In eastern Turkey, the Anatolian coast, near the border with Iran and Armenia stands covered with eternal snow mountain. Its height above sea level is only 5,165 meters, which does not allow it to be among the highest mountains of the world, but this is one of the most famous peaks of the Earth. The name of this mountain - Ararat. In the clear air of early morning before the clouds closed the top, and at dusk, when the clouds go away, opening up the mountain, arising against the evening sky pink or purple before the eyes of the people, many looking at high on the mountain outlines the giant ship.
Mount Ararat, on top of which must be Noah's Ark, it is mentioned in the religious traditions of the kingdom of Babylon and the Sumerian state in which, instead of November cited the name Ut-Napishtim. The Islamic legends and immortalized Noah (Arabic Nuh) and its huge ark-ship, but again without at least the first indication of his place of parking in the mountains, which here is called AlDzhud (top), for them, meant and Ararat, and two other mountains in the Middle East. The Bible presents us with approximate information on the location of the Ark: "... the ark rested on the mountains of Ararat." Travelers centuries perpetrators of trips with caravans in Central Asia or back, repeatedly passing near Ararat and then told that they had seen the ark of the nearby mountain peaks, or mysteriously hinted at his intentions to find the ship, the ark. They even claimed that the wreckage of the Ark were made amulets to protect against illnesses, misfortunes, poisons and unrequited love.
Starting around 1800, gornovoskhoditeley group quadrants, altimeters, and later with cameras climbed on Ararat. Genuine remains of Noah's Ark, these enormous expedition did not find, but found huge traces korablepodobnye - in glaciers and near the very top of the mountain covered with ice noticed massive columnar formation, similar to the human hand hewn wood beams. In this increasingly asserted the view that the ark gradually slid down the side of the mountain and broke into numerous fragments, which are now probably frozen into one of the glaciers covering Ararat. If we consider the Ararat of the surrounding valleys and foothills, is having a good imagination, in the folds of the mountain terrain is not difficult to see and housing giant ship, and noticed some elongated oval object in the canyon depths, or not entirely clear dark rectangular spot on the ice of glaciers. However, many researchers asserted, especially in the last two centuries, that they saw a ship on Ararat, in some cases climb high into the mountains and found themselves, as they claimed, in the immediate vicinity of the ark, much of which was buried under the ice.
Legends about an unusually large wooden ship that survived for thousands of years the whole of civilization, many people do not seem to be completely believable. After all, wood, iron, copper, bricks and other building materials, except for the huge rock boulders, over time, break down, and in this case can remain on top of the wooden ship? You can answer this question, apparently, the only way: because this ship was frozen in the ice of the glacier. At the top of Mount Ararat in the glacier between the peaks of the mountains it is cold enough to keep the ship, built of thick logs, which are mentioned in the reports that came from the depths of thousands of years, "prosmoleny been thoroughly inside and out." In the reports gornovoskhoditeley pilots and aircraft of their visual observations korablepodobnym object that they noticed on Ararat, always ritsya about the parts of the ship, covered with a solid shell of ice, or tracks within the glacier, resembling the outline of the ship, respectively ^ sponding dimensions of the ark, described in the Bible: "three hundred cubits of length L-tion, fifty cubits wide and thirty cubits high."
Thus, it can be argued that the preservation of the ark is mainly dependent on climatic conditions. About every twenty years have been extremely warm periods on the Ararat mountain range. In addition, every year it is very hot in August and early September, and it is in these times there are reports about the found on the mountain tracks of a large ship. So when the ship was covered with ice, He can not be exposed to weathering and decay as a number of prominent scientists specimens of extinct animals: the Siberian mammoths or saber-toothed tigers and other mammals of the Pleistocene era, found in Alaska and northern Canada. When removing from the ice captivity they were perfectly safe, even in the stomach was still not digested food.
Because certain parts of Ararat surface for the whole year are covered with snow and ice, seekers of a large ship residues could not see them. If this ship on the mountain all the time covered with snow and ice, needed extensive special studies. But they are very difficult to conduct, for mountaintop fraught, according to residents of surrounding villages, for gornovoskhoditeley danger lies in the fact that the supernatural forces protect people from trying to Ararat to find Noah's Ark. This "protection" is manifested in a variety of natural disasters: avalanches, sudden rock falls, the strongest hurricane in the vicinity of the summit. Sudden fog deprived climbers opportunities to navigate, so that among the snow and ice fields and deep gorges, they often find LUT grave in icy, snowy bottomless cracks. In prelgoryah inhabits many poisonous snakes are common wolf packs, very dangerous wild dogs, bears settle in large and small caves in which climbers often attempt to have a rest, and, in addition, from time to time reappear Kurdish bandit gang. In addition, by decision of the Turkish authorities' approaches to the mountain for a long time protected by detachments of the gendarmerie.
