The mystery of Kaspar Hauser
At Pentecost 1828, two peaceful Bavarian philistine, shoemakers Vayhman and Beck, returning from a tavern, being very tipsy clock on the tower had just recaptured five o'clock Suddenly Vayhman stopped Beck did the same Vayhman, pushing his elbow friend, showed him the puny teenager, which, relying on the walls of houses, inched forward, his appearance showed all the signs of the infinite weariness of drunken artisans, with the tearful cordiality, which is only capable of good and drunk man, filled with compassion for the child to catch up with him, they asked him if he is sick
The teenager stopped, looked at them, but did not say a word in response to his look was scattered and devoid of any expression
The friends looked at each other not dumb li9 They resumed their questioning of child finally waking from a stupor, dug clumsy fingers in his pockets, pulled out some letter and handed it to his interlocutors Those surprised, read the writing on the letter it was addressed to Captain von Vesnihu, commander of the 4th squadron of the 6th regiment of the light Brigade, stationed in Nuremberg
Respectable shoemakers, consultation, decided to hold the teenager to the captain, but it was not at home to accept them his wife, waiting for her husband's return, she sat the young stranger and began to question him, but could not because he pulled nothing but a few unintelligible words he repeated them several time, and finally she realized muffled sounds evolved into the phrase "I want to be a cavalryman," uttered in German
The wife of the captain invited him to eat. He quickly grabbed the bread and began to eat it greedily. With obvious pleasure he drank several glasses of water, but when the woman offered him meat and beer, rejected them in disgust, his face slightly turned pink, he reached out, his eyes themselves are closed.
Frau von spring followed him to the stables. There he fell on the straw and immediately fell asleep.
The captain returned only in the evening. His wife told him about the amazing incident. The captain picked up a letter addressed to him:
it was written on paper, bad in Gothic handwriting, with the Lower German dialect and expressions have the following content:
"Dear Captain, I am sending to you a boy who wants to serve in the royal army. It was brought to my house October 7, 1812. I'm just a simple day laborer, I have ten children of their own, and enough trouble with their education. His mother left me a baby, but I do not know who she was. I brought him up in the Christian faith. Since 1812, he never went out of my house. No one knows what he is I have lived, and he does not know the city name or location of my house. You can ask him whatever you like - there was nothing he would not be able to answer you. I taught him to read and write a little, and when he is asked what he wants to be, he says he wants to be a soldier, like his father. I accompanied him to Neumark, the rest of the way he had to go alone.
Reverend Captain, do not beat him, trying to find out where he came from, he does not know. I took him by night, and he will never be able to find this way. If you do not want to keep him, you can kill him or hang in your fireplace. "
Signature missing, but the letter was pinned a note written on the same paper and the same ink, which apparently was supposed to represent the letter left by her mother with a child lobed:
"Child received in baptism the name of Kaspar. Give it a name and take care of him, those who find it. When he was seventeen years old, send it to Nuremberg, in the 6th Cavalry Regiment, where he served as a soldier, his father. He was born April 30, 1812. I am a poor girl, and I can not leave him to himself. His father died. "
Both letters - captain immediately noticed - were written by the same hand, but the handwriting was changed. The writer of the letter to the same, apparently, did not know that the 6th Cavalry Regiment was quartered at Nuremberg only since 1828. How, one wonders, the so-called mother could know about it in 1812?
Such crude deception officer did not like. He told the young tramp wake. Suspecting that the boy shows an idiot to get free shelter, the captain ordered him to follow him and led him to the police station. But there is nothing of the unknown could not draw but all the same unintelligible mutterings. Then the police, on some whim, gave him a pencil in his hand. Elated boy grabbed it and carefully put the paper on children's handwriting: Kaspar Hauser.
Obviously, that was his name. They tried to force him to write the name of the place where he came from, but he did not understand what was wanted of him. Please try again: "I want to be a cavalryman" - and even some unintelligible words, he buried his face in his hands and wept. Police have regretted it. as far as can be judged, the boy was sincere. They gave it to the city shelter.
Kaspar Hauser was rising four feet nine inches. He had blonde hair ash, thin and curly, and pale blue eyes. Pale complexion, the skin is very thin. He could hardly stand on his feet, and seemed barely able to walk: and no wonder, the soles of his feet were soft and weak, as well as the palm of your hand. In appearance it could give 16-17 years.
He rejected any food except bread and water. A smell of meat makes him sick, he could not stand even milk. When in his presence lit candle, he seemed very surprised. Reaching out to the fire, as if to grab him, he cried out in pain - burn was pretty deep. There was no doubt that the first time he sees a fire.
His clothing was nothing that would lead one to believe about its origins. At Nuremberg, he appeared in a greasy felt hat, a shirt of coarse linen. On top of it was wearing a worn and fyaznaya gray jacket, apparently pereshito from other clothing. Gray patched trousers, an old shawl of black silk at the neck and utterly worn out shoes completed the beggar his suit.
