Pushkin and Lermontov-fatal duel
Pushkin and Lermontov: the fate of a match.
Pushkin and Lermontov - contemporaries, but they never met. Is it so? Both were born in Moscow, and both later became Petersburgers. Father Pushkin, Sergei, - a retired major. Lermontov's father, Yuri Petrovich, - the captain. Pushkin and Lermontov came from old noble families. The ancestor of Pushkin was Gavrilo Oleksich, associate of Alexander Nevsky, Pushkin's mother, Hope Osipovna, was the granddaughter of "Negro of Peter the Great" AP Hannibal, a native of Ethiopia (Cameroon?). And Lermontov foreign roots: his family, according to legend, came from George Lermontov, a native of Scotland, was taken prisoner by Russian troops in the autumn of 1613, remaining in Russia and in 1621 became a Russian nobleman. Pushkin and Lermontov were common acquaintances. Cornet Lermontov - brother-Lieutenant Goncharov, brother-Pushkin. But Pushkin, probably not even heard the name of Lermontov. Why? It is not only the difference in age.
And Pushkin, Lermontov and published his first poems in 15 years. But Lermontov, anonymous had published his first poem "Spring" in the September 1830 "Athenaeum" magazine, readers Met cold, mortally offended them and almost 6 years did not give the poems in print. He wrote them in secret notebooks and albums for beautiful women. As Pushkin could learn about the beautiful poem Lermontov? Nevertheless, Pushkin and Lermontov met! When? In the summer of 1820 Pushkin, already known in the Russian poet, and a 5-year Lermontov with his grandmother at the same time they were in the Caucasian Mineral Waters. In Pyatigorsk one street led to the springs and baths and ended them. Great, Pushkin, of course, met on the street or at the source, where the people had only a few dozen people, with young Lermontov - his future heir to the great Russian poetry. So Misha Lermontov, Pushkin saw and heard. And Pushkin, Lermontov, and communicated with the Decembrists themselves experienced royal link.
Pushkin and Lermontov wrote poems and prose, singing freedom, causing the highest Russian society hatred. In winter 1834-35 gg. Lermontov often visited the brothers Alexander and Sergei Trubetskoy, and here he could meet the future killer Pushkin - Dantes, who visited during this period Trubetskoys. Pushkin had a difficult relationship with his father and his mother, because he is "compromised" their own epigrams on the nobles, freedom-loving "seditious" verses, the conflict with the authorities, referring to Mikhailovskoye. In 1807 the poet died younger brother Nicholas, and with another younger brother of Leo Pushkin was no close relationship of trust. Pushkin loved only nanny Arina Rodionovna (she died in 1828) and Olga's sister, is always striving to reconcile his parents. And Lermontov had no brothers or sisters, only one beloved grandmother EA Arseniev. Lermontov was left without parents for 17 years, besides the father threw him a child, and Pushkin with living parents was alienated from them. So Pushkin and Lermontov, in fact, did not know of any parent, either the father's love. And Pushkin and Lermontov were killed in duels, not from random people's hands. Dantes has become a brother-Pushkin, and Martynov was a longtime friend and schoolmate Lermontov.
Finally surprising coincidence: the Life medic Nicholas I H. Arendt, who was at the bedside of the mortally wounded Pushkin, the first early in the morning on the day of Pushkin's death, January 29, 1837, before the poet's death, said another of its great poet Lermontov patient about the last hours of life his idol.
It goes on gladiatorial combat in ancient Rome, not a medieval knightly tournaments, not about fist fights in Russia, and it is a duel. Russian military writer PA Shveykovsky defined the classic duel: "The fight has the agreed fight between two persons deadly weapons to meet the desecrated honor, in compliance with the established custom of known conditions regarding the place, time, weapons and general environment performance battle." The word "duel" refers to two of its members: the offended desires of satisfaction (satisfaction desecrated honor) by the offender. Can we consider a classic duel fair fight according to the rules for compliance which strictly meet their honor and dignity not only duelists, but their seconds, a duel in which opponents who are in equal circumstances, rely only on the skill of weapons possession, composure, courage and good fortune, we can be regarded as such a duel judicial murder, and killed his opponent the winner of the duel - a murderer ?! It is not that simple. We do not call the fight a duel of two trained boxers in the ring, a leading authority on the rules for the observance of which corresponds to the referee (referee). And we do not call boxers bullies, and a victory by knockout - a sadist. Of course, there were also a duel-murder when provoked by the fight against the bad enemy possessing arms out to the barrier professional duelist killer. And violations of the Code of duel it led to murder.
Therefore, in the XVI century in France, where duels killed hundreds of proud nobility, duels were banned. In Russia, Peter I issued severe laws against dueling, providing for punishment up to death penalty. However, in practice, these laws have not been applied, as almost to the end of the XVIII century in Russian duel was a rare phenomenon, and in France, although Cardinal Richelieu and banned duel on pain of death, they continued (remember "The Three Musketeers" by Alexandre Dumas). In the era of Catherine II in the Russian duel begin to spread among aristocratic youth. However, DI Fonvizin recalled that his father had taught: "We live under the laws of, and be ashamed, having such defenders of the sacred, what are the laws, understand themselves with their fists or swords, for swords and fists are one, and there is a challenge to a duel nothing but the action of violent youth. "
But the noble youth did not allow government interference in the affairs of honor, considering that the offense should be washed away with blood, and the abandonment of the match - an indelible disgrace. Later, General L. Kornilov so formulated his credo: "The soul - God, the heart - a woman, a debt - Motherland, honor - to anyone." In 1787 Catherine II issued a "Manifesto on the fights," which for a bloodless duel offender faces life in exile in Siberia, and the wound and killing in a duel equated with criminal offenses. Nicholas I generally regarded dueling with disgust. But no law did not help! Moreover, the duel in Russia were extremely harsh conditions: the distance between the barriers was typically 10-15 paces (approximately 7-10 meters), there were even a duel without seconds and doctors alone. So often fights ended tragically.
It was during the reign of Nicholas I, there were the loudest, the famous duel with Ryleeva, Griboyedov, Pushkin, Lermontov. Despite the harsh laws on liability for a duel, and under Nicholas I duelists are usually transferred to the army in the Caucasus, and in the event of death - demoted to the ranks of the officers.
