The mystery of the "land of parrots"
It has been almost five years since Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape, opened Bartolomeu Dias found a new route to India. This meant that from now on Lisbon will be directly linked to Calicut and Malabar, and the treasures of Golconda be unloaded on the coast of Portugal. And the cape that Dias named "Cape of storms," King Juan renamed "Cape of Good Hope" - as a symbol of the future prosperity of their country.
Every day on the areas of the Portuguese capital gathered large crowds of sailors, merchants and bankers of all nationalities, and everyone wanted to take part in the same company as that opened for Vasco da Gama, the door to immortality.
Among them was a Norman nobleman by the name of Beano Polme de Gonnevil, who had a reputation as a happy sailor and prudent merchant. He told me that he knew the way to India and is ready to bring out a ship full of spices. His stories sounded convincing, and Gonnevil quickly gathered the necessary sum to charter a small boat carrying capacity of 120 tons, which bore a promising name "Hope". The crew consisted of sixty resolute men - soldiers and sailors recruited from idlers and adventurers, filled the port quays.
The headquarters of the company consisted of two French pilots, capable of making good use of navigational instruments, the clerk, who was supposed to combine the functions of a draftsman and cartographer, and the surgeon. Hong Neville also took with him two experienced Portuguese, who claimed to know the road as swimming with Vasco da Gama. And finally - the two merchants who invest in warships outfit, whose task was to guard the interests of shipowners.
"Hope" was armed with two bronze cannons, two cast-iron guns and six light muskets. Commercial cargo consisted of many tons of hardware, fine glassware from Venice, rolls drape, drogeta, fustian, linen and velvet - all destined for the civilian population of India.
Little ship set sail from the French port of Honfleur June 24, 1503. swimming Circumstances "Hope" has long been known in a very inexact version: said that Gonnevil on the way to the famous cape got in a terrible storm, and far away from that, was captured dead calm; his crew suffered heavy losses from scurvy, and freshwater come to an end, when suddenly appeared in the south of the land. The ship dropped anchor in the wide mouth of the river, the banks of which are inhabited completely naked men and colorful parrots. Hong Neuville stayed there for six months, and as his crew refused to continue the route to India, he went to France, taking with him a young "savage" on behalf Essomerik, son of a local chieftain. The ship was already in the Cotentin Peninsula, when it began to chase the pirates, from which it was impossible to escape except by sending a ship on the rocky shore ...
The captain presented the royal prosecutor at Rouen about the travel report, made from memory, as the ship's logs had disappeared in a shipwreck. Relatives and friends Gonnevilya abandoned gear of the second expedition, explorer and dignified retired to his ancestral estate, never to talk about his journey. In fact, whether to talk little boat on the one hundred and twenty tons, broke on the shore after a two-year voyage? Memoirs, dictated by the clerk - that is all that remains of the mysterious journey. But this fragile document also eventually faded into the background, and the story of this adventure, fantasy painted, overgrown with new needs, according to the storytellers, parts, gradually lost credibility. But the point still remains: French sailors heading to India, opened a new ground in the south and landed on her.
What was the earth?
Australia! So, at least, he suggested the historian Lapopie-Liner, which pulled out of oblivion Gonnevilya and "Hope." "Nobody in the world knows - he wrote in his work entitled" Three Worlds "- that seventeen years before the company Magellan merchant ship out-of Honfleur, repeating the path of Vasco da Gama first landed on the Australian shore and traded with the inhabitants of this country ... The French have allowed Spanish and Portuguese usurp the honor of this discovery. "
Journey Gonnevilya again interested in, there was a lot of questions. In what place he landed? In some parts of Australia it traded? Nobody knew.
The game entered the geographers: in the first years of the XVII century Ortelius - F faiths in the service of Philip II and the pupil Mercator, a Flemish cartographer, author of a collection of maps and descriptions of European countries, called "Atlas" (izd. 1595) - built a map of the world , the bottom of which stretched "Australian terra incognita" near the Tierra del Fuego and the south of Africa, which bears the title "Land of Parrots".