The story quickly spread through the entire city. Doctors, Magistrate officials came to see interesting "subject." They talked with Caspar, who gradually learned to respond to them. Mayor of Nuremberg Binder often visited the young stranger, and even took it in his. He instructed the teacher gymnasium Daumer every day to give him lessons. As a result, after multiple attempts, Kaspar could tell folded from scraps and pieces, what little he remembered of his mysterious past.
He did not remember that he lived somewhere other than the closet like a cooler, a narrow cellar, which served as a rammed earth floor, and light barely penetrated through the basement window located high. He slept on straw, his feet were always bare, clothes consisted of a shirt and leather pants. Next to him stood a basin which is emptied while he slept. When he woke up, he finds himself near the cup of water and a piece of bread every four or five days he visited a "black man" who spoke a few words. By the end of his detention, "the black man" taught him to write his name and repeating a single phrase, koto Rui knew Kaspar: "I want to be a cavalryman." Some time later;
This man came into his kennel, and lifted him under the arms and moving the] turns his feet, taught him to walk. These exercises lasted for many days.
When the "black man" decided that Kaspar is held quite firmly on his feet, he took it upon himself "to a place where there were a lot of trees." Then he forced the boys to follow him on foot. Their journey lasted two days, Kaspar was walking alone, it carried on the back of his companion. When the city seemed far away (it was Nuremberg), "the black man" changed the clothes on Caspar, put a letter in his hand and told him to go towards the "big village." So he was on the Cross Street, where he met his brave shoemakers.
What is unusual and mysterious story! It clearly pronounced 'naya Romanticism intensified sympathy for Caspar the people around him. Mayor Binder had confidence in the noble origins of the child and believed that Kaspar was a victim of kidnapping. Determined to get to the truth, Binder, published in the newspaper, in which he asked to respond to anyone who knows anything about the kidnapping in the period between 1810 and 1814 years. The entire German press, and behind it and the foreign reprinted an article published in Nuremberg. In London, Vienna, Paris and St. Petersburg talked about a mysterious teenager who somehow journalists dubbed "European orphan."
Many shrugged their shoulders: the story were too adventurous. Others, on the contrary, the case of Kaspar Hauser is extremely interested. Among the latter was a German criminologist Feuerbach, President of the Royal Court of Justice in Ansbach. He undertook the present investigation. Sincerity Caspar was recognized, long-term proven its conclusion. As a result, the hypothesis that the only scion of a noble family could be kept in prison for so many years and with careful observance of secrecy, received weighty acknowledgment.
But then the child should not just belong to a noble family, but a family with great political weight. Medical examination showed that Kaspar was born about 1811-1813 years. What 'the sovereign's family at this time lost a child in infancy? Gotha Almanac calls only one such family: the princes of the house of Baden.
When Feuerbach came to this conclusion, the mayor of Nuremberg, in turn, received an anonymous note with a stunning question: is Kaspar Hauser, son of Grand Duchess Stephanie of Baden, who was declared dead 16 October 1812?
... Stephanie de Beauharnais was born with the Revolution, in 1789. She was the daughter of a cousin of General de Beauharnais, the first husband of Josephine Bonaparte. Unlike his cousin, who was one of the heroes of the revolution, Stephanie's father was among the first emigrated abroad. The girl stayed with her mother in France. Her mother soon fell ill and died. Three year old Stephanie was left an orphan and entirely without means, since her father's property was confiscated. Her pity sheltered Countess of Bath, which, in turn, was forced to flee from the Revolution and pass the girl two elderly nuns. All childhood Steph-NII passed in poverty.
In 1804, on the eve of the proclamation of the Empire, Napoleon, Josephine Bonaparte told about his cousin. He exclaimed: "What! One of your relatives live in poverty, and I do not know about this! "He immediately ordered to take the girl from the nuns. He orders Stephanie was placed in a well-known boarding house of Madame Campan, which brought all the young girls of the consular aristocracy, starting with the sister and stepdaughter Bonaparte. And in the day of his sixteenth birthday Stephanie learned the incredible news: the Emperor adopts her, she receives the title of a French princess, and she is to marry the Crown Prince of Baden!
Napoleon, wanting to consolidate their position on the European stage, I wanted to intermarry with European reigning houses, but it was in a paradoxical situation: European monarchs were not averse, but at that moment the family of Napoleon there were no girls in a suitable marriage age, and he was forced to use for this purpose Josephine relatives. These were the reasons for the family Steph-NII Beauharnais.