And in 1894, Alexander III officially authorized officers fights for personal grievances, do not touch service. The first duel Code was published in France, Comte de Shatovilyarom in 1836. Typically, the delay to the place of the duel was not supposed to exceed 15 minutes, the duel began 10 minutes after the arrival of all the participants. The steward, who was elected from two seconds duelists offered for the last time to make peace. In case of refusal, he explained to them the match conditions, the seconds designated in the presence of barriers and opponents charged pistols. The seconds got up parallel to the line of battle, doctors - behind them. All the actions made by the opponents of the team manager. At the end of the battle opponents they fed each other's hands.
By the way, in the air shot is allowed only in case the shooting duel, rather than the one who sent him the cartel (call), or the duel was considered invalid, a farce, as in this case, none of the opponents did not put himself in danger. There were several options for a duel with pistols. Opponents were staying at a distance fixed, turn to shoot on command or, for example, is usually on the team went to the barriers, the first team to go shooting and waited for retaliatory shot while standing on the ground (if barriers are spaced by 15-20 steps then shoot on the move could be moving towards the enemy, without a team). Fallen wounded opponent could shoot lying down. Stepping barriers prohibited. The most dangerous option was a duel, when opponents standing motionless at a distance of 25-35 steps, shot each other simultaneously by the team at the expense of "one-two-three." In this case, both players could be lost. As for the duel on a cold weapon, here the seconds were the most difficult to regulate the course of the fight because of its mobility and drive opponents; In addition, in the fights on the cold weapons (sword, saber, spadroon) always greatly affects inequality fighting in this difficult art, like fencing. Therefore, were widespread duel was with pistols, the more chances of equalizing opportunities and duelists. But the Musketeers in France, as we know, chose to duel with swords!
Incidentally, the young Tolstoy called on Turgenev a duel, but, fortunately, did not materialize. A revolutionary anarchist Mikhail Bakunin called on the duel of Marx when he spoke disparagingly against the Russian army. It is interesting that, although Bakunin, an anarchist, and was opposed to any regular army, he stood up for the honor of the Russian uniform, who in his youth was wearing, as an artillery lieutenant. However, Marx, in his youth many times had fought with swords with the students at Bonn University and is proud of the scars on his face, calling Bakunin did not accept, as his life now belonged to the proletariat! One last example: before the revolution of the poet Nikolai Gumilyov caused to the duel poet Voloshin, offended at his joke. Voloshin shot into the air, and Gumilev missed. In general, at the beginning of the XX century (until 1917), hundreds of officers' duels took place in Russia, and almost all with pistols, but the death of or serious injury duelists ended just 10-11 per cent of the matches.
I paid particular attention to a classical dueling in Russia with its code, so that the reader can decide for himself, than had the duel time of Pushkin and Lermontov: criminal homicide or a fair fight by the rules of equal contenders?
Pushkin's mother died in April 1836 (almost a year Pushkin was buried next to her in the Holy Monastery), the father of much outlived his son. Pushkin became an independent person has during his stay in the Tsar's Lyceum. His character was difficult. The desire for independence, a heightened sense of self-esteem, youthful impetuosity, thirst military exploits and thrills early Pushkin led to a duel. Pushkin went to the match many times, several emerging duel did not take place for various reasons, often due to the intervention of his friends. It is well fenced and has been a sharp shooter, constantly improving their skills of gun ownership.
About these duels written enough articles and studies, so I'll just little-known facts. Courage under fire of the enemy Pushkin is known to us by his behavior in the army, with which he went to Arzrum summer 1829. His irascibility, impulsivity, disappeared when he was a duel, becoming calm and cool. Dekabrist Basargin wrote about the young Pushkin: "Sign me with him was not, but in the community have met three times. As a man I did not like. Some breterstvo (sic -. YP) ... and the desire to ridicule, to stab the other. At the same time, many of those who knew him said that sooner or later, and he died in a duel. In Chisinau, he had a few fights, but they are happy to get away with it. " Here is another case of the first duel Pushkin stories. Pushkin was a great-uncle Semyon Isaakovich Hannibal. At the party in the summer of 1817 Pushkin was jealous maiden Loshakova to his uncle and demanded an explanation. However, they soon reconciled and parted amicably. My uncle was not only a participant in the foreign campaigns of 1814, but also a great ladies' man. And it was so intrusive in the courtship of the beautiful women, those from him fled. A perturbed sighs and pestering uncle's Pushkin's sister Olga even ordered the servants not to let him into her house.
Very dangerous was Pushkin's duel in 1821 with an officer of the teeth and in 1822 Colonel Starov. At this time, Pushkin was not only used any suitable occasion for the creation of a duel situation, but he provoked fights. could particularly dangerous for him to become a duel with Tolstoy - Americans who spread the rumor that Pushkin allegedly flogged in the Secret Chancellery. Tolstoy was a famous duelist, bully-killer on the conscience of which there were several people who had died from his hands on the fights. Fortunately, Pushkin duel with this excellent shooter was delayed reference poet in Mikhailovskoye, and when after 5 years in 1826. Pushkin was brought to Moscow and it is the same day sent to Tolstoy cartel (call), then at the request of Tolstoy, they reconciled. It is necessary to tell the honor of Pushkin, that if he was convinced of the offender reluctance to offend his honor and dignity, then he went to conciliation.
Over the years, he was, of course, wiser and even a degree. Pushkin in August 1836 filed a censored article "Alexander Radishchev", in which he wrote: "Humble and experienced over the years, it (. Radishchev - YP) even changed the way of thinking, which marked his turbulent youth and puffy. He harbored in his heart no malice to the past and sincerely reconciled with the glorious memory of the great queen. " But Pushkin wrote, in fact, currently.
And further important point: "He (Radishchev - YP.) As though trying to irritate the supreme authority of their bitter blasphemy; not it be better to point out the good that she is able to create? "In this article, under the pretext of condemning Radishcheva for his past views and approval of him as a supposedly" reformed "at the end of his life man Pushkin trying to convince the government to believe clean and the positiveness of their intentions.
Now we know that when he returned from exile Radishchev continued to work on "seditious" book "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow." And Pushkin, though somewhat staid, are not able to deceive the government, to convince him of his security clearance. Nicholas I and Benkendorf was considered a great poet Pushkin, but also a great liberal hater of all authority. An article on Radishchev was rejected.
