The phenomenon of Mowgli
One of the most intriguing species of legends about werewolves associated with children who are brought up among wolves, like wild beasts, and the extent to adopt the habits and the habits of animals that normal life among the people become completely impossible for them. The boy-wolf known since ancient times, and the story of Romulus and Remus - one of the earliest reported cases. Feral children by themselves with only a tangential relationship to the legend of the werewolf, probably had some influence on the tradition that has developed around this terrible creature, and only for that reason appropriate to mention some of the most famous cases of savagery. Boy Monkey twelve years old, found in the jungles of the south of Ceylon, playing with monkeys, was examined by doctors and representatives of the civil authorities. It turned out that he was behind in mental development was probably for this reason that my parents left in the jungle. The child has learned to mimic the behavior of the monkeys, and so survived.
The boy, who was named Tissa, could not speak and just cried and mumbled like a monkey. He sat there like a monkey, and was unable to stand without assistance. He moved only on all fours. Moreover, when he was given a plate of food, he dumped it on the ground before you start to eat. An important difference between a boy and a monkey-boy-wolf, which we will discuss - first great adaptability. A few weeks later the boy monkey wearing clothes and eating from a plate. Boys wolves tend to remain wild, they are quite capable of learning.
Naturally, in the light of the legend of the werewolf boys are more interesting for us wolves. They can be divided into two categories: "lycanthropes" on which we will focus, and "wild boys" usually timid children, victims of a rough and ill-breaking. (Boy Monkey apparently falls into the second category.)
It is difficult to assume, of course, that the boy-wolf is something more than sacrifice accident or a whim of nature. But hardly anyone would deny that its existence had an enormous influence on the formation of the legend of the lycanthrope. Anyone who has seen such a wild child, covered with scratches and sores, with matted long hair, dirty, the host posture peculiar animals with broken teeth and a long, resembling a wolf's claws, nails, with a stinking breath, mouth, smeared with blood from eating raw meat and among other things, I was a witness to his ferocity and heard resembling a wolf howl and growl, he makes - he could not help but shudder.
There are a number of factors necessary for ascertaining scientists Homo ferus, especially if we are talking about "lycanthropic" version. Its typical representative is deprived of many inherent human traits: love, normal emotions and especially laughter; He is silent, except for those moments when the roars, snorts and howls; he walks on all fours, like a real quadruped; he can not live among the people and shall keep the existence, peculiar animals, and most importantly, he can live without any human assistance. In short, he must dwell in the woods and be among the beasts. But there are other manifestations of Homo ferus, which are also often seen in the context of lycanthropy.
In one of the high mountain villages of Kabardino-Balkaria came a wild man dressed in animal skins and homemade shoes. The long thick beard covered almost poltela. The man hardly uttered a word. Here is a brief history of it. After the expulsion of the fascist troops of the North Caucasus during World War II in the village were two policeman, loyally served the occupier. To avoid the deserved punishment for many crimes that are committed, they fled to the mountains, taking with him a rifle and ammo - a zinc box. They went to the most remote area, settled in a cave, almost no affordable or hunters or tourists. Ate jerky mountain tours, which they prepare for the future, and dried berries, roots, wild fruits, mushrooms and nuts - there were many in the surrounding lavish forests and alpine meadows.
So they lived together for eight years, for fear of retaliation, and not knowing what the war is long over. One of the escapees was ill with cancer of the throat. The other was treating him, forcing swallow thimble with sharpened edges on a leather cord. Forcibly pulling it back, he brutally, savagely, "clearing his" throat partner of the tumor, cutting off sharp edges thimble living tissue. Of patients in the end died. And a man was left completely alone. 28 years old, he already lived in solitude. He sewed clothes and shoes from the skins of the mountain tours. They were here in abundance, enough ammunition, and finally crumbled decayed clothing.
Voluntary exile forgotten how to speak, because in all the years only twice seen people, and even then at a considerable distance, so kak afraid to come into contact with a randomly wandered into this tourist region. During one of the campaigns for dozens of kilometers to the field from which the exile gathered ears of corn, he suddenly met a cat and took her with him to the cave. Now animal brightened the existence of a cave dweller. There were already two. About someone had to take care of. But after a couple of years, the cat ate not the fox, not the wolves.