Many historical evidence that on Ararat noticed what looked like a ship owned by those who attended the nearby villages and towns and from there admired Ararat. Other observations belong to those who are traveling by caravan to Persia, passed on the Anatolian plateau. Despite the fact that many of the certificates refer to ancient times and the Middle Ages, some of them were present details that much later notice and modern scholars. Beroes, the Babylonian historian, in 275 BC. e. wrote: "... the ship, which is in Armenia fell on the ground," and, moreover, mentioned: "... resin scraped from the ship and were made of her charms." This same information is given by the Jewish historian Josephus, who wrote his works in the first century after the conquest of Judea by the Romans. He presented a detailed story of Noah and the Flood, and, in particular, wrote: "One of the ship can be found even today in Armenia there ... people type resin for the manufacture of amulets." In the late Middle Ages in one of said legends that the resin was ground to a powder and dissolved in the drinking liquid is a drug for protection against poisoning poisons. Directions to these and other ancient writers on the ship's pitch are interesting not only because it is clearly correspond to specific places of the book of Genesis, but also because of the huge ship was fully accessible centuries after the Flood, because it gives a quite real explanation that the wooden pillars and beams, of which the ship was built, well preserved under a layer of permanent ice high in the mountain.
Josephus in his "History of the Jewish War" makes this interesting observation: "The Armenians call this place the" dock "where the ark went down forever, and show preserved to this day part." Nicolaus of Damascus, who wrote in the 1st century after Christ, "Chronicles of the world", called Mount Baris: "... in Armenia there is a high mountain, called Baris, on which the salvation of many fugitives from the Flood. There, on top of this mountain I stood one man, sailed in the ark, fragments of which have survived there for a long time. " Baris was another name for Mount Ararat, which is in Armenia has called Masis. One of the most famous travelers of the past of Marco Polo in the last third of the XV century was passing near Mount Ararat on the way to China. In his book "Travels Venetian Marco Polo" there is overwhelming message of the ark: "... You have to know that in this country of Armenia on the highest mountain top is based Noah's Ark, covered with eternal snow, and no one can go there, to the top, climb, the Moreover, the snow never melts, and new snowfall complement snow thickness. However, the lower layers of it to melt and the resulting streams and rivers flowing down to the valley, thoroughly moisten the surrounding countryside, which grows fat grass cover, which attracts every summer all around large herds of herbivores large and small animals. "
This description of Mount Ararat to this day remains valid, except for the statement that no one on the uphill climb is not. The most interesting is his observation is that the snow and ice to melt and ground water flows from under the glacier ice. It is particularly important to note that the researchers found in the modern ice cracks processed by human hands wooden beams and posts. German traveler Adam Oleary at the beginning of the XVI century traveled near Ararat and in his book "Travel to Muscovy and Persia," he wrote: "Armenians and Persians believe that the said mountain are still in the wreckage of the ark, and they become solid and strong as a rock over time ".
Note Oleary of petrification of wood refers to beams ^ D that have been found above the boundary of the forest zone and are currently i Echmiadzin monastery; They also like the individual parts of the ark are nowadays found French climber and explorer 'Fernando Navarro and other travelers. Franciscan monk Oder, who on his travels, reported the Pope in Avignon in 1316, saw Mount Ararat, and wrote about it: "People living there told us that no one has climbed the mountain, as it probably would not like it the Almighty ... "Legend of the fact that God does not allow people to climb Mount Ararat, is still alive today. That taboo has been broken only in 1829 by Frenchman Jean F. Parra, who made the first ascent to the summit of the mountain. Glacier on the north-western slopes of the mountain named after him. After half a century began, essentially, a competition for the right to find the remains of the first ship of Noah. In 1856, the "three-infidel foreigner" in Armenia hired two conductors and hit the road in order to "deny the existence of the biblical ark." It was not until ten years before his death, one of the conductors admitted that "to my surprise, they found the ark." First, they tried to destroy him, but they did not vysh- anything, lo, because he was too big. Then they vowed that no one will talk about his discovery, and the same is forced to make its accompanying ...
