Olmec stone heads
About three thousand years ago on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico Indian culture emerged, called Olmec. This code name was given on behalf of the Olmecs - a small group of Indian tribes who lived in the area much later, in the XI- XIV centuries. The name "Olmec" means "rubber people", - Aztec origin. The Aztecs called them by name because the area of the Gulf Coast, which produces rubber and where today they Olmecs lived. So actually Olmec and Olmec culture - not the same thing. This circumstance is extremely difficult to understand by non-specialists such as Mr. Hancock, who dedicated the Olmecs, in his book "Fingerprints of the Gods," a lot of pages. Such publications only confuse the issue, nothing at the same time not explaining the merits of the case.
The civilization of the ancient Olmec, whose origin dates back to the second millennium BC. e., ceased to exist in the first years of our era and a half thousand years before the rise of the Aztec Empire. Olmec culture is sometimes called the "mother culture" of Central America and Mexico's earliest civilization. Oddly enough, despite all the efforts of archaeologists, anywhere in Mexico, as it does in America, so far failed to find any trace of the origin and evolution of the Olmec civilization, the stages of its development, the place of its origin, as though these people appeared as already stacked. Absolutely nothing is known either about the social organization of the Olmec, nor about their beliefs and rituals - except human sacrifice. We do not know any language spoken Olmecs, which ethnic group they belonged to. A very high humidity in the Gulf of Mexico led to the fact that did not survive a single Olmec skeleton.
Ancient Olmec culture was the same 'corn civilization ", as well as other pre-Columbian American culture. The main sectors of the economy were agriculture and fisheries. To have survived the remnants of religious buildings that civilization - the pyramids, platforms, statues. Ancient Olmec stone blocks were cut and carved out their massive sculptures. Some of them depict huge head, known today as the "Olmec head." These stone heads - the biggest mystery of the ancient civilization.
Monumental sculpture weighing 30 tons depict people's heads with undoubtedly Negroid features. It is virtually portraits of Africans in tight-fitting helmets with chin strap. ear lobes pierced. The face is cut by deep wrinkles on both sides of the nose. Corners thick lips bent down. Despite the fact that the Olmec culture flourished in the years 1500-1000 BC. e., the confidence that their heads were cut precisely in this era, there is, as the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments found nearby, gives only age embers themselves. Perhaps the stone heads are much younger.
First stone head found in 1930 American archaeologist Matthew Stirling. He wrote in his report: "The head was carved from a single massive basalt boulders. It rested on a foundation of rough stone blocks. Having cleared the ground, his head was pretty awesome view. Despite the considerable size, it is processed very carefully and confidently, her proportions are perfect. A unique phenomenon among the sculptures natives of America, it is notable for its realism. Her features distinct and clearly the Negro type. "
By the way, Stirling and made another discovery - he found children's toys in the form of dogs on wheels. This innocent at first glance, in fact, was a sensational discovery - because it was believed that the civilization of pre-Columbian America, the wheels did not know. But, it appears, on the ancient Olmec, this rule does not apply. However, it soon turned out that the Maya Indians, the southern contemporaries of the ancient Olmec also made toys on wheels, but the wheel in its business practice did not apply. The big puzzle is not here - ignoring the roots of the wheels go to the Indian mentality and "corn economy." In this regard, the ancient Olmecs were little different from other Indian civilizations.
In addition to the heads of the ancient Olmecs left numerous examples of monumental sculpture. All of them are carved from basalt monoliths or other durable stone. You can see the scene of the meeting of two distinctly different races of men on Olmec stelae. One of them - the Africans. And in one of the Indian pyramids located near the Mexican city of Oaxaca, is located several stone steles carved with scenes of captivity by Indians and white men with beards ... Africans.
Olmec heads and the image on the stelae are physiologically accurate images of real blacks, whose presence in Central America 3,000 years ago is still a mystery. How could appear Africans in the New World before Columbus? Maybe they were the original inhabitants of America? There is evidence of paleoanthropologists that as part of a migration to the territory of the Americas during the last Ice Age really got people blacks. This migration took place around 1500 BC. e.
There is another assumption - that in ancient times between Africa and America were made contacts across the ocean, which, as it turned out in the last decade, is not shared by the ancient civilization. Adoption of the New World of isolation from the rest of the world, has long prevailed in science, has been convincingly refuted by Thor Heyerdahl and Tim Severin proved that the contacts of the Old and the New World may have occurred long before Columbus.
Olmec civilization ceased to exist in the last century BC. But their culture is not lost - it is organically entered the culture of the Aztecs and Mayans. But the Olmecs? In fact, the only "business card", which they left behind - this giant stone heads. The heads of the Africans.