The origin of life: blind chance or intelligent design?
The mystery of the origin of life on Earth revealed!
This motto has long hovered on the banners of science. The origin of life on Earth was considered obvious. The researchers of the problem outlined biochemical magic circle, within which built artless model, according to which about 4 billion years ago on Earth as a result of natural chemical processes from nonliving matter originated the first living cells. According to the scenario of the Soviet academician AI Oparin and J. Englishman. BS Haldane, the cells formed in the primary terrestrial ocean, which was a true chemical soup. The Earth's atmosphere at that time was virtually oxygen-free and consisted of methane, ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
However, over time, space research has shown that it is itself a true chemical soup altogether there is no need to invent gipotetetichesky ocean
all the necessary components for the emergence of life existed in the space well before the Earth formed from a cloud of cosmic dust, circling around the sun. A group of Dutch researchers in 1984 empirically in a helium cryostat, providing the space and the cold vacuum to give the complex organic molecules (carboxylic acid groups, amino groups, urea, etc...) - That is, such compounds can be formed without the oceans ...
But that's not even where, in the end, there was the first living cell, and why it happened. It is believed that the emergence of life - the result of a particular set of circumstances, totally random, by virtue of which there have been certain biochemical processes that led to the formation of a living cell from nonliving matter.
Well, let's see if this is possible. Nobel Laureates Watson and Crick, discovered the existence of the genetic code, showed that the content of this code is abstract writing. But we still have no clue, for example, by what laws are formed, "Alphabet" and "words" of the genetic code and how to form a "recorded" their chemical types of proteins. To put it simply, we are faced with a problem: we have the simplest amino acids - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). From these "letters" (the simplest amino acids) are made three-letter "words", such as ATT, CSA, GAG and so on. Each of the "word" refers to a molecule of the complex twenty amino acids which form the protein molecule. The chain of several hundred or several thousand of these three-letter combinations and a "record", defining the rules of formation of a protein molecule. And the question is: these rules are formulated by chance?
After many years of research to answer this question, probably better than anyone else knows the problem of people - myself Francis Crick, discoverer of the genetic code, a recognized authority of the world of biology:
"No! That's impossible! "And as it is impossible to imagine that a living cell could have arisen by chance alone, as a result of random chemical reactions.
Well, the cell was formed. But where such a variety of life forms that have arisen, it turns out, from a single cell?
Here lifesaver for daring scientists for a long time served as a so-called "theory of evolution", developed in the XIX century by Charles Darwin. According to this theory, the diversity of plant and animal species that inhabit the earth, is the result of frequent, totally random mutations that are summed over the millennia, through the so-called "transitional links" led to the emergence of new species. Then action comes natural selection. Interspecies struggle destroys or displaces the periphery of species not adapted to the conditions of life in the biological "niche" in the given external conditions, while at the same time allowing the species to flourish, which by chance proved to be better adapted to survival.
This model is quite satisfied with most of the scholars a hundred years ago, today is bursting at the seams, unable to cope with the flow of new discoveries. So, paleontology, after many years of studying thousands of fossilized skeletons have not found any examples of "transitional links". Modern science knows no fossil creature, which could be said that the next phase of it another creature evolved. All known organisms like minerals and existing ones, differ significantly from each other. If evolution was a Darwinian - small steps of random changes, now we can enjoy the most amazing monsters, for example, turkey with webbed like a goose feet - what can you do accidentally mutated, suddenly come in handy in the case of the Flood ...
Not everything went smoothly from the Darwinists and interspecific competition. For example, recently it became known that the forest has its own communications network, a kind of Internet, through which between plants is an exchange of information, and sometimes even food.
This discovery completely changes the image of the forest as a place of quiet struggle, where every blade of grass lives its own life, constantly encroaching rob neighbors of the moisture, light and air. In fact, according to British and Canadian researchers, trees "communicate" with each other through a single underground communication network, but instead of copper or fiber optic cables used by a fungus called mycorrhiza, which grows on the roots of the fibers.
Scientists were able to determine that with the help of mycorrhizal fungi is carried out, even the transfer of nutrients and trees, in which the intensity is the process of photosynthesis (deciduous trees, such as birch) give "surplus" tree in which the process of photosynthesis is slower (conifers).
Studies have shown that the forest - this is a balanced ecosystem is interconnected, and the picture of the world of the forest was completely unexpected in many ways. So, it turned out that the successful growth of young trees, mature trees give way to them through the "communication network" some of the necessary sources of growth. Underground mycorrhizal network provides optimal distribution of nutrients between all the trees of the forest, which is especially important in the impoverishment of the soil. The presence of a "network" is explained by the fact of the symbiosis of trees and mushrooms. In "Internet forest" and their "hackers" - a low-growing plants, which are unable to provide for themselves due to their own photosynthesis and are forced to parasitize on big trees.
Thus, instead of the "struggle for survival", which seemed to Darwin one of the driving forces of evolution in the world of plants reigns Armenia, based on the cooperation of independent units.
At present, there are no facts supporting the thesis of Darwin's Origin of new species as a result of gradual accumulation of quantitative changes. Among the scientists become increasingly popular thesis that the formation of species occurs abruptly, resulting in a qualitative change in a very short time, but this theory generates a lot of difficult questions How it can help to explain, for example, the fact that the conversion of antelope giraffe. This is not only a process of lengthening the neck and front legs, increase muscle mass, strengthening the skeleton. This restructuring of the vestibular apparatus to a minute when the animal abruptly lifts his head from the ground to a height of about six meters, the blood does not drain from the brain. How such a complex transformation can occur in a short time, if you count his "accidental"? Rather, one can speak of a targeted and programmed transformation.
Finally, the role of "blind chance" in evolution eliminated the recent discovery of the fact that most of the genetic mutations carried out with a clear focus, and a few facts of random mutations, as a rule, are violations of the body and do not carry anything constructive 'So instead of "blind chance "to the forefront of the evolution of intelligent design advocates.
The world around us cease to be clear - understandable from the point of view of natural science of the XIX century, which is the foundation of modern science. Over the past century revealed a number of new facts, but to explain many of these facts and build on their basis of any coherent theory of science is not able to. In other words, the more we learn, the less we know. But ever since the ancient times people knew that the truth is hidden from people, and it can only grasp the intuition ...