Years passed. A hundred and fifty years after the voyage "Hope" travel to Australia became fashionable. The time is approaching when European rulers, especially those who have not got a piece of the American pie, began to worry about the domination of the South. And then the voice sounded rather weighty than the scientist, again demanded, in the name of France, to return the honor of the discovery of Australia Gonnevilyu that was there before the Portuguese. It was the voice of the Abbe de Polme Kurtona, canon of the Cathedral of Lisieux. He was a direct descendant Essomerika and considered himself very well versed on long voyages, probably because his ancestors came from the South. But the scientist canon did not know where the Earth Parrots, where his ancestors had occurred.
Gonnevil, retiring to his Norman possessions and being unable to return Essomerika his father, engaged in the formation of the young prince. To teach him the basics of the Christian religion, he married him to his niece, Suzanne Polme, heiress of a solid state to a Cotangent, and made his sole heir. And now the abbot Polme, scion of a noble French family and a descendant of King Aroska (the name of the Australian Bishop), started a campaign to restore the honor and glory of his great-grandfather as a discoverer of Australia. He proved by a variety of arguments, that Gonnet Ville gave France the undisputed ownership of the new continent.
Rummaging in old cabinets owned by his family, he found a copy of the evidence submitted by his ancestor in the admiralty of Normandy. However, the first concern of the Holy Father was to receive from the King of France has agreed to send a mission to the Catholic evangelization of his "wild" relatives. Lengthy retelling an invaluable document, jumping from fifth to tenth, he made the most fantastic memoirs, showing incompetence rather than ill will, in such a frivolous assessment of events.
At Abbot Polme were very good connections; he presented his work Monsignor Vincent de Paul, the head of the founding fathers of the missionaries, who, unfortunately, died before he had the chance to show this work the Pope. But canon manuscript fell into the hands of Mr. Moisi Kra-known bookseller to the Rue Saint-Jacques. This venerable and visionary businessman, without asking anybody Council, rushed to print and distribute work, with all its imperfections and even errors. Advertising works facilitated the spread among the educated; It was entitled as follows: "Note concerning the creation of the Christian Mission in the Third World, otherwise known as Australian soil, the South, the Antarctic and the Unknown", composed a spiritual person - a native Australian lands and dedicated to Pope Alexander VII Jean de Polme Kurtonom.
Abbot Polme passed all purely maritime and geographical considerations, as he knew nothing about them, and gave no precise information regarding the routes Gonnevilya, but in twelve chapters, he willingly shared with readers his thoughts on this subject: Earth parrots was at he said between 70 and 75 degrees east longitude and 68 degrees south latitude, that is, considerably south of the place where later opened the Kerguelen Islands. "The French, the note said, are particularly interested in returning to this region, as they have to demonstrate to other countries the right to priority in landing on Australian soil."
Thus, the name of the poor sailor, marine bypassed happiness, decorate the pompous title of the discoverer of South India and took place between Magellan and Lemaire. Louis XIV and Colbert - French finance minister, willingly decided to organize a crusade for the purpose of conversion to Christianity Australians ... That's just it was necessary that someone pointed out, where this Earth Parrots.
She searched for two centuries ...
Gonnevil wrote that the so-called "Indians" are simple people who love fun celebrate life, eat products of hunting and fishing, wild fruits and some vegetables and root crops, which grow themselves. Young half-naked walks, most dressed wearing an apron from the hips to the knees, and the cape of mats or skins, decorated with feathers. Women's clothing length and decorated with necklaces of shells or bones. The subject of panache in men is a weapon, namely, fork, burnt at the stake, and bow and arrows tipped with bone. Women and girls are walking around with their heads uncovered, their hair raised up and gathered into a bundle using woven from grass braid bright colors. Men, by contrast, have long hair, falling down on his back and strapped on a head band with colorful feathers ... But such a description, albeit picturesque, do not say anything about the whereabouts of the people on the globe.