And again, solitude ... It is now an exile was not issued. He finally decided to surrender into the hands of the authorities and went to his native village. Here relatives could hardly recognize him. "The war is over?" - Was his first question. "Stalin is alive?" - Second. He explained that the war ended more than thirty years ago. Stalin died long ago, and an amnesty sinful policeman relieved of responsibility for their crimes. 'Hermit washed, dressed, put in order, gave him a shelter. As they say, they took the team and even married.
It is striking that the sixty-year old man apparently looked like a thirty-year man - not a single tooth caries, no wrinkles. However, the spiritual is completely degraded, and the aging of its society is rapidly going on. Just in front of it faded in unusual circumstances for him to civilization. He was never able to live among the people - once again left the village in the mountains. But now as a shepherd. They say, correctly fulfilled his duties, trying very rarely appear in public.
And now we call the best-known "classic" wolf-children: this is Peter, a wild boy from Hanover, Victor of Aveyron, the famous Nuremberg Kaspar Hauser and Kamala wild girl, Indian girl, who later became a priest to bring. Rousseau and Linnaeus gave their comments, exploring the riddle of the wild boy, but a true representative of this species, lycanthropic version of Homo ferus, far from the noble savage, whose portrait painted by Rousseau.
Of course, some children have been found in a wild state, is really able to return to a society of people, but we do not know exactly how long they stayed among the beasts. Maybe they simply restored the knowledge gained in the early years and temporarily forgotten because of the need to live in the woods for two or three years?
Recalling the numerous legends of lycanthropy, involuntarily pay attention to details, background. Undoubtedly, they are more suitable for adventure novel than an impartial documentary works. It is often confused us in the analysis of some of the most striking legends imagination. Lucien Malson, a professor from France, to seriously study the problem of feral children is of the opinion that any myth contains elements of truth, and should not immediately reject any unusual case only because of the fact that some part of it is, obviously, fictional . This is a very sound advice.
Apparently, the oldest and most thoroughly described the case savagery boy called wolf-child of Hesse, took place in the XIV century. Local residents began to notice that in the woods near the town inhabited by ghostly creature that whenever people happened to stumble on it, quickly hidden in the bush. Treat it with superstitious fear. The real proof of its existence was obtained only in 1344, when this strange wild creature finally caught. To the surprise of the inhabitants, it turned out to be a boy who really wild, walked on all fours, like a wolf, did not know how to speak.
We determine that the child, who was about eight years, spent in the wild half of his life. The boy, according to all accounts, was found by wolves, who dug the hole for him and saved his life, warming bodies even in the most severe winters. Some records say that they are lined with floor it leaves a hole, erecting a sort of nest. As we have seen, this fact does not lie beyond the boundaries of the possible and confirmed by other stories of feral children. The child was so used to walk on all fours that his feet had to tie the planks to help him to stand upright and walk like humans. Articulate, he could not speak and could only grumble and make sounds peculiar to animals, eating only raw food and was probably happier in the wild, where he was the will of fate. Child-wolf of Hesse became a celebrity of his time, he even drove to England to show the royal court.
Around the same time in the dense forests of Bavaria was found Drew miserable. He is known as a child-wolf of Vatteravii, and his fate is very similar to the fate of the boy of Hesse, although he seems to have turned out to be more severe, almost hopeless circumstances - when they found him, he was already more than twelve years. These two cases, as well as those that have occurred before, unfortunately, have not been deeply investigated in a timely manner, the scientists do and only at the end of the XVIII century, four centuries after the events described.
Referring again to the authoritative opinion of Professor Malsona. The scientist believes that we should not be surprised if non-human forms of non-human environment of the child. Such is the opinion of Jean Itard, a heroic teacher and psychologist who worked for many years, trying to make contact with the boy-wolf of the Aveyron and give him an education. But before you tell the story of Victor, mentions a few small, but also extremely interesting cases.