Returning to the duel Pushkin: what is still the main reason for his desire to fight in his youth? It's all about the duality of his position in society: it is - the first poet of Russia and at the same time, a minor official and a poor nobleman. When Pushkin treated dismissively as a collegiate secretary, he took it as an attack on his honor and dignity, not only as noble but also as Libertarian poet. Of course, in his mature years, he was not so reckless bully, but the position of the gentleman of the bedchamber he hated. By the way, remember the behavior of the poor, but proud Gascon bully-noble D'Artagnan at the beginning of "The Three Musketeers" by Alexandre Dumas.
Pushkin was a duelist high-end and is usually not sought to shoot first. The fact that the opponent was preserved shot right up to the barrier beckon shot and shoot it at a minimum distance as a fixed target. In order to hold back and do not shoot first, required iron composure. In recent years, there have been dueling Pushkin's life situation with a few like him in his position seemed to be malevolent. And he was only one way out for the salvation of not only his honor, but the honor of his work - a duel.
Lermontov's mother died at age 21, in 1817, when he was almost 3 years. The father left, leaving Michelle in the care of the boy passionately loving grandmother EA Arsenyev. He died in 1831 at age 44. Thus Lermontov in 17 years became an orphan, that certainly has left a major imprint on his complex character. A relative of Lermontov AM Vereshchagin wrote to him in 1832: "... unfortunately, I know you too well to be quiet, I know what you are able to cut with the first counter for the first stupidity - ugh! It's a shame; you will never be happy with such a repulsive character. " Lermontov could be sociable and cheerful, but more often it was closed, bile, biting and darkly brooding. Turgenev wrote that feature Lermontov was "something sinister and tragic. Some unkind and gloomy strength, thoughtful and passionate contempt emanated from his swarthy face, from his large and motionless, dark eyes. " AE Baratynsky in 1840, just before the death of Lermontov, having become acquainted with him, wrote to his wife: "... a person, without a doubt, a great talent, but I do not like moral. Something neradushnoe, Moscow. "
So, Lermontov was a complex, uneven and a heightened sense of self-esteem, often pushing it to ridicule and arrogant insolence. Having entered the Moscow University in the moral and political office in 1830, Lermontov studied at one time with V. Belinsky, Nikolai Stankevich, but in May 1832 was not on a public annual tests. The fact that Lermontov collided with reactionary professors and management offered him to leave the university. Although Lermontov care was designed as a voluntary, at his request, yet he was forced.
After moving to St. Petersburg, Lermontov wanted to go to university, but under the new curriculum, he would not score? Subjects listened to the University of Moscow, and to start their studies over again, he would not. After much thought, Lermontov still decided to enroll in the school guard sub-ensigns and cavalry cadets and two years was in the harsh conditions of military school. After graduation in 1834 he was promoted to cornet and sent to military service in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment. Certainly, during his stay in the school Lermontov well mastered by shooting with a pistol. But duels, by all accounts, he was not. In 1834 Revision lists confirmed that nobleman Mikhail Lermontov inherited in 1832 in the Tula province belong to the peasants and yard people: 148 men shower women shower 155. Serfdom has not been canceled. Lermontov often been in love, especially Barbara Lopuchin, but for various reasons had not married until his death. And the 28 (!) In January 1837 (before Pushkin's death) Lermontov, learning of his mortally wounded in a duel, wrote the first 56 verses of the poem "Death of a poet." These verses (without the author's name) instantly, in thousands of copies, copied by hand, spread in St. Petersburg and other cities. It was the finest hour of Lermontov. Name Lermontov became widely known in the leading circles of Russian society. Never again, neither Russia nor the Soviet Union did not produce such verses "explosive" effect.
Russia at that time - a huge, illiteracy in the mass population of many millions, backward, feudal country. With a very limited circulation of newspapers and magazines Are all Russia could know Pushkin and Lermontov, the younger ?! Of course not! Therefore, it should be conducted only on good people, and above all of the inhabitants of large cities, but not for the majority of the population - the peasantry. By mid-February 1837 Lermontov wrote the final 16 verses of the poem "Death of a Poet", and soon he was arrested together with SA Rajewski, are covered by this poem. Lermontov was sent to the army in the Caucasus, an ensign, and Rajewski - into exile.
Only a year later Lermontov is first allowed to return to Novgorod and then to St. Petersburg, where he was already known as a poet, and Lermontov was again in the Life Guards Hussar Regiment. He repeatedly encouraged the highest order, and December 6, 1839 made lieutenant. And all this - so anger reprove the entire ruling elite of Russia! December 31, 1839 Lermontov on New Year's ball-masquerade in the Noble Assembly Hall allowed himself an audacious trick against the Empress and her entourage, were in masks. Previously it was thought that these were two daughters of Nicholas I, Lermontov Say stinging words, to which he retorted. But it was the Empress with a lady. Incidentally, the wife of Nicholas I loved Lermontov creativity, such as the poem "The Demon", and she stood up for the poet, wanting to commute the sentence to him, but to no avail. January 2, 1840 Lermontov was invited to a ball at the French Embassy in Barentin, and on February 16 at a ball at the Countess of Laval Lermontov had a quarrel with the son of the French ambassador Ernest de Barant. The cause of quarrel with Lermontov de Barant was their dialogue, in which de Barante accused Lermontov that the conversation with the famous extreme told her unfavorable things about him, what Lermontov said that no one was talking about de Barentin nothing wrong. Then de Barante accused Lermontov in spreading gossip about him, what Lermontov said that the behavior of de Barante very funny and boldly. De Barante said he had known in France, how to end this thing. Lermontov said that strictly follow the rules of honor and we are less than others allow themselves to insult with impunity in Russia. Followed call de Barant Lermontov duel. It should be emphasized that the French Embassy wary of Lermontov because of his poems on the death of Pushkin, considering that they are not personally insulted Lermontov Dantes, and the French as a nation. The duel took place on February 18, 1840 at 12 am for Black River (!) On Pargolovskaya road. Seconds Lermontov was A. Stolypin (Mongo) - a friend of his cousin and uncle's second de Barante - Count Raoul d'Angles. Since de Barante considered himself wronged, Lermontov gave him the choice of weapons. A true Frenchman, de Barante chose the sword, although opponents were pistols. It was decided to fight to first blood, and then move to the pistols. Incidentally, Lermontov fenced bad. Only duelists crossed arms like swords broke Lermontov end of the blade and a fine duelist de Barante had to lunge, aiming tip Lermontov in the chest and he could kill him, but slipped only slightly scratched his chest. Then they switched to guns. Duelists have been shooting together, but Lermontov a little late, probably not wanting to shoot de Barante or just testing his fate. De Barante missed, and then fired in the direction of Lermontov (in the air). Then de Barante gave him his hand, and they parted.