Count Maurepas, Minister of the Navy of Louis XV, ordered to make a serious search for all Offices of admiralty of Normandy, to try to find a record of the voyage, "Hope." Requested office responded that the document was indeed must exist, but it is not known what became of him. Archives are scattered during the "disturbances", and this is the great mystery.
They were limited hypotheses, and they were daring. At the beginning of the XVIII century cartographers placed "Cape Australian seas" in the Atlantic Ocean 250 miles south of the island of Tristan da Cunha. The French East India Company sent to Bouvet de Lozier, one of the greatest captains. To no avail. Bouvet found only volcanic island, which gave its name, but which, of course, was uninhabited, and it was not an island parrots.
President de Brosses wrote in 1756: "It seems that the Earth Gonnevilya is located south of the Lesser Molluk", next to the island of Timor. Geographer Duval believed that the Earth is located in the Parrots of drifting ice. Another scholar was inclined to believe that it is an island of Amsterdam, opened in 1696 Dutchman van Fleming, but it is, alas, was uninhabited. One after another, Bougainville, Surville, Kerguelen and Marion Dyufresi goes on a search of the Earth ... Parrots Kerguelen lucky - he found in Antarctic seas, big archipelago, which teemed with seals and penguins, but, naturally, there was not a parrot. In the same 1772 Marion opened far south of Madagascar several islets to which it was impossible to approach, and gave them their name, not to return completely empty-handed.
Meanwhile, geographers persistently exercising your imagination, having the taste on the world map headland, which is called the Australian Earth, the Earth Parrots, the Earth Gonnevilya. This was said by three quarters of a century, and people are serious, finally came to a consensus: good food, free life, which were the Indians, according to the description Gonnevilya - all pointed to the fact that he landed on ... Madagascar. However, the inhabitants of Madagascar were not feathers around the head. Leon Guerin, a respected writer and marine painter, noticed even in 1847: "The details cited canon izLize, make us think that this is just a big island of Madagascar."
... The opening, which was not expected, it was done in one day, the same in 1847: Margaret Pierre, curator of the Maritime Archives, found a copy of the voyage "Hope" report. Finally managed to find out exactly where this earth Parrots, which dreamed of geographers and which was considered the French as it opened a French sailor. The truth was, alas, less beautiful than the legend. Land Gonnevilya was much less Australian than one might think:
document directly referred to Brazil, where a few years earlier landed Cabral. But Abbe Polme wishful thinking. After a great interval above the stage curtain went up again, opening the three-century-old events ...
Coming out of Honfleur in summer 1503, Gonnevilya ship headed to the Cape of Good Hope. No incidents were noted calls at the port of Lisbon, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. When crossing the equator, the team had fun and entertain the flying fish jumping dimensions of starlings. Then the sky was covered with large black clouds, and the rain was pouring rain day and night, gloomy and sickening, wet clothes through people and causing pustular skin lesions. Many suffered from seasickness and scurvy went on the offensive over the side dropped six corpses.
Immediately after the feast of All Saints began to grow cold, and furrowed stem seaweed plantation, long and thick ficus, who met first on the way to the Cape of Good Hope. The sailors cheered, thinking that they are on the right track. But the pilots did not share their optimism: they worried that the ship does not circle around the famous Cape of Good Hope birds such characteristic of these places that they have been called "velvet sleeves." The pilots believed that the ship rounded the Cape, leaning far to the south, than could be explained by the unusually low temperature.
In fact, seaweed beds meant that the ship entered the coastal waters of the island of Tristan da Cunha - "Hope" is located at the latitude of Cape desired, but in the middle of the Atlantic. From that moment on everything went contrary winds and currents carried them to the tropics; with drooping sails sadly they drifted near the calm waters at the Tropic of Capricorn. Dooley only winds, their pursuers in the opposite direction from the Indian side, and within three weeks they circled in the South Atlantic by trade winds will. To cap misfortune, the first pilot, Colin Wasser, died of apoplexy. From that day on the way I was lost. And small vessel floated in the wind, not very clear where, but certainly not in Calicut.