So in 1803 in the town of Overdayk in Holland was found dikiv boy, whose age could not be determined. Its distinguishing feature was that he ate bird eggs, chicks and adult birds, which he was able to catch. He was able to perfectly imitate bird calls ... The largest number of wolf-children gave India the world, perhaps because of its inhabitants because of poverty have been forced to leave young children in the jungle. From 1843 to 1933 came from India at least sixteen messages about found children with wolves both sexes, it was also found children with panthers and leopards children. However, some of these stories are completely implausible. Founded children animals were almost completely unable to change habits acquired during life in the jungle. This is not surprising when you consider that some of them have lived among the beasts of up to ten years.
Valentine Ball first reported details of Indian children with wolves in his book, "Life in the jungle of India" published in London in 1880. Although Ball has received information from "second hand", their authenticity is not in doubt. The first child-wolf, said the book, Dean Sanichar, was caught by the peasants in the village Minspuri in 1872. He appeared to be about six years old, and he had all the classic signs of Homo ferus.
He was wild, totally naked, silent - could emit guttural growl lines and, like beasts, had a razor-sharp teeth, which sharpens the constant glodaniya bones. Of course, it was impossible to determine how long he stayed in the jungle, but his physical strength and strong constitution said that he perfectly sobilsya to the wild life. As with all these children with the wolves, he went on tsetverenkah and fiercely resisted all attempts to dress him.
Unlike many other children-the wolf, Dean lived among people for a long time - twenty years. But even the most patient education, its achievements over this long period were as follows: he learned how to dress, stand straight, although for him it was never an easy thing, and use utensils. Ball said about the other boy-wolf from Lucknow - a child of ten years old, who was found two years after Dina. He had been assigned to an orphanage Sekandra, but despite numerous attempts to teach him, the child remained quite wild; however, his dubious achievement was that he learned to smoke cigarettes. Both boys never learn to speak.
Among wolves children can distinguish some of the most prominent representatives, who, of course, could help the legend of werewolves hold the last hundred years. Two is the most famous child-wolf girls, Kamal and Amal, found in 1920. . Dr. J. Singh, a trustee of an orphanage in Mandnapore, wrote a long and detailed report on their observations of the two girls, wolves, under his care; records were made for a long time, so that the accuracy of his observations is not in doubt, moreover, they are corroborated by other eyewitnesses. So, we turn to the records of the doctor.
In October 1920, when he preached in Godamuri area, he was approached by several excited locals and talked about the "fantastic creatures" who live in the jungle. The doctor decided to look at these creatures. It brought deep into the jungle, and after dark he accompanied the residents saw a family of wolves emerged from the dug on the side of the gully hole. First came the three adult wolves, wolf then ran two, and behind them were moving, by definition, the frightened peasants, two "monsters". These were two strange animals that Singh could not be classified.
They moved on four legs, and long matted hair covered their faces. After the "monster" jumped out of the den, Dr. Singh barely kept his companions gathered to shoot at them with rifles. He offered to catch them. However, the "monster" caused such fear that he was forced to go to a remote village to find volunteers for their capture. A week later, the doctor returned to the Wolf's Lair. Two wolves in it was not a wolf guarding the entrance, had to shoot. Reverend Singh and his men were amazed to discover in the lair of the two cubs and two human children. The latter were bare, covered with sores and bruises, but were more aggressive than their fellow wolves, and were willing to vigorously defend their territory.
Children were taken from dens and gave the locals the same as soon as possible get rid of them, and Dr Singh found the girls a few days later, half-dead from hunger. He tried to leave them, forcing eat milk and other nutritious foods. Younger, Amade, it was only eighteen months old, and the eldest, Kamala - so their baptize Dr. Singh - for about eight years. His skin was both pretty and covered potsarasch on calluses, tongues protruded from their mouths, they bared their teeth and panting.