March 4, 1806 Stefania became the emperor's daughter. She moved to the Tuileries and lived for a month with the Empress, who introduced it in the course of court life. Stephanie was a little disheartened to see the groom - Crown Prince of Baden Karl Ludwig. Awkward, silly-looking, brushed on the old fashion, in powder and curls, he proudly brought to Stephanie. "It is even uglier than I expected," she whispered.
The wedding was celebrated with great pomp: the emperor ordered that the ceremony "was organized on the model of ceremonies of the old regime, and even more magnificent." Then the young wife went on the road to their new home in another country. She, inexperienced girl, had to enter the family, which trailed the darkest of intrigue for years.
Ruling Grand Duke of Baden, Karl Friedrich was married after the death of his first wife, Caroline of Hesse, Louise Geyer, he made Countess Hohbergskoy. This marriage was morganatic, and his three sons from the Countess should not inherit his throne. But the fact that her sons had no right to power, did not bother the Countess Hohsberg. The only legitimate heir of Karl-Friedrich was Prince Charles, married to Stephanie, but the countess wanted her sons took a formal place in the family of the Grand Duke. And in order to secure the throne for her children, the Duchess - the woman without prejudices - I was ready for anything ...
The fall of Napoleon put the unfortunate Stephanie in the very sad state. Karl-Ludwig and Stephanie had five children: three girls who were different blooming health, and two boys who died in infancy. The first son of Stephanie, born September 29, 1812, was in good shape and within two weeks after birth developed completely normal suddenly, on the night of October 15, the child was ill, and the next day, at 6 o'clock, died. The second son of Charles and Stephanie was born in 1816 and a year later also died. For Hohs Berg no longer existed obstacles. Countess triumphed: in 1830 her son Leopold ascended the throne of Baden.
... And now the mayor of Nuremberg received a letter in which it was assumed that Kaspar Hauser - the son of Grand Duchess Stephanie, who, according to official reports, he died in 1812!
Meanwhile, the "European orphan", surrounded by all the cares of Nuremberg, is actively working on his education. Study it was easy, especially he excelled in music: a year after meeting with Vayhmanom Beck and he was good at playing the harpsichord.
October 17, 1829 during the lunch hour, Professor Daumer, which Kaspar Hauser lived in recent months, was surprised when his young boarder did not come to dinner - he was usually punctual. The professor and his wife called him loudly, and finally went to look. They went around the house and suddenly on the steps leading to the cellar and saw blood. Quickly down the stairs, they found Caspar unconscious with a bloody head, barely breathing.
The wound was not fatal, and it came out. When Caspar was able to speak, he told me that, going down into the yard, saw proskolznuvshego by man "whose face was black, as if covered with soot." He thought it was a chimney sweep, and the meeting did not give value. When he came out of the closet, the stranger suddenly appeared in front of him and struck him a heavy blow on the head. Kaspar fell and lost consciousness. When he awoke, he was afraid that the killer is somewhere nearby, went down into the cellar, holding on to the wall, and at the last stage again lost consciousness.
A month Kaspar lay in bed for an attempt on his life has attracted the attention of the higher authorities. King Ludwig of Bavaria personally ordered that henceforth Kaspar was kept under the protection of armed men.
Investigating the mystery of the "European orphans" has gone away, so far that should stop it! Too many high-ranking officials would have to disturb. It is fearlessly Feuerbach argued in his pamphlet, published in early 1831. "All levels, - he wrote - all the heights and depths may not be achievable for the hands of civil justice, since those boundaries, for which there is justification to search giant guilty of such a crime, pravosu- step of ^ to reach this giant, you must have in your pap ^ his disposal pipe Joshua or at least the horn of Oberon. " Feuerbach was alluding to the fact that the investigation was forced to stop in front of the gates of the Royal Palace ...
At the end of 1831 a Lord Stanhope suddenly announced that he will form the Caspar, and to this end intends to take him to England, and even to adopt. The City of Nuremberg, who paid for the content of the boy for three years, readily agreed to hand over to the care of an Englishman "European orphan." However, Stan Hope Caspar limited transfer to the nearby town of Ansbach, where he placed it in the guest house under the care of the teacher on the Meyer family. Neither of the journey to England, no longer on the Adoption of the speech was not.
Two years have elapsed in a small town, which seemed to be preserved intact since the Middle Ages. Kaspar spent these years in relative peace, but this change in my life was unfortunate for him. Stanhope its promises, which he kept not, turned the boy's head, it is often visited by bitterness and resentment. Besides his boss, Meyer, a man stingy and rude, treated him badly: he considered the boy a deceiver.
December 14, 1833 Kaspar, to leave the house alone, returned bloodied, barely able to stand. "He killed me ..." - whispered the young man.
At this time, the wound was serious. The doctors did not hide their concern. Kaspar some time remained in the minds and told how he was approached by a stranger, and promised to give any information about his parents. He appointed rendezvous Kaspar at dusk in a secluded area of the city park, where the boy had promised to transfer the necessary documents.
