procrastinated or refused to cede his land, used force. Thus was created the famous estate of the Berghof Hitler. Bormann was unceremoniously and with Nazi bonzes. He was spying on them, he knew their intentions and always ahead of them. He was always close to the Führer and no one emphasized Lang, about Hitler's plans better than he was not aware.
April 29, 1945 the Führer dictated his political testament, and his last will. The new president of the Reich, he appointed Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz. His "executor" named most faithful Party comrade, Martin Bormann. He gave his "lawful authority to execute all the decisions."
Evening mist enveloping the Reich Chancellery May 1, 1945, concealed the last traces of the Berlin Martin Bormann. Later, in the hands of the Soviet military was Bormann's diary. April 30 next to the name "Adolf Hitler" and "Eva G.", he painted icon inverted «Y» - the runic symbol of death. The last entry is dated May 1:
"Trying to break!"
The first who officially began looking for him, was a British Major Richard William G. Hortin. October 18, 1945 he was instructed to announce to Martin Bormann, accused of crimes against peace and humanity, and war crimes, on 20 November "in Nuremberg, Germany" will open the trial of him and another twenty
three Nazi leaders.
Major Hortin ordered printed 200,000 leaflets with the portrait is on the run Bormann. About him constantly reminded newspapers and radio. But all was in vain. The accused did not manage to find.
At this time, in the Bavarian town of Memmingen he was arrested leader of the "Hitler Youth" Artur Axmann. During the interrogation, he said that he fled from the Reich Chancellery along with Bormann, Ludwig Shtumpfegge rum, Hitler's personal physician, Hans Baur, Hitler's pilot, and several approximations leader.
According to him, near the bridge Vaydendamm they pleased under heavy fire Russian. Axmann was trying to hide in a shell crater. Beside him, in a hole, lay a mighty reihslyayter Bormann.
By morning they fuppa has increased up to ten people. All posryvali uniforms with insignia, dropped their weapons and headed west along the railroad tracks. Even going to the Lehrter station, they noticed on the platform of the Red Army. Immediately down the embankment down to the Inva-lidenshtrasse, and ran back to the Soviet soldiers - guard on the field. Those who took them for deserters from the "Volkssturm". In winter 1945, this militia recruited people, not fit for military service. Nobody trained recruits, weapons are not enough. They were "cannon fodder" in the days of the battle for Berlin, fled at the first opportunity. The soldiers reacted kindly to the Germans appeared unarmed. They were treated to cigarettes. Smiling, said the usual password: "War kaput, Hitler Kaput".
Bormann and Shtumpfegger were wary. They obviously did not trust Russian. Cigarettes, "kaput", what's next? Arrest? No, not until the soldiers came to their senses, we must hurry. And together, "he walked faster and faster" (Lang), they rushed to the side of the Charité (Berlin University Hospital -. Ed.). A little later, after them, and moved with his adjutant Axmann Gerd Veltsinom. Soon they saw their comrades. Those lying on the road, not far from the station. They did not move. A few years later, remembering that day, Axmann was not stingy on details: "We leaned on his knees and found both Martin Bormann and Dr. Shtumpfeggera. Errors could not be. Both were on the back ... I turned to Bormann, touched him, began to stir up trouble. He was not breathing. "
Amazingly, at the Nuremberg trials on the recognition Axman did not pay any attention, though one of the investigators, interrogating him - British historian Robert Hughes Trevor-Roper - believed that the chief "Hitler Youth" tells the truth. Obviously, he wrote Tre-thief-Roper, "inadvertently" this protocol is simply overlooked. Instead Axman Tribunal questioned Erich Kempka, Hitler's personal chauffeur. He said that last saw Bormann in the night on May 2, 1945. Asked Reichsleiter could escape from the city | Kempka replied that it was "almost impossible", because the battle was too strong. 1
What did Bormann, when the witness saw him? At a time when Kempka saw him come back a few tanks. They "took the glue \ soup," a group of people, among whom was Bormann. When Reichsleiter came to the first tank, the car suddenly hit the projectile.
There was an explosion. "Flames erupted just on the other side, where UJCJ Martin Bormann."
Friedrich Bergold, Bormann's attorney asked the witness: «Bi saw that the explosion was so strong that Martin Bormann was killed?"
"Yes. I believe that after the explosion of such force he was killed "- Kempka response.
The hearing ended. The judges did not listen to what was said. Witness my deceiving them, helping Bormann escape.
October 1, 1946 the tribunal has sentenced in absentia to Martin Bormann. However, an American, Francis Biddle, up until the last moment persisted and offered to give up the judgment and declare that Bor-man died. However, in the end, he broke down and agreed with his colleagues, condemn not caught on until the Nazi "death by hanging".
Back in the conference room of the court Bergold attorney predicted that in the coming years will acquire the name Bormann legend because of what his fate remained unclear.