Lermontov was arrested for failure to report a duel and put on trial. March 14 satirical novel was published V. Sologub "Big Light" in favor of the Empress, and the heroes of the story were recognizable caricatured Lermontov and Stolypin.
Sitting under arrest for Arsenal through the guardhouse Lermontov A. Branitsky 2nd invited E. de Barante for personal explanations about his affidavit that he shot in a duel to the side (in the air) that offended de Barante as a duel It looked harmless to him. Autocratic, secret rendezvous off guard took place on March 22 at 8 pm. Lermontov said that he was really shot in the side and this reading will soften his punishment, and if it is not satisfied with the explanation de Barante, he was ready then to meet again with him in a duel. De Barante from the new duel refused and returned to France. Lermontov was sent again in reference to the Caucasus in the same rank of lieutenant, but Tengin Regiment, operating in the area of dangerous fights. Here Lermontov repeatedly shown bravery in battle, and he was introduced to the golden saber and twice the Order, but Nicholas I dismissed all views. Unlike Pushkin, Lermontov was far from the royal court and he did not aspire to a duel.
The reasons for Pushkin's duel with Dantes.
It was written hundreds of articles and dozens of books, so I shall confine myself to some refinements and additions. Baron Georges-Charles d'Anthes (correct d'Antes) was born in 1812. He is the same age as his wife Natalia Pushkin. Dantes belonged to a wealthy noble family. By birth he is more German than French. His mother, the Countess M. Gatsfeld and paternal grandmother, Baroness von R. Weil were German. Dantes himself was a tall athlete, blond with blue eyes. Nevertheless, he was regarded as a Frenchman.
Dantes went with tangible recommendations to seek his fortune in Russia in 1833. On the way to Russia, met by chance with the Dutch envoy Baron Gekkern and so he liked that arrived in St. Petersburg in the capacity of a protégé of the diplomat. Moreover, at the beginning of 1836 a messenger with the consent of the father Dantes (?!) I adopted Georges, and he became Baron Gekkern. In 1937, it was found that such adoption is impossible, and Dantes was only the Dutch nobility. In Russia Dantes was promoted to cornet and enrolled in the Cavalry Regiment. Beauty, communicative, cheerful disposition and wit made him a favorite of the ladies and comrades in the regiment, though he was unimportant campaigner. He managed to hide his prudence, self-confidence, and even immoral audacity. Pushkin treated him for a long time as one of the many ordinary admirers of his wife, that is not hostile. Natalia and Baron Georges met at the end of 1834. Natalie was not quite windy beauty. She played chess and could spend hours to solve complex composition. Of course, she did not have an ardent love for Pushkin, her husband, because of the big age difference and his ugly appearance. Of course, as a provincial girl, she liked the attention to her personality and the high society of the capital of Nicholas I.
There is no doubt that she and Dantes was mutual attraction. Not so long ago published the letter to Heeckeren d'Anthes, traveled to Europe, evidence of his deep feelings for Natalie. In a letter dated March 6, 1836 Dantes says: "... It is because no one loved me more, and more recently it was enough when she could give it to me - and that, my dear friend? Do nothing. Never in my life". Dantes writes about the great esteem in which he felt the Natalie. At the same time, it is unlikely he would provoke a duel Pushkin demonstrative courtship of his wife, if she did not meet him lightly mutual feeling. Pushkin himself let his wife in a secular society, and she is not thinking about the consequences, enthusiastically told him about courtship Dantes. Of course, many things we do not know about the secret springs of the conspiracy against Pushkin and may never know.
Enemies he had enough. The reasons for the duel, by the way, not necessarily with Dantes, there were many. Further Pushkin's life became unbearable. He was humiliated in the court of the position of gentleman of the bedchamber, he began to have problems not only with the publication of his works, but also with their sale. And his way of life and a great family demanded considerable expenses. Old friends Pushkin is low. He could not find his way out of the situation, and finally, jealousy and humiliation of his wife and dignity in the world have found their way out in a duel with Dantes, which for him represented all the courtiers - his enemies. Anonymous cum-satire, obtained by Pushkin, and some of his friends in the mail November 4, 1836, the election of Pushkin coadjutor (deputy) of the Grand Master of the Order of cuckolds (deceived husbands) breached its patience.
This was a direct allusion to the relationship Nathalie if not to the king, then with Dantes. I do not think this diploma case Gekkern hands, but Pushkin did not look for its author, and immediately sent a challenge to a duel Dantes. Gekkern tearfully begged Pushkin delay duel. I believe this fact is evidence that Dantes did not aspire to a duel, the more deadly conditions, although he was an excellent marksman, and was not a coward. The difficult negotiations mediators, including V. Zhukovsky, prevented the fight, the more that Dantes unexpectedly announced his marriage to the sister of Natalie Ekaterina Nikolaevna. Incidentally, the second Viscount d'Archiac Dantes sincerely sought to prevent this duel. Dantes Wedding Catherine was held January 10, 1837, and Pushkin with Dantes became in-laws. However, after the wedding courtship brazen Dantes Pushkin's wife renewed and frenzied poet sent envoy January 25 letter with rough and sharp insults. The duel became inevitable, and 26 January attaché of the French Embassy Viscount d'Archiac Auguste gave the poet a challenge Dantes.
The reasons for the duel Lermontov with Martynov.
The reasons for this duel is largely known, but are not fully understood until now. Previously, it was simple: in Soviet times in textbooks reported that gendarmes related by his boss Benkendorf organized quarrel and duel Lermontov, to destroy the freedom-poet, almost on the orders of Tsar Nicholas I.
Today we know the truth about the causes of the duel Lermontov with Martynov, but some circumstances are unknown and remain unsolved. Not so simple in life. By the time of the death of Lermontov he was already a well-known poet and author of the novel "Hero of Our Time", but on his death none of talented poets of that time did not respond, and inspired the bitter verses. Why? It is not only the nature of Lermontov, his sharp tongue and relationships with other people. Primarily, the fact that most of those who knew him, saw him as a young man and an officer of low rank, as if the great poet is bound to be an elderly general. History repeats itself with Pushkin: a great poet and a gentleman of the bedchamber. See in the great poet Lermontov, Pushkin's successor could only such advanced people of the time as Belinsky. A-bitingly contemptuous nature of the poet pushed him many friends.