Even more surprising facts came to light later. The children were unable to see during the day and fled from the sunlight in the dark corners. At night they howled and rushed across the room to find the exit. They are normally slept only five or six hours a day, ate only raw meat and thirst-quenching, lapping liquid. Both girls were crawling on his knees and elbows when they were in the room, but on the street they ran quite quickly, standing up on his hands and feet. They growled at people, was bent back, like wolves, at the approach of someone they considered dangerous. They are "hunted", chasing chickens and other domestic animals roamed the yard in search of discarded offal, and greedily devoured them.
But these children are wolves lived briefly in a civilized environment. The younger girl, Amala, lived in captivity, less than a year, she died of nephritis in September 1921. Kamala lived for about nine years. Gradually, she learned to walk, although before the end of her life she had not hanged himself elk get rid of his wolf gait. She began to wash, use a glass and even learned a few words, but continued to eat raw meat and offal, avoiding dogs. What she taught primitive speech, it means that at birth she had no mental defects and that her wolf habits were entirely taken over by the "adoptive parents.
It is not surprising that the simple Indian peasants were frightened by "monsters" of the cave - even in 1920, the fear of the werewolf, the wolf KSCH and remained one of the most ancient primitive human instincts. With the death of Kamala ended one of the most interesting stories of our time, while talking about her and her study continues to this day. Many of the circumstances surrounding the lives of these children-the wolf, covered with darkness. For example, a natural question arises: why the children were not immediately eaten by wolves? Where did the other girl? But nature keeps those secrets. Now let us turn to the last instance of the series - Victor, the wild boy of Aveyron.
Victor of Aveyron predates Kaspar Hauser and his case seems less mysterious. It also contains a number of unique circumstances, but the Victor and his whole life suffered, of course, a more detailed study. The beginning of his history as two drops of water similar to the beginning of the story of another boy-wolf, except, of course, Caspar.
This happened in 1797 (the strange boy in the streets of Nuremberg will appear only in 32 years), when the peasants remote district in the department of Tarn (Southern France), first noticed a strange creature that was hiding in the thickets. The peasants were afraid of the naked and disheveled "wild man" and, despite numerous meetings, could not establish with him a close contact. In April 1797 the boy, who, as it turned out, was about nine years old, spotted playing near a small village LaBasin. Locals caught him and placed in the barn, but the child ran out and hid in the woods for a long time.
It took about fifteen months before he again noticed. In July 1798 three hunters with great difficulty savage caught and placed in a house in a nearby village. The hosts showed complete disorder, and just a week later, Victor again escaped by jumping out the window. At this time a lone naked child survived in the forest is extremely cold winter, which indicates its extraordinary adaptability. He apparently regained endurance prehistoric man and the ability to survive without adequate clothing in extreme climatic conditions.
He probably liked the area since January 9, 1800, he again appeared near La Basin and was immediately detained by a group of peasants. The boy was naked, with matted hair, covered with scars and sores and extremely frightened. The next day he was taken to hospital and the first thoroughly examined. The first examined the Victor, so-named child, naturalist Pierre-Joseph Bonater. Bonater later wrote a detailed report published in Paris, under the title "Historical notes on the savage of Aveyron." The report aroused the interest of doctors and scientists.
Victor was probably the most unusual of all wolf children undergoing long-term study. Like many such children, he was annoyed for no apparent reason, to sleep at dusk and wake up at dawn and was not able to understand what he sees in the mirror. But Victor liked to look at her reflection in the calm water of the pond; the long hours of the night, he stared in fascination at the moon; he was not interested in other children and their games, and he's not just a bonfire of wooden toys.
Sounds of a foundling, reminded grunt. Perhaps the most unnatural feature of his was that he never smiled and only a strange twisted his mouth. Victor could not quite focus. He was constantly tormented by cramps. the boy's skin was so insensitive to the degree of pain that he could pull his hands out of the fire burning logs. The sense of smell was also special: he did not feel certain smells, even if the tray material to its very nose. Surprising his ears: in the experiments boy did not show the slightest emotion or fear when near the shot from a cannon, but look back on a very weak sounds, such as the noise of footsteps walking behind the man. What is especially surprising: he could not distinguish between music and the human voice from other sounds. Victor, like his brothers in misfortune, did not like to sleep on the bed and generally quietly endured any discomfort. But the boy, able to endure the hardships of the wild life, proved to be quite civilized neprisposoblen to life: even the monkey quickly adopt many human habits than the child-wolf.