It took two months to vagrancy. One day at dawn in early January, the sailors noticed birds in the south: it was an encouraging sign, which did not disappoint - the land was in this direction, and on the fifth day of the "Hope" anchored in the wide mouth of the river, which is reminiscent of the Normans riverbank at Cana, when Apart from half-naked inhabitants of these shores and trees, covered with parrots.
The captain, with a single remaining pilot, rather precisely defined its position: they were on the Brazilian shore, just off the tropical zone at the mouth of the river San Francisco del Sul, on the banks of which the Indians lived peacefully brown.
Gonnevil and his companions stayed there for six months, busy repairing the ship's hull, masts and strengthening of establishing order in the rigging, as well as the exchange of glass ornaments and hardware, products in feathers and painted woodwork. A skilled cartographer Nicolas Lefebvre in his spare time was the country's map
The six-month stay on the hospitable shores of not passed in vain for the crew. Fearing new risky adventure, the team did not show enthusiasm to continue the campaign. Considering that their personal coffers already full of Brazilian wealth, the sailors made it clear Gonnevilyu that no longer want to go to India.
At the beginning of July 1504 "Hope" has set its sights on France. As a sign of amicable arrangement king Aroska allowed to go along with the white men to his son Essomeriku, sturdy boy of fifteen, with his mentor namo. Gonnevil promised that he would return to the twentieth moon. The Brazilian leader cherished the hope that his successor will learn from the French art of making and using "shooting sticks" that it was necessary to destroy the enemies.
Namo died of seasickness a few days after departure. As the ship slowly moved east, Gonnet Ville decided to approach the American coast, to collect fresh water. At this time, the "Hope" stood in the center of Porto Seguro, where the tribe lived topinambu. These people went completely naked, their skin painted in black color and making an incision on his lips, was inserted to colored stones, considered flirtatious decoration. Unfortunately, they were as evil as their relatives, brown, friendly; rowers with "Hope", disembarked, were met by arrows, with the result that three were killed and four were wounded, among them Nicolas Lefebvre, who died shortly thereafter. Gonnevil was not harsh with these Indians: he thought that the first contacts with the Spaniards left their memories are so heavy that they are now fed by hatred and fear to all white people indiscriminately.
"Hope" left this inhospitable shore, and is still under adverse winds and rough seas, have found shelter in the two hundred miles further, in a large bay, which later became known as the Bay of All Saints, or simply Bahia. They walked along the beach for three days until they chose a quiet place at the mouth of the river where the ship loaded local fruits, the cost of which was enough to cover the travel expenses.
Then they set off again, passing surveyed the island Fernando de Noronha, arrived without adventure to the Azores, made a small parking area at the coast of Ireland and found May 7 (you can imagine how excited) since the Cotentin Peninsula.
Already known for the tragic denouement: a small ship, which for 23 months survived the severe test in their native shores were harassed English pirate, one of the pirates, who without any risk, robbing merchants in the coastal waters of France, instead of their own to try his luck in long-distance trips. "Hope" and defended bravely slipped away from him only to bump into another Corsair, this time the French ... Gonnevil, confident that they will not be able to get out alive from the unequal struggle, as a last resort rescue decided to throw the ship to the shore. "Hope", crashing against the rocks and disappeared under the water with all the goods, but did not get the pirates. Of the sixty people it is only twenty-seven crew landed on the French coast ...
So, thanks to the discovery in the archive, Gonnevil lost the title "pioneer of the Australian land," and took a modest place among the unfortunate sailors. Pretender willy-nilly, he was at the forefront of travel, which until the middle of the XIX century French sailors made the South Seas in search of the Parrots.