On the personality and character of Lermontov left their mark many things: the early death of his mother, separation from his father, a military drill in the cadet school, the reaction conditions in Russia after the suppression of revolt of Decembrists, surveillance and censorship, the intrigue of the royal court and the surroundings of the poet, the death of his idol Pushkin , overnight fame after writing poems on his death, arrest and exile to the Caucasus in 1837, a severe military service and, of course, the main thing - the creation of poetic masterpieces, unrequited love, constant illness, ill-fated duel with de Barant and the second link in 1840, fierce fighting in the Caucasus, the inability to resign for literary activity, jealousy and hatred of enemies. And it all fit into a short, 26-year-old life! Yes, the character of Lermontov was complicated, even contradictory. The poet then amused, then sad, then remained silent for hours, it was gall and sarcastic. Stepdaughter General Verzilina E. Shang Giray, who lived in Pyatigorsk, Lermontov thought of: "... it was a rough character, capricious, the helpful and courteous, the distracted and inattentive." Lermontov loved witty, even to ridicule someone, dispose loved picnics, dancing. But when his poor health (he pulled military strap?), He often had to be treated in the Caucasus hot sulfur baths.
When the second Lermontov was exiled to the Caucasus, the May 20, 1840 Khomyakov wrote prophetically NM Yazykovo: "And here's a pity: Lermontov sent to the Caucasus for a duel. I'm afraid I would not be killed. After the bullet fool, and he was a true talent as a poet and as prozator ". Of course, Khomyakov was referring to the death in battle, not a duel, but still ...
In the Caucasus, Lermontov strives to excel in combat and risking his life, is now hoping to earn resign and devote himself to literary work. He wanted to create your own magazine. Finally, in January 1841 Lermontov procured vacation in St. Petersburg for 2 months. He holds in the capital of three of the most happy and brilliant month of his life surrounded by friends and admirers of his work. All copies of the novel Lermontov "Hero of Our Time" sold out. But instead of a possible resignation of the poet received an order of 48 hours to leave St. Petersburg and go back to the Caucasus in Tengin regiment.
On the way to Temir-Khan-Shura Lermontov, together with relatives and other Stolypin stopped Georgievsk. Pyatigorsk 40 miles away, and the poet wanted to visit the beloved city, to see old friends. Stolypin did not support it. Who knows what would have been the fate of Lermontov, if he had not gone to Pyatigorsk then meet his death ?! But fate (or case) plays a man. Lermontov Stolypin offered to throw fifty dollars, and if the coin comes up heads up - to go to the party, and if the grid up - go to Pyatigorsk. I had the grill, and Lermontov gleefully shouted: "In Pyatigorsk in Pyatigorsk!" They arrived in Pyatigorsk May 13, 1841, settled in the house Chilyaeva and lived there for two months before the fateful duel Lermontov with Martynov. Lermontov was given permission to stay in Pyatigorsk until complete healing of a fever.
At this time in Pyatigorsk lived a retired Major Martynov, which Lermontov constantly met. Nikolai Martynov was an old friend and schoolmate Lermontov since co-education in the Military school. They had known for more than eight years. Martynov, as a person rather limited, no different special abilities. He approached his nickname "Monkey". But he was very proud.
Father Martynov - State Councillor, owned since 1798 Znamensky village near Moscow. Martynov not only understood Lermontov superiority over him, but also acknowledged his poetic and artistic talent Lermontov and forgiving at the military school, and in subsequent meetings in Moscow his stinging ridicule and taunts. Martynov was a handsome, tall blond. He dreamed of studying at the military school, on the ranks and orders, wanted to become a general, then there was a vain man. Contemporaries recall that in 1839 Martynov looked elegant young officer and well-performed songs.
But in February 1841, he unexpectedly tendered his resignation and was dismissed from military service with the rank of Major. History dark. There were rumors about his unfair Card game. Remembering the dream Martynov promoted to general, it is believed that he went into retirement is not on their own. It was the collapse of his military career, his future prospects. Martynov left the Caucasus and settled in Pyatigorsk, not wanting to go back in disgrace to his mother and sisters in Moscow. And in St. Petersburg he had nothing to do among his acquaintances.
Martynov has changed dramatically: he became gloomy, silent, and began to carry caucasian dress, mimicking mountaineers: Circassian with cartridge belts, his cap on his shaved head. On his belt he hung a dagger. Indeed, Martynov looked exotic among the Russian population of Pyatigorsk. July 2, 1841 Nicholas I refused to award Martynov, to which he presented for participation in the autumn expedition (military action) in 1840. This fact confirms the forced withdrawal Martynov from military service to retire. Now note that the refusal to award Martynov held for 10 days before his quarrel with Lermontov and hence Martynov nerves were inflated this refusal on the eve of an argument (but it is unknown whether to deny the news came in reward Martynov from St. Petersburg to Pyatigorsk to his quarrel with Lermontov) . I want to emphasize that before the duel Lermontov Martynov in duels was not involved, scandals hero was not a bully at all and was not. And another important point: Martynov, almost the same age as Lermontov and his classmate at the military school, was still a major retired, and Lermontov (maybe because of the "seditious" verses and duel with de Barant) was only a lieutenant. Therefore Martynov could count on respect for him Lermontov, who taunted him still.
Back in 1837, on his way to exile in the Caucasus, Lermontov drove to Moscow. In his memoirs, Martynov wrote later that his family lived permanently in Moscow and it is the end of March - beginning of April 1837, almost every day, met with Lermontov and often lunched together at Yara. It's friendly relations!
In October 1837 Martynov met with Lermontov in the Caucasus. He wrote to his father from Ekaterinodar: "Three hundred rubles which you sent me through Lermontov, received but no letters, because he had been robbed on the road, and the money invested in the letter, also disappeared; but it is, of course, gave me his ... "On 6 November, EA Martynova wrote from Moscow, the son of N. Martynov, sorry that the missing letters sent with Lermontov, and (attention!) accuses Lermontov that these letters he if I printed out and read. A May 25, 1840 Martynov wrote his son Nicholas from Moscow that Lermontov still in the city and almost every day visited by her daughters, finding great pleasure in his company, despite the fact that his visit Martynova always (!) Unpleasant. Thus, the mother of N. Martynov, Lermontov belonged to the hostile, and his son trying to instill hostility to the poet.