Especially amazed researchers of his resistance to extreme cold - the boy spent the winter in the woods naked. From food preferred berries and chestnuts, fueling aversion to eating more tricky. The child is constantly straining at the leash, but now the guards were on the alert, and all his attempts ended in failure. Soon, the boy was taken to Paris, where he was examined by Dr. Pinel, known at the time psychologist. He categorically said that Viktor - just a moron, and this explains any deviation in its development.
But Victor unexpectedly lucky. Young Dr. Jean-Marc Itard, who was only 25 years old when he first met Biktorom, in 1800 he was appointed chief physician in the Imperial Institute for the deaf in Paris.
Itar examined the boy and did not agree with the great Pinel. He spent more than six years of hard and patient struggle, trying to regain Victor, poor savage of Aveyron, back to the human condition. His pioneering efforts, understanding the needs of the patient and his deep knowledge of the matter have been rewarded: the state of Victor significantly improved, although he did not become a member of human society in the usual sense.
Itar denied deserved Pinel psychologist Victor was not a congenital idiot, he was a child, deprived of the opportunity to develop normally, and although Itar could not erase from his mind the years spent among the beasts, he still has enriched his life by returning a human child to the people. Victor was a classic example of this boy-wolf, he never learned to speak, despite the heroic efforts of Dr. Itard.
Apparently, his greatest intellectual achievement in all that time there were moments of inspiration when he made pencil holders of old spit. But he was very fond of a variety of homework, especially willingly chopping wood. He could do this for hours, never tiring and not hiding apparent pleasure. Six years Dr. Itard worked with Victor and his observations, published later, show a remarkable talent of this man in his chosen field.
Now we can rightly say that the fate of Victor has developed quite happily, when compared with those cases, we have already dismantled. On it are always well cared for, he lived in an annexe of the Paris Institute for the deaf and dumb. Moreover, supportive and how to feel enlightened government appointed a financial assistance of some Madame Guerin, who looked after Victor. Died Victor of Aveyron in 1828, when he was forty years old.
In early 1996, in a remote region of China was caught in a strange little creature - a child covered with hair, which was called "boy panda." Hunters found the baby in the company of nice and slow-moving bamboo bears. This is the third time in history when the human child has grown among pandas: the first was recorded in 1892, and the second - in 1923. Boy surveyed scientists noted numerous anomalies in his behavior: he just moved on all fours, and even could not stand on their feet - fell; I not washed, and licking themselves like a cat; ate leaves and bamboo shoots; I scratched and sniffed like a wild animal; I snarled if he was dissatisfied with something.
Men Hou Lu, a biologist from Beijing, who has studied the boy panda, says the boy, probably in early childhood lost their parents, and may be deliberately left in the forest, fearing his appearance. And no wonder: the baby was born with significant genetic abnormalities - all of his body is covered with thick hair. Then, apparently, he was found and pandas mistakenly accepted, so to speak, for their family member. Accordingly raised. Apart from a few inessential differences, the panda boy behaved just like his adoptive "parents".
Latter-day Mowgli caught a 36-year-old hunter Kuan Wai. And now the adopted child lives with him, his wife and five-year daughter. Scientists believe that this child should be from one and a half to two years do. On hands and feet were long strong nails, more like claws, he quickly climbed trees and scratching and biting at first everyone who approached him. However, after several weeks of stay in the family little poobvyksya and even he began to show affection to the new "mother" and "sister." He learned how to stand up and to say a few words. But still, if you upset about something, he does not cry, and whine like a little dog.
"The family is very fond of the baby Quan, despite his strange appearance and habits of wild animal - Dr. Lu says. - They say they want to keep him. However, the boy is of great scientific value: studying it, we can better understand the processes of human development in the community and outside of it. And so we're going to take the child to Peking University to carry out multi-stage research. However, after that, I do not see any obstacles for the return to a new home".