Mystery of Mozart's death
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the musical miracle child, began to give concerts for the European nobility and compose the first product in six years. Thirty years later, in the height of his fame, he died after a short illness.
Even a few decades Haybl Sophie, the younger sister of the wife of Mozart Constanta, perfectly remembered writing on the wall. On the first Sunday in December 1791 she was in the kitchen preparing coffee for the mother. The day before Sophie was in Vienna visiting a sick brother in law, and returned home with the news that he was better. Now, waiting for the coffee boils, Sophie thoughtfully looked at the bright flame of the lamps and the thought of her husband zanemogshem Constanta. Suddenly, the flame went out, "completely like a lamp will never burn," she later wrote. "At the wick there is not a spark, but there was not the slightest draft - for this I can vouch." Seized with a horrible premonition, she ran to her mother, who advised her to immediately return to the Mozart house.
Constanta sister met with relief. She said that Mozart spent a restless night, and asked her to stay. "Ah, my dear Sophie, I'm glad you came, - the composer said. - Stay with us today to present 'when I die. " With Mozart was his assistant Zussmayer, which the composer gave guidance on the completion of his last works - the requiem mass. They called priest, and then the doctor who ordered pylavschemu applied to the forehead of the patient cold compresses. About an hour before midnight Mozart lost consciousness; He died on December 5, 1791 at 0.55. A former child prodigy and prolific composer did not live two months before his 36th birthday.
Constantly testing need of money, most of the year Mozart worked feverishly on the completion of major orders. Friends and relatives, he seemed nervous and exhausted overwork. However, on November 20, when he fell ill, no one came to mind that the disease would be fatal. Second husband Georg Nikolaus Constanta Nisse listed the symptoms of the disease in the biography of the composer, published in 1828: "It all started with a swelling of the hands and feet, and almost complete inability to move, and then followed by vomiting. This is called acute typhus fever. " The diagnosis was confirmed in the official registration book of the dead of Vienna.
Mozart himself suspected foul play. A few weeks before his death, he told Constance that he was poisoned with poison, "I was given a" aqua Tofane "and calculated the exact time of my death." "Aqua Tofana" slow-acting poison, odorless, based on arsenic, named for Julia Tofino, Italian witch XVII century that invented this composition. Mozart decided that "Requiem", ordered him to a mysterious stranger, for his own funeral.
December 31, 1791 Berlin newspaper reported the death of the composer, pulling assumptions about its cause: "As the body swelled after death, some believe that he was poisoned." Recorded undated eldest son Karl Thomas Mozart remembers that his father's body so swollen and the smell of decomposition was so strong that the autopsy was carried out. Unlike most of the corpses which are cold and lose flexibility, Mozart's body remained soft and elastic, like all poisoned.
But who needed the death of Mozart? The widow did not attach much importance to rumors of poisoning and no one suspected. Antonio Salieri, who was older than Mozart's only five let was appointed court composer of Emperor Joseph II in 1774. He was 24 years old. When the seven years in Vienna, Mozart arrived, the Italian was the leading musician of the Austrian capital, high tsenivshimsya apistokratami, and a favorite of demanding Viennese music fans. Salieri wrote a lot and easily. Later, among his pupils were Bethoveya, Schubert and Franz Liszt. But Mozart, he quickly saw an opponent and a genius with a talent which he will never be able to compare. In Vienna's musical circles there is little doubt that Salieri was jealous of Mozart and Mozart made no secret of his contempt for the court composer.
Salieri lived to see the day when in 1824 the whole of Vienna to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of his appointment as court composer. However, the year before he made a startling statement. In October 1823 one of Beethoven's pupils named Ignaz Moskeles visited the aged Salieri in one of the suburban clinics.
Salieri, who could only speak fragmentary sentences and was busy thinking about the impending death, honor vowed that "this absurd rumor is not a word of truth; you know that I am accused of having poisoned Mozart. " It is a vile slander, he said Moskelesu shaken, "give the world ... old Salieri, who was going to die, you said it." A month later, Salieri attempted to commit suicide. People visited him reported that he had hallucinations, associated with guilt for the death of Mozart, and he wants to confess his sin. A year later, very honored court composer died.
Italian biographer of Haydn, Giuseppe Carpani tried to save the honor of his compatriot. He found a doctor that was accessed during the last illness of Mozart, and learned from him diagnosed with rheumatic fever. If Mozart had been poisoned, where is the proof? - I asked the question Carpani. "It is useless to ask. The evidence was not, and it is impossible to find them. "
After the death of Constanta husband sent his youngest son to take lessons from Salieri. When we asked about the rumors regarding the fact that the court composer poisoned his father, the boy said that Salieri did not kill Mozart, "but truly poisoned his life intrigues." Salieri himself reportedly said: sorry, that Mozart died so young, although other composers for the best: he lived a little longer, "not a soul would not give a crust of bread, and for our work."