Soon Bormann steel everywhere. He has appeared in Australia, Egypt, Morocco, Spanish, Italian, Bolzano. In Bayreuth saw him with the President of Chamber of Commerce in Munich he visited nobody secret commerce adviser in Chomutov Czech Republic led the life of a humble ranger.
In 1949, Paul Gesslyayn, centrist politician, long ago emigrated to Chile, said that he had met a few strange strangers, who were traveling on horseback; among them was Bormann. He learned it at a hundred percent, because "from 1930 to 1933 often saw him in the Reichstag."
When the cavalcade moved off into the forest, he heard Borman shouted to his companions: "It was Gesslyayn!"
However, no matter how colorful the story was, he did not cause confidence. Quickly I remembered that Bormann became a member of the Reichstag, only won the November 1933 elections. Gesslyayn himself - despite the fact that it is reported in many articles and books - was not a member of the Reichstag, he had to sit only in the Saxon Landtag in 1920-1922 years.
So, more and more Borman, was buried Axmann, calmly walked free. His travels and adventures could not even put an end to the court's decision, which took place in Berhtes-Gaden in January 1954. It was stated that Martin Bormann should be considered as dead May 2, 1945 at 24.00. In a registry office in Berlin a message of his death was registered under the number 29 223. The ceremony took place quietly, and do not arouse the interest of the public. Especially, that the deceased continued to rewrite his life.
In 1959, the Berlin judicial authorities started a new trial. Two years later, they delivered the materials on the case in Frankfurt, Fritz Bauer, one of the most tireless Nazi hunter. At first, he was convinced that Bormann survived the "Twilight of the Gods" and is now hiding somewhere in South America.
I Was Bauer and his perfectly reliable witness - a former SS Standartenfuehrer Werner Heide. This professor of neurology nearly fifteen years a fugitive from justice, because he was involved in the mass murder of the sick and disabled. We found it only in 1959. He said that after the war for a while he worked in Denmark, in the same hospital. Later, when West Germany was formed, he practiced medicine under the name of Dr. Fritz Sawada.
In Denmark, he had to help some Nazi bonze. Among them was Bormann. Reichsleiter had with him a few days, and then shipped off to the south.
These words encouraged Bauer. Shortly before this, May 13, 1960 directly on one of the streets of Buenos Aires, some Israeli Clemente Ricardo was kidnapped by agents. As it turned out, under the same name for several years in hiding Adolf Eichmann, one of the organizers of the mass extermination of Jews during the war. In one of the interrogations, he reportedly said that Bormann escaped. "Smoke without fire," - said Bauer.
July 4, 1961 the Frankfurt prosecutor's office issued a warrant for the arrest. District Judge Opper, who signed the warrant, shared the opinion of "bounty hunter." There is a danger, the judge stressed that Bor-man "in the future, conscious of the brunt of the charges imposed on him, will abscond, as he has done since 1945".
In the summer of 1965, in order to verify the old eyewitness, conducted excavations in Berlin, near the Lehrter station. Remains Bormann could not be found. The bodies, once inspected Axmann, as well as the body, seen Kempkoy, mysteriously disappeared.
At the end of 1971 have been published memories Reinhard Kye-county, the first chairman of the Federal Intelligence Service - the person who ought not to fool the audience stories about the "sunny Brazil." About Bormann, he mentioned in passing. In a book published then "Service" page 424, but we are interested in only four paragraphs. Here they are. A solemn intonation: "And now I would like to interrupt a long silence, one important secret to hide." It goes on, "one of the most intriguing stories of this century." Bormann was a Russian spy. The thesis, however, is not new. There were other suspected "clerk Machiavelli" in a double play. That's just never had a German employee of the special services of such a high rank is not accused of espionage Bormann. Brewing sensation. How he was recruited? What happened to him?
During the war, the Soviet intelligence officers working in Germany, and "the most famous of their informant" was Bormann, writes Gehlen. Secret reports were transmitted to Moscow via Berlin's only radio station that operated unchecked. And without the help of Bormann here, of course, it has not done. After the war, the former Nazi leader, "perfectly disguised, he lived in the Soviet Union."
Where did Gehlen know that? He was told "two reliable informant." Their names he did not want to call even during the interrogation, the investigator committed by him from Frankfurt Horst von Glasenapp. Of course, Gehlen had to share his discovery with the then Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, but he decided that, "considering the political aspects, in this case did not have to take."
One year after these scandalous revelations in the Bormann trail attacked ordinary road workers. And this time the guest of the past "reappeared" in Berlin. Leading the new cables, workers stumbled upon a skull. Immediately stopped building. They called the police. Those began to search.
Within two days, on 7 and 8 December 1972, in the light of two "well-preserved" (as he wrote the prosecutor) skeleton was recovered. Later found here a few more dropped out teeth and gold dental bridge.