In 1841, in Pyatigorsk Lermontov enemies, playing on the feelings of Martynov, incited him to a duel with the poet. Apparently, Vasilchikov prince, whose father was an approximation of Nicholas I, offended barbs and epigrams on him Lermontov, secretly incited to poet Martynov. Nowadays, on the page of a book of those years I found an anonymous, handwritten in block (!) Letters, mockingly insulting epigram on Lermontov relating to predduelnomu period. It Lermontov hand written pencil two words: "Brock Monkey", that is, Martynov. Hence, the emergence of epigrams Lermontov connected with the name Martynov, a fact that greatly hurt the poet. Most likely, Martynov "knocked out" on this epigram Lermontov enemies, and, although the authorship of Martynov not proved epigram achieved its objective, causing irritation of the poet. Over Martynov scoffed even his entourage, and Lermontov called it "mountain man with a big knife." Martynov himself after the duel Lermontov showed in court that "this fight was totally random," and that he is to Lermontov "malice ... never harbored, therefore, I did not have to have an excuse to quarrel with him."
Years later, Martynov explained that he called Lermontov's duel for the fact that in 1837 the poet insulted his family and his sister, and open and read the letter sent to him his sister Natalie to know her opinion of him. What do Martynov was silent for almost 4 years before the call to a duel Lermontov July 13, 1841 ?! Of course, Martynov came up with an excuse the murder of the great poet, because E. Meidel testified that, in fact, in October 1837 came to Stavropol Lermontov entirely without the things that he had stolen the road, so he went to his superiors did not immediately on arrival in the city, and when they were cooked uniform and other things for which he received a reprimand, as the headquarters found that he had to come right away what came.
Interestingly, in 1870, Martynov wrote a poem called "Decembrists" in which he admired their deed, not understanding its spirit. Again, the reasons for that duel Lermontov with Martynov lot, but concrete, clear the cause of the fight is not yet clear. Incidentally, Lermontov was about to leave his regiment of Pyatigorsk and even July 12, 1841 (the day before the call to a duel!) Presented in Pyatigorsk commandant control their roadside to travel in Temir-Khan-Shura. It's not meant to be!
Lermontov Martynov presented his acquaintances in Pyatigorsk, not only as a long-time friend, but also as a friend! So, in the evening July 13, 1841 a few people were in the hall of the General Verzilina home. On the couch sat and talked animatedly Lermontov, the hostess's daughter Emilia and Leo A. Pushkin (!) - The younger brother of the great poet. Piano, where he played Prince Trubetskoi, stood at the northeast corner of the large hall. About Piano - before the quarrel - we stood and talked Nadezhda Verzilina and Martynov in his Caucasian attire. Lermontov, turning to the interlocutor, and bearing in mind Martynov told her jokingly that she was careful with the dangerous "Highlander with a large dagger," which can kill. Unfortunately, at this moment Troubetzkoy stopped playing the piano and the words of Lermontov clearly heard in the great hall.
All that accumulated for years in the heart of Martynov, Lermontov against handling it all that Martynov carefully concealed in himself, came to light. And his mother's son constantly inspired aversion to Lermontov. Martynov vanity was piqued mockery of the poet on it in the presence of ladies. Martynov "exploded" and abruptly announced that he had long suffered abuse and Mr Lermontov tolerate them no longer intends. In these circumstances, my argument may be some inaccuracies, but the essence of true causes of quarrel. Allow myself, based on circumstantial evidence to suggest that Martynov was attracted to one of the ladies present, for whom he courted and Lermontov's mockery of him in her presence brought Martynov of himself. Incidentally, according to EA Shang Giray, witness a quarrel on her remark poet after this quarrel, but before the call to a duel: "My tongue - my enemy" - Lermontov replied calmly: "It's nothing, tomorrow we let us be friends. " Lermontov did not take this seriously quarrel, without thinking about its possible consequences.
But after that night on the stairs at home Verzilina between Lermontov and Martynov had a conversation in a raised voice. Of course, Lermontov, without attaching much importance to the quarrel took place, did not try to apologize to Martynov and calm him, and excited conversation ended challenge to a duel Lermontov.
It turns out that Lermontov himself provoked the duel and its main reason was the sarcastic, feisty nature of the poet and, specifically, his sharp tongue. After Martynov knew about Lermontov duel with de Barant, I knew Lermontov good shooter and a brave man. How could I not the hero Martynov, also later stated that he almost did not know how to shoot a gun, I decided to call a duel Lermontov ?! What made it a challenge: the collapse of a military career, mocking them Lermontov and others, inciting the enemies of the poet, the lady at the insult to which he was indifferent, and finally despair? Or is he simply believed that Lermontov would not shoot him? Be that as it may, the duel was inevitable.
Pushkin duel with Dantes.
The circumstances of the duel are widely known, and I only mention them briefly, adding little-known details. The duel took place on 27 January 1837 on the Black River about 5 o'clock in the afternoon. January 26 at a ball at the Countess Razumovskaya Pushkin suggested advisor Magenisu British Embassy, which is known as a decent human, to become his second, but he refused. January 27 afternoon Pushkin accidentally met on the street K. Danzas, his Lyceum friend, who agreed to be his second.
Structured conditions duel at 10 paces barriers (7 m) were almost fatal. Pushkin himself longed to kill Dantes and he realized that he needed to kill Pushkin, or the duel could be resumed. Both were canceled by the arrows. Bullets from dueling pistols Lepage diameter of 12 mm was applied to life-threatening wounds. Everything was according to the rules. Seconds Dantes was Viscount d'Archiac. In deep snow trampled paths for the match, the seconds overcoats identified barriers. Lieutenant Colonel Danzas waved his hat, and Pushkin, quickly stepping up to the barrier, aim to shoot for sure. But Dantes shot before reaching the step up to the barrier. Pushkin Danzas overcoat fell, mortally wounded in the right side of the abdomen. He found the strength to lying aim and shoot. Dantes stood right side, bending the right arm at the elbow, closing the chest and discharged a gun - head. It saved him. The bullet pierced the right forearm and flattened (ricocheted?) On the button of his uniform. Dantes fell Pushkin shouted, "Bravo!" - But Dantes rose quickly: the wound was not dangerous.