Kaspar trustingly accepted the offer of a stranger. He was waiting for him at the appointed place and handed him a small purse and the folder, but if by embarrassment, dropped these items on the ground. Caspar bent down to pick them up, and at this moment unknown stabbed him with a stiletto on the left ...
After hearing this story, Meyer shrugged. He suspected cheating again. Persisting in his skepticism, he believed that Kaspar he injured himself, to whet the interest of the part of the public. However, in the park, at the location specified by Kaspar, a small purse of red silk has been found, and in it a piece of paper on which the deformed hand was written the following: "Hauser can tell you who I am and where was. To save him from this work, I will tell you myself that I came from the Bavarian border ... to ... I'll call you, even the name of the ... M. LO. "
Folder disappeared. Rain washed away all traces on the ground.
Soon, doctors announced that Kaspar hopeless. On the morning of December 16 he began raving, and he died in the evening.
At the spot where he received a mortal blow, was a monument. On the stone is engraved with an inscription in Latin: "There is an unknown unknown, he was killed."
Duke Ludwig of Bavaria has appointed a thousand ducats for my head murderer Kaspar Hauser. And ... also been steadfast public study: if he gives the money for the search for the killer, then maybe we are talking about the murdered heir to the throne?
Many researchers have tried to uncover the secrets of exciting appearance and disappearance of Kaspar Hauser. On this subject, written more than two thousand articles, books, and even poetry. The works of the German and French historians partly shed light on the story. It seems likely that Kaspar Hauser was indeed the son of Grand Duchess Steph-NII. Two attempts on his part, prove it: "I only believe in such stories, witnesses who were killed," - said at the time Pascal. Edmond Bapst in his study "The fight for the throne of Baden" (Paris, 1930) came to a very definite conclusion on this matter.
On the eve of the First World War at the disposal of researchers for a short time were "secret memoirs" Stephanie Beauharnais, Grand Duchess of Baden. In a small notebook in which the adopted daughter of Napoleon recorded the main events of his life the broken, she says, she knows perfectly well that the unfortunate young man, who was killed in Ansbach, was her son.
If we accept this version, how the facts fit into this hypothesis? It is known that the prince was born on September 29, 1812. His illness was sudden. The nurse left him in perfect health;
a few hours later, when she returned to the child, the room door was closed, and she was told that doctors provide assistance to the child. After some time, she announced that the child died. By order of the Grand Duke of unction performed excited midwife; They could not even wait for the arrival of the palace pastor, so hurry ...
Had there been a substitution? Who organized it and why? What child planted in place the little prince? Probably the entire operation led Countess Hochberg. Furious appearance of obstacles between her sons and the throne, she has decided to destroy this obstacle. She could poison the child, but opted for a more cunning means - substitution. A sick child, who will take the place of Prince, will die, but it will save the hostage. If Stephanie does not produce a birth of a male heir, the crown will pass to Prince Ludwig. A Prince Ludwig promised her never to marry - so the road will be free for children of the Countess. The little prince, who will live under strict protection in a secret refuge, will be a valuable instrument to make Prince Ludwig to keep his promise of celibacy. If he wants to marry, he threatened to release from prison the rightful heir.
The researchers even found traces planted a child - he was the son of a poor worker from Karlsruhe and bore the name of Jean-Jacques Ernest Blehner. And the little prince turned into Kaspar Hauser was handed to Franz Richter, huntsman of Pilzaha that forty kilometers south-east of Nuremberg.
When the Grand Duchess Stephanie, left a widow at twenty-nine years old, learned about the appearance in Nuremberg, Kaspar Hauser and that some consider him her son, she said: "If it were true! - And she added sadly: - But this is impossible ... "
But her torment this mystery. She recalled the circumstances of her son's death and how she was not allowed to look at the dead child ... Stephanie decided to secretly see Caspar during his daily walk in Hofgartene, city garden - is the garden, where he was killed a year later.
When Stephanie Caspar saw approaching, then nearly fainted: all Caspar reminded her husband, Duke Karl Ludwig, "... the same height, the same shoulders, the same poise, the same gait." But the Duchess of understandable caution, could not tell others about their discovery. Meanwhile Caspar killed.
So, if you believe the documents and oral testimony, Hauser was a victim of political intrigue. Receiving a grandson of Napoleon did not have to get the throne and paid with their lives for their origin.
However, in recent years to resolve the puzzle joined modern genetics. Genetic analysis of biological material taken from descendants still alive Stephanie Ludwig of Bavaria and Baden, as well as the analysis of the remains of the unfortunate Kaspar clearly led to the conclusion about any relationship with the German princely family is out of the question. So, most likely, you were right those of his contemporaries, who called the father of the "European orphans" of a soldier of the 6th Cavalry Regiment, stationed in Nuremberg ...