There is hardly a person in Russia who has not read or heard about the tragic end of Mayakovsky. Since, school years, we inspired and still inspire our children to have only one idea of naturalness suicide of the poet on the basis of his tangled love relationships, complicated creative failure, nervousness, as well as long ill health. Many of the friends of the poet was kept avaricious official version, considering the motive of suicide, "the causes of a personal nature."
Declared on the day of the poet's death, she actually turned a consequence of the formal way of stating this conclusion, taking it on the answer to many questions. Detailed design and "service" this version is practically engaged in literary historians, who were under the constant supervision of the censorship imposed by the government a few hours after the shot, and the current - already behind the scenes - to the present day.
Arguments of the writers were limited to a list of facts which in their totality and would have resulted if Mayakovsky to suicide: the autumn of 1929 the poet was denied a visa to France, where he was going to marry T. Yakovleva; at the same time he received the news of the marriage itself T. Yakovleva; a painful condition exacerbated by the rejection of his criticism of "Bani"; in April 1930 upset a personal relationship with the poet V. Polonskaya, which the poet loved and with whom wanted to start a family; and most importantly - Mayakovsky left a suicide letter in which he explained the reasons for voluntary death.
Is Mayakovsky like in Paris?
Home Skoryatina doubts concerning the voluntary departure from the life of the poet marked absence of any serious evidence of his failure to obtain a visa for a trip to Paris, which was supposed to end the marriage with T. Yakovleva. Here it should be noted not only the special role of Lily Brik distributing this version, but also a special purpose which she thus pursued. The fact is that life together with the poet quite satisfied Brik, because it gave a lot of significant material advantages. Therefore Brik did not want to let go of Mayakovsky - in fact his intention to establish his family would lead to a mandatory trips. Therefore, when Mayakovsky in October 1928 sent to Nice for a date with her two-year daughter Ellie and her mother American Elizabeth Siebert (Ellie Jones), sister alarmed by this circumstance Lili Brik (Elsa) introduces Mayakovsky with beautiful emigrant from Russia Tatyana Yakovleva. Returns home she was not going, and Mayakovsky, too, would not remain abroad. A flirtation with T. Yakovleva, according to Lili Brik, poet distract from his father's worries.
But when the poet falls seriously and he has a firm intention to associate, his life with T. Yakovleva, Brik, Mayakovsky after his arrival in April 1929, from Paris to Moscow to acquaint him with the 22-year-old spectacular Yablonskii, actress Moscow Art Theater. " sudden outbreak of passion Mayakovsky - writes Skoryatin - like T. Yakovlev off pushed to the background and marriage to exclude it. Such a turn quite satisfied Brik. Polonskaya in Moscow. Had something unexpected, it is possible to hint at possible publicity of its relations with the poet. " After V. Polonskaya was married to actor Yanshin.
Mayakovsky begins to realize that his love of T. Yakovleva without a future, and 5 October 1929, he sent a last letter to Paris. A trip to Paris lost for Mayakovsky sense for another reason. October 11, 1929 Lili Brik receives a letter from his sister Elsa, which stated that "... Yakovleva marries Viscount." Note in this case the two parts: the intention Lili Brik in bringing this to the attention of the poet and the fact that the room at the same time were V. Polonskaya with her husband, and what Elsa in a letter is far ahead of the event.
So when Skoryatin checked archival documents, it was not surprised by what we found: Mayakovsky did not write the application for a visa and did not receive any refusal. So, this situation could not in any way affect the spring of 1930 on the poet's mood and did not give him a reason to serious feelings, which were thought, and carried him to the tragedy of April 14.
April 14: the questions of perplexity, strangeness.
In the spring of the 30th year Mayakovsky upset ideological quarrel with the RAF, his former colleagues boycott his show, experiencing failure with "Baney." And then there's a strong sore throat, maybe the flu. He does not hide his sickness, seeking more often in the people to overcome dreary mood. One he looked gloomy at this time, the other - a broken, third - have lost faith in their own strength. Skoryatin notes that "these fleeting observations, subsequently united with speculation and rumors, turned into a solid backup for the official reports of suicide."
At this time, Mayakovsky increasingly tied to Veronica Polonsky and connects with it all their future. Not the first time he decided to "build a family", but always came up against the stubborn resistance of Lily Brik, floats female tricks, tricks, hysterical - and Mayakovsky retreated. It was a strange life of three ... In the spring of 1930 he decided to separate from Brik during that whatever the cost, feeling a huge craving for normal own family. After all, the Briks, he was, in fact, alone, and bespriyuten. Relations with Vladimir Polonskaya compel him to act. April 4, he makes money in the housing cooperative RZHSKT them. Krasin (after the poet's death, there will move BRIC), asks for help B. Sutyrin (from FOSP) with apartment to get away from Brik before they return from abroad. But before ...