In 1876, Lord Bryce at an altitude of 13,000 feet (4.3 kilometers) found and took a sample from a piece of processed logs 4 feet (1.3 meters). In 1892, Archdeacon Nouri together with five accompanying saw "a large wooden boat" near the top. However, "his testimony remains unconfirmed. In 1916, during the First World War, Russian pilot Vladimir Roskovitsky said in a report that he had observed on the slopes of Mount Ararat with the airplane "was a big ship." Curb Russian government, despite the war, the expedition started to search. Subsequently, the direct participants claimed that their goal was achieved, photographed and examined in detail. Apparently, it was the first and last official expedition to the ark. But for the NIJ, the results were lost in Petrograd in 1917, and the territory of Great Ararat was invaded by Turkish troops.
In the summer of 1949, to the ark went just two groups of researchers. The first, consisting of four people headed by a retired North Carolina Dr. Smith observed at the top of a strange one "vision". But the second, consisting of French, said that "a Noah's Ark have seen ... but not on Mount Ararat", and on a nearby top-Dzhubel Judy. There are two Turkish journalist then allegedly saw a ship the size of 500 × 80 × 50 ft (165 × 25 × 15 meters) with the bones of marine animals. But Ricker expedition did not find anything like it in three years. In 1955, Fernand Navarra managed to find among the ancient ship ice from under the ice, he drew an L-shaped bar and several trim boards. After 14 years, he repeated his attempt with the help of the American organization "The Search" and brought a few boards. In the US, radiocarbon method showed the age of the tree 1400 years in Bordeaux and Madrid, the result was different - 5000 years!
Following Navarro Ararat went Libi John from San Francisco, had recently seen the exact location of the Ark in a dream, and ... found nothing. Septuagenarian "Poor Libi", dubbed as its journalists, committed over three years of unsuccessful seven ascents, during one of which he barely managed to escape from a bear to throw stones! One of the last made five climbs Tom Krotser. Returning with his trophy-board, he said to the representatives of the press: "Yes, there is the tree of 70 thousand tons, by his head" Again radiocarbon analysis showed the age of the boards in the 4000-5000 year ... The history of all expeditions (officially, at least) It terminates in 1974. That's when the Turkish government placed on Ararat observation posts of the border line, closed the area for any visitor.
In parallel with the "ground" expeditions, the evidence of the ark comes from the pilots. In 1943, two American pilots while flying over Mount Ararat attempted with a height of several thousand meters to see something similar to the outline of a large ship. Later they, flying the same route, they took with them the photographer who took the picture, then got in the US Air Force newspaper "Stars and Stripes". In the summer of 1953, the American oilman George Jefferson Green, flying in a helicopter in the same area, with a height of 30 meters made six very clear pictures of a large ship, half of the past in the rock and sliding down a mountain ledge of ice. Greene later failed an expedition to this place, and when nine years later he died, disappeared, all originals of his shots.
In late spring or summer of 1960, American pilot of 428 Squadron, tactical aircraft, stationed near Ada) in Turkey and are under the auspices of NATO, have noticed some korablepodobnoe construction on the western spur of Mount Ararat. On this flight, am (Rican captain Shvinghammer wrote in 1981: "A huge Gruzova cart or rectangular boat in a water-filled cleft high up on the mountain, was clearly visible." Moreover, he argued that the object slowly crawled down the slope and had to get stuck among mountain ledges and boulders. in 1974, the American organization «Earth Research Technikal Satellite» (ERTS) was made photographing from a height of 4600 meters high mountain ridges of Mount Ararat. The photographs obtained with multiple magnification was clearly presented this unusual object, which lies in one clefts of the mountains, "is very similar in shape and size to the ark."
In addition, the same area was photographed from a height of 7,500 and 8,000 meters, and the resulting images of glacial formations quite consistent with what he saw earlier pilots, who spoke of the ark seen by them, or any other unusual object. However, any object, fixed at such a height, even at high magnification can not be quite confident to identify the ark, because it is more than half hidden under the snow or in the shadow of the rock ledges. In 1985, T. Maknellis, an American entrepreneur, who lives in Germany, traveled to the north-western and north-eastern foothills of Mount Ararat and a lot of contact with the local residents, most of all - the old Turkish officers who have received at the time military training in Germany, and young Turks, moonlighting in Germany in recent years. Many of them are convinced that the ark can be easily found: "Go left along the edge of a precipice Aorskoy up the hill, then turn left again and after a while on the way you get to the Ark." He explained that with the lower ledges ark is not visible, because the ship, thousands of years to slip from the top of the mountain, is now lying quietly under the thick ice cover vast glacier.
Thus, evidence of the existence of the ark a lot. But in order to become valid, it is necessary to find the ark itself. Maybe now, due to the general warming of the international climate, the expedition to Ararat resume? In the meantime, one can only hope that preserved in the ice of the ancient ship will not fall apart in anticipation of researchers.