It began painstaking investigation. Experts from the Institute of Forensic and Social Medicine, along with dentists from the departmental police hospital for several months studying "skeleton number one" and "Skeleton number two." According to the "anthropometric calculation made on the basis of medium-sized tubular bones" found that in the first case of human growth when life was 190-194 centimeters. Growth Shtumpfeggera was 1.90 meters.
In the second case, the experts agreed on the numbers 168-171 centimeter. According to SS documents Bormann growth stood at 1.70 meters.
Further examination of the "number one skeleton" showed that in the lower third of the left forearm there is a clear trail of healed bone fracture. Shtumpfegger in 1923, broke his arm. Studying the "skeleton number two" was pronounced "improper fusion of the right clavicle after fracture." Bormann's sons confirmed that in 1938 or 1939 of their father, having fallen from his horse and broke his collarbone.
On the "jaws of both skulls" to find tiny shards of glass. Judging by their thickness and shape, it could go "on the ruins of vials or flasks." It seems that the deceased took the poison, to crack this for a small vial.
Having studied the jaw "number one skeleton", the investigators were unanimous: here on this street, the remains of Dr. Ludwig-Stumm pfeggera were found. In the second case, opinions were divided. Not kept any X-ray that would have sealed teeth Bor Martin Mans. Because had to rely on the memory of Hugo Blaschke - a doctor who once treated Reichsleiter. For some, it sounded convincing anyone doubted.
I am absolutely sure was a prosecutor Joachim Richter, who led the consequence: "The accused as well as Dr. Ludwig Stumpfegger, died on May 2, 1945 in Berlin in early morning hours - in the interval between 1.30 and 2.30." But writer and former special agent Ladislav Farago holds a different opinion. He told the prosecutor that he has irrefutable evidence that "torpedo all the conclusions reached by the Commission." That's just imagine these "compelling evidence" Farago so never deign, though, he said in 1973 that Bormann was a millionaire and lives in Argentina.
Gradually around the name Bormann silence. Phantom of the fugitive Nazi is not disturbed or Paraguayan jungle, no Danish city. It seems, indeed, his remains were to find builders in those December days. Here only definitively prove this, scientists still can not.
In autumn 1996, there is another book dedicated to Bormann:
"Operation James Bond." It states that the Reichsleiter did not submit to fate, not swallowed poison "in the early morning hours." At the last second he managed to escape from Berlin. So he claimed not newspaperman, not a writer of adventure stories, a former British agent Christopher Cray-tone, aka John Ainsworth-Davies.
However, a fugitive, to save his life, in the end, turned out to be a puppet in the hands of others. The fate interested him most of Churchill.
After all, only Martin Bormann was able to open the British secret Nazi deposits in Switzerland, he knew the account numbers, he could give them. To his disappearance went unnoticed, British intelligence went to the trick. From London to the besieged Berlin sent "double" - a person, a hair's breadth similar to Bormann: the same scars, the same wart, the same dental fillings. On that May night on the streets of Berlin waded double. He was killed by a shell exploding near. So, a new twist in biofafii Bormann? But where is a strong case?
Back in 1996, the family's lawyer Florian Bezold Bormann turned to the Prosecutor General in Frankfurt Hans Christoph Schaefer. He asked the good it is now possible to carry out genetic examination of the remains of an unknown man the growth of 168-171 centimeters, found in 1972.
The public prosecutor, as well as the Minister of Justice of Land Hessen, did not mind.
Perhaps it was the "last chance to make it perfectly clear ..." in the fate of Martin Bormann.
For this case it come from forensic doctors from Frankfurt and Bern. However, they failed. Select the DNA of the cell nucleus it failed because of an unknown bones were in a deplorable state. A simple and reliable method failed. Is the mystery of Bormann and will not be disclosed?
And then, scientists from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Munich tried to go another way, a much more complicated. They decided to highlight the so-called mitochondrial DNA. Happened!
Further already it was not difficult. Professor Wolfgang Aizen-Menger turned for help to one of the relatives of Bormann, a lady of eighty-three years old, granddaughter Amalia Folborn, and she was the aunt of Bormann's maternal line. So, at the disposal of scientists there were two vials of blood. The analysis showed the relationship of an elderly lady who lives near the Saxon town of Gelnhausen, and a man whose skeleton was found in December 1972. So, it was Martin Bormann.
A quarter century ago, the investigator Horst von Glasenapp wrote that the fate of Martin Bormann, as well as the fate of Kaspar Hauser, "a long time will excite the human imagination." He has found the body, and along with him and his true biography. On that May night, he tried to escape from Berlin. But it was too late, everywhere he met Soviet soldiers. Then in fear that he was about to identify and seize, he saw through the capsule of poison and dead fell to the ground. Enchanting "Twilight of the Gods" ended near the gutter.