Pushkin developed severe bleeding, and the doctor was not there and there was nothing to put a bandage on the wound. According to M. Undermana Pushkin lost two liters of blood. On his sleigh able to take to the Commandant's house, where Danzas Dantes proposed to transport the wounded carriage, which he sent Gekkern. Nice gesture! If Pushkin knew whose it is the coach, he certainly would have refused, but Danzas said it was he hired a coach. Pushkin was brought home. All the time until his death he was conscious. The bullet pierced the bowels of the poet in several places and shattering part of the aitch bone, stuck nearby. Pushkin behaved bravely, but there was a moment when he could not stand the agony, wanted to shoot himself. Danzas had time to take away his gun, already hidden under a blanket, he said: "No need, Cricket" (nickname Pushkin lyceum).
King went fairly well, sending a note to the forgiveness of the poet, and most importantly, with the promise to take care of his wife and children. Suffering, Pushkin hastened death. Most doctors treat it correctly, but the poet's position was hopeless. He developed peritonitis, and after 46 hours after wounding Pushkin died in 2 hours and 45 minutes of the day January 29, 1837. Danzas was arrested, without giving him the opportunity to pursue other body in the Church of the Monastery for burial next to his mother.
Was it possible to save Pushkin in our time? Such a possibility was analyzed. If all medical conditions, an operation and using the latest methods, medical devices, antibiotics, Pushkin could be saved today. Even so, the chances of a successful outcome would not exceed 50-60 per cent. By the way, the writer Andrei Sobol, seriously worrying over the death of his friend Sergei Yesenin, June 7, 1926 a shot from a revolver at the monument to Pushkin in Moscow intentionally self-inflicted wound, a wound like Pushkin, shot in the stomach on the right. Twenty minutes later, he had already operated on, and although the wound was inflicted conical bullet, rather than round, which produces heavier damage Sable died just three hours after surgery. And Pushkin in 1837 likely to survive at the then level of medicine was not quite. I should add that the wounded Pushkin said: "When corrected, we'll start again." But for the same insult could only be one duel.
Duel Lermontov with Martynov.
The circumstances of this duel so contradictory and confusing, according to the testimony of Martynov and the seconds of M. and A. Glebov Vasilchikova that are still treated differently. The seconds in collusion with Martynov gave distorted evidence to the court to ease their plight. Lermontov not only did not want to kill Martynov, but he would not, and most of this duel. He knew that after all it was he offended, though in jest, Martynov, not expecting such consequences as a challenge to a duel. Moreover, Lermontov realized clearly that if the duel will take place, even if the outcome of a bloodless his future would be tragic and all the dreams of the resignation and the collapse of literary activity: Nicholas I, who hated him, put an end to it.
Therefore, Lermontov, seeking to prevent the duel, said after the call Martynov, that he withdraws his shot. But Martynov, pushed by his entourage, was already blinded by the accumulated anger to Lermontov and categorically refused to reconciliation. He feared that, by taking a call back, he would be the laughing stock of the whole of Pyatigorsk. Lermontov himself back in 1832, entered the military school, prophetically wrote: "To die with a lead bullet in the heart is slow agony of the elder." Save and drawing Lermontov the same time showing the two duelists standing almost side by side, one of them shot at the other, and he swung the gun in his hand at his belt, somehow directed towards the barrel.
his friends, including Leo Pushkin, the poet's brother the morning of the duel, July 15, 1841 to Lermontov in Zheleznovodsk arrived. Lermontov was hilarious, joke, and no one even suspected the impending duel, but, left alone with his cousin Katya Bykhovets, he was terribly sad. Lermontov was well aware that without shooting Martynov, he puts at stake his own life.
As for the seconds, then with them an amazing story. Many years later Vasilchikov said that the seconds in a duel was Stolypin (the poet's cousin), Glebov, Troubetzkoy (friend of the poet) and he Vasilchikov. During the investigation it was said that Glebov was Martynov's second and Vasilchikov (!) - Lermontov. The presence of Trubetskoi concealed because he arrived in Pyatigorsk without leave, and the presence of Stolypin hid because he has just been involved in a duel with de Barant Lermontov, and both of them would be waiting for severe punishment.
The duel took place on July 15, 1841 between 6 and 7 pm. Previously it was believed that it occurred at the foot of Mashuk Mountain near Pyatigorsk, and on-site duel in 1915 an obelisk was erected by sculptor Mikeshin, but in Soviet times, it was found that in fact the duel was in another place - in Perkalskoy rocks. Conditions were brutal duel: shoot up to 3 times when barriers in 15 steps (10.5 meters) (!). But such conditions could only be at the grave insult! Some authors that the distance between the barriers were 6 (!) Steps (4.2 meters)! This is not serious, but exceptional cases, even when the duel Barriers to 3 (!) Steps! Once Lermontov previously waived his shot, then, in fact, it was not a duel, but a murder.
Now - attention! According to the well-known E. lermontovedov Gernshteyn when the storm began before the duel, it seems, Stolypin, Troubetzkoy and maybe Dorokhov for some minutes did not have time to drive to the site of the duel before it started. Stolypin and Troubetzkoy, friends and the seconds of the poet, did not think the match will start in a thunderstorm and heavy rain, especially before their arrival. But he hurries Lermontov Martynov, who took a duel with two second. It so happened that Glebov and Vasilchikov become both the seconds and Lermontov and Martynov. I emphasize that Glebov Lermontov trusted. Lermontov, probably before the end did not believe that Martynov will shoot him, will seek to kill him. Abandoning his shot at the brutal conditions to shoot up to 3 times, Lermontov, in fact, acted as a suicide, giving their lives to the will of fate or chance.
Now - an important fact. The fact that Martynov, Lermontov caused to the duel, had no right to shoot into the air, as if the match would be considered null and void, a farce, because both are not subjected to danger. But if Martynov shot is clearly not aiming, by Lermontov, he would have become a laughingstock. So there was nowhere to retreat Martynov.
He really wanted to kill Lermontov and the murder would silence all those who mocked him. Martynov was in a frenzy, blinded by hatred of Lermontov in the years of humiliation from him, he was angry at the world for the collapse of his military career. In such a state, he certainly did not aim to Lermontov's feet, only to wound him. The goal he had one: to kill Lermontov. I wonder what he did Martynov 2 days before the duel? No, Martynov was not a cold-blooded and judicious during the duel, but was well aware what is happening, without considering the consequences. What is there nobility, dignity officer, gentleman: Martynov far even to Dantes. There is evidence that before the duel Lermontov Martynov wanted to explain that he did not want to offend his dignity, but he did not even listen to him, hurrying to start the duel-kill.