The second suspect in the alleged murder was Franz Hofdemel brother Masonic lodge, which consisted of the composer. His charming young wife Magdalena was one of the last students who took piano lessons from Mozart. A few days after Mozart's death Hofdemel violently attacked his pregnant wife with a razor, mutilating and disfiguring her face, neck and hands, and then committed suicide. Magdalena survived and gave birth five months later, the father of which is rumored to have been Mozart.
The elder sister Maria Anna Mozart once remarked that her brother gave lessons to young women only when they were in love. A delicate Ludwig van Beethoven many years after Mozart's death, he refused to play in the presence of Magdalena because "between her and Mozart there was too close proximity." However, observations of contemporaries and preserved letters of Mozart indicate that he was deeply committed to Constance, and there was no evidence of his extramarital affairs. Finally, the Empress Marie-Louise showed personal involvement in Magdalena tragedy that it is unlikely to be made if, in the stories about fatherhood infant contained a shred of truth.
Soon after Mozart's death there was also another rumor: the composer deserved punishment for having revealed the secrets of the Freemasons in the "Magic Flute" opera. Premiere allegorical opera in Vienna September 30, 1791. He conducted Mozart himself, and the opera was a huge success with critics and the public. Among the admirers to Antonio Salieri, who accompanied Mozart on the next play, and said - what Mozart wrote with pride Constance - that He had never seen "a more beautiful setting."
Despite the fact that "The Magic Flute" could hit some members of the Masonic Lodge, the composer and his librettist Johann Emanuel Schikaneder used opera to disseminate ideas of a secret society of the courage, love and brotherhood among the general public. This topic was treated with sympathy, respect and a little bit of good humor.
Viennese Freemasons not only offended by the opera, but also ordered a Mozart cantata, which he jotted down a few days between the premiere of "The Magic Flute" and his deadly disease. A few days after Mozart's death, Grand Master of his lodge paid tribute to him as "the most beloved and worthy" of its members and called the death of the composer's "irreplaceable loss". In 1792, the Viennese Freemasons organized staging the cantata in favor of the widow of Mozart and his sons.
Since Constanta at the time of the death of her husband experienced financial difficulties, she chose the cheapest funeral, the cost of which is estimated at $ 30. December 7, 1791 at 14.30 the body was transported to St. Stephen's Cathedral, where some mourners - including both believe Salieri - heard in the aisles blessing of a priest. It is believed that the rain and snow prevented the audience to conduct the hearse to the cemetery of St. Mark, located about an hour's walk from the cathedral. That's why no one mentioned the place where the body was buried in a common grave. In fact, one of his contemporaries wrote in his diary that on December 7, it was warm, though foggy day. Later, referring to the fact that the church had to put on the grave of her husband, a cross or a slab, Constance did not put a monument to Mozart. Only in 1859 in the cemetery of St. Mark marble monument was erected, the accuracy of which the location could only guess.
Medical investigation mysterious death and hasty burial of Mozart were the subject of heated debate and speculation for two centuries. In 1966, a Swiss doctor named Carl Baer delivered Mozart contemporaries diagnosis of "acute typhus fever" amateurish and unprofessional. Based on the facts collected by the physician Franz Mozart Thomas Kloss, Baer suggested that he had rheumatic fever, acute non-infectious disease accompanied by painful inflammation of the joints. In 1984, another physician, Peter J.. Davis, published a more thorough analysis of the history of Mozart and his last illness.
In 1762, when the six-year-prodigy musician began giving concerts and composing music, he contracted a streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract. The consequences of such an infection may occur months or even years. Later the boy suffered from bouts of tonsillitis, sick with typhoid, chicken pox, bronchitis and jaundice, or hepatitis A. In 1784, three years after his arrival in Vienna, the composer became seriously ill. Symptoms include severe vomiting and acute articular rheumatism.
Dr. Davis graduated analysis diseases Mozart's conclusion that the cause of death was a combination of a streptococcal infection, taken up during the epidemic of renal failure caused by increased allergic sensitivity, known as Henoch-Schönlein syndrome, and cerebral hemorrhage and fatal pneumonia. Dr. Davis noted that signs of renal failure include depression, personality changes and delirium. This may explain the belief of Mozart that he was poisoned and that the unfinished "Requiem" for his funeral.