Thus, the signal of the seconds duel began in a thunderstorm and downpour. Lermontov was walking at a hurried to the barrier and tselivshegosya a pistol at him Martynov, not wanting to shoot and not moving from the spot, stretched out his hand over the head with the gun barrel up, contemptuously looking at Martynov. Sometimes they write that Martynov, beside himself, furious calm Lermontov, shouted to him, so he shot him. But Lermontov shot into the air, and Martynov, reaching the barrier, ruthlessly shot stationary, unarmed Lermontov. The bullet pierced the poet's chest bleed, causing his instant death.
Martynov, the investigation showed that the gun misfires Lermontov was not. So, Lermontov, who refused a shot at the opponent, emptied his pistol into the air. Martynov testify against himself. But Vasilchikov apparently conspired with him and said he shot Martynov and Lermontov did not have time to shoot (implied in Martynov) and he Vasilchikov later fired from Lermontov's pistol into the air. However, none of this fact is not confirmed. Heather Vasilchikov! Indeed, in this case, it turns out that Martynov had to shoot an armed Lermontov earlier than the one in him. All the rules of dueling. And Martynov on the best lie of the mind is not enough for him. No doubt, even in this case, promahnis Martynov and Lermontov would be fired into the air. But the duel up to 3 times! In Martynov, Lermontov shot (where?), But in Vasilchikov, Lermontov gun was charged after a duel. This mysterious story.
You can, of course, admit that, giving up the gun, Lermontov had no time to shoot up into the air, but there it was in his interest to do so as quickly as possible, demonstrating the unwillingness to fight. But still upward barrel gun Lermontov Martynov saw and shot it in person, who did not want to shoot him, that is, in fact, unarmed. And this is - the murder, because Martynov knew Lermontov would not shoot him. Apparently, Martynov is no longer owned them. A Glebov wrote Martynov after his arrest: "I Vasilchikov protect you everywhere and to all, because I do not see anything wrong with your hand in Lermontov." Amazing recognition, especially since Glebov Lermontov trusted. The meaning of written is that justifies us, because we'll justify.
The exact circumstances of the duel is unknown until now. I think that if Stolypin and Troubetzkoy present at the duel, at least over the years they talked about it, but it did not happen. Returning to a duel. Let me remind you that neither the doctor nor the carts were not. The rain stopped. With Lermontov's body was left alone Glebov, while Martynov and Vasilchikov rode in Pyatigorsk for the doctor and people. Late in the evening I arrived Vasilchikov with people without doctors, and the poet's body was taken to the house Chilyaeva, where he lived together with Stolypin. On the next day with a huge crowd of people buried at the Pyatigorsk Lermontov Cemetery, and later at the request of his grandmother EA Arsenieva Nicholas I allowed to carry his body in a lead coffin and zasmolennom in Tarkhany, where he was buried April 23, 1842 in the family vault Arseniev , next to the grave of his mother. I emphasize that in a duel with Martynov Lermontov certainly acted as an assassin.
Versions of Pushkin's duel with Dantes.
In 1959 in the USSR and in 1963 in France (!) Were made a lot of noise article, which claimed that the duel Pushkin with Dantes was actually premeditated murder of the great poet. The article said that Dantes was capable of meanness and outright crime, so he behaved insolently and unceremoniously during the weeks preceding the fight January 27, 1837. The articles explicitly states that there have Dantes during a duel with Pushkin guard either chain mail, worn beneath Cavalry frock coat or armor (bulletproof vest), as well as - allegedly at Dantes had rifled barrel gun, enhances the killing power of bullets. Contributors doubt that life Dantes saved button, from which sprang a bullet struck before that his forearm, oblivious to the fact that Pushkin was shot while lying at an acute angle, and the bullet had ricocheted off a metal buttons, losing part of lethal force, when it (the bullet) Dantes has broken forearm.
These allegedly "sensational" easily refuted by the facts. Even if Dantes put "museum" chain mail, he would have risked a bullet with Pushkin and get more injured by fragments of broken rings. With regard to the shell, and it is sufficient light at the same time durable material from which the body armor made today, while there was no trace. A dueling pistols were smoothbore and were charged spherical bullets unfit to fire the rifle. A friend of Pushkin Danzas and d'Archiac checked pistols and strictly abide by the conditions of the duel, ensuring their execution of their honor. One can cite a lot of denials "sensational" facts. Pushkinists version of the duel-murder did not take into account. The fight was held in strict accordance with the terms and conditions signed by the seconds, and Dantes was not a coward. Truth above all, the memory of Pushkin does not need to lie.
Version duel Lermontov with Martynov.
In 60-ies of XX century there was a sensational article in which experts the authors put forward his version of Lermontov's duel with Martynov. They studied a mortal wound Lermontov and came to the conclusion that the bullet pierced the side of the poet at a considerable angle and exited through the other side bleed. Death was instantaneous.
As Lermontov and Martynov during the fight were on level ground, the authors claimed that the bullet fired from a pistol Martynov could not hit Lermontov at an angle of its direction. The authors suggested Lermontov version of the murder a stranger during a duel. Allegedly, the assassin with a gun hidden in the bushes on the side of Lermontov left or right, that is the unknown Lermontov fired into the side above or below. The article even cited a legend that many years later, one Cossack before his death said that he was promised a pardon for his crime if he secretly shoot one person.
This version does not hold water. First of all, as a result of the duel Martynov, knowing that Lermontov refused the shot, expected to kill or seriously injure. And if Lermontov began shooting, he would have been condemned for this fight, so send for a purpose that the killer did not make sense. In addition, he had to shoot when a shot Martynov, that is almost impossible. Otherwise it would have sounded two shots. The smoke after the shot from the bushes would have noticed the seconds. In the case of the assassin could not do without the collusion with Martynov.
How could the killer know where Lermontov rise? Yes, and the shooter must be experienced. Wounds from the pistol and bullets are different. In addition, where then the second wound from a bullet Martynov? Or his shot was idle? But the seconds checked weapons. So it would not be able to hide the mercenary murder. Such inconsistencies in the article a lot, and take seriously the arguments of the authors there is no reason.