Evening of April 13, Mayakovsky went to visit V. Kataev. There were Polonskaya with Yanshin. The party broke up late in the third hour. Come Monday, 14 of April. Mayakovsky appeared at 8.30 V. Polonsky. They went by taxi to the fatal apartment in Lubyanskiy. There Polonskaya warned that in 10.30 in her important rehearsal, and she can not be late. When she calmed Mayakovsky demanded, she said that she had left today, she said that she loved him, be with him, but can not stay. Yanshin not survive her departure in this form. "I left. I passed a few steps to the front door. A shot rang out ... I cried. Sweep out the hall ... I probably came in a moment. The room was still standing cloud of smoke from the shot. Vladimir Vladimirovich lying on the floor, arms ... "
Skoryatin notes that "while none of those present have not heard that Polonskaya talked about the revolver in the hands of the poet, when she ran out of the room." This important detail all at once explained: Polonskaya runs - Mayakovsky immediately shoots at heart. And no doubt suicide. Maybe by the time investigators have not yet succeeded in forcing Polonsky, so she agreed to "explain everything" version?
Skoryatin drew attention to the fact that all off, he ran immediately after the shot, found the poet's body lying in the same position ( "feet to the door"), and which were the later - in the other ( "head-to-door"). What moved the body? Maybe in the confusion that someone needed to present a picture - at the moment of firing the poet had his back to the door, that the bullet hit the chest (inside the room), and threw him on his back, his head to the door. Doubtless suicide! And if he stood face-to-door? The same strike again be knocked him flat on his back, but his feet to the door. However, in this case, the shot could produce not only the poet himself, but someone suddenly appeared at the door ... come first head of the secret department of the GPU Ya Agranov immediately took the investigation into their own hands. L. Krasnoshchekova recalled that she persuaded Agranova wait for Lily, but he said that the funeral will be "tomorrow or the day after tomorrow", and BRIC will not wait. Then, apparently, Agranov realize (or he who suggested) that such a hasty funeral, no doubt, will cause unnecessary suspicion.
In the evening came the sculptor K. Lutsky, who has removed the mask from the face of Mayakovsky. in Leningrad TV program "The Fifth Wheel" June 22, 1989 the artist A. Davydov, showing the mask, he drew the attention of the viewers, that the dead man's nose is broken. So, Mayakovsky fell on his face, he suggested, rather than on the back, as happens in the shot yourself. Then came the dissector to remove the poet's brain for research at the Brain Institute. The fact that the name of Mayakovsky was in the "number of the elect," seemed Skoryatinu "a sure sign that the course of the tragic events of the almighty power control" "Around midnight, -. E. Lavinskaya recalls - from the dining room came the voice Agranova. He stood with papers in hand and read aloud the last letter of Vladimir Vladimirovich. Agranov read and left a letter at home. "
And the autopsy, as it is necessary for the investigating law, has not been carried out, if not for B. Sutyrin, requiring opening April 16, when he heard rumors of an incurable venereal disease Mayakovsky, allegedly led him to suicide ( "The rapid disease" - so it was said, even in the official obituary "in Memory of a friend" in "Pravda", signed J. Agranov, M. hump Katanyanom V., M. Koltsov, S. Tretyakov, Elbert L. and others). The results of the autopsy showed that malicious gossip were not baseless. But this conclusion has not been published.
I Took Me Agranov and the photo that E. Lavinskaya saw in his hands when he showed it to a bunch of clubs FOSP LEFists: "It was a photograph of Mayakovsky, prostrate as crucified on the floor, with arms outstretched and legs wide open, and in a desperate cry Mneobyasnili mouth ... "to shoot immediately when they entered the room Agranov, Tretyakov and rings. More than this picture, I've never seen. " (Skoryatin think that picture was taken before the arrival of the investigation team.) We arrived BRIC guests, as many know, his mother Lily Y. - E. Kagan, who worked in the Soviet trade mission in London. About who and how to find it abroad with her husband, Brick never told.
Some Brik, perhaps nothing surprised. For them, the death of the poet had no secrets are not represented. K. Zelensky recalls Osip Brik urged him: "Re-read his poetry and you will see how often he says ... about his impending suicide." Lilya Brik led other motives supposedly imminent suicide of the poet: "Volodya was neurotic. With the 37-degree temperature, he felt seriously ill. As soon as I knew him, he was already thinking about suicide. Dying farewell letter he wrote more than once. " Lili Brik everything was clear.
Let us examine the idea Valentin Ivanovich Skoryatina, the only person to think seriously over the so-called "suicide letter" Vladimir Mayakovsky. Maybe we will also become something that is clear - and not only a poet, but even on the most Lilya Brik.
Suicide letter: document or fake?
Here is his text, is always quoted to prove the intention of the poet to commit suicide (and comment Skoryatina):
in that dying, do not blame anyone, and please, do not gossip. The dead man this is not terribly fond of.
My mother, sisters and comrades, I'm sorry - this is not the way (do not advise others) - but I have no choice. Lily - love me.
Comrade Government, my semya- is Lilya Brik, mother, sister and Veronica Vitoldovna Polonskaya. If you give them a decent life - thank you. Started verses give Brik, they will understand. As they say - "incident isperchen" love boat has crashed against life. I life in the settlement, and there is nothing to list mutual pains, sorrows and insults, happily remain.
First of all, look at the line, where the poet lists the composition of the 'family'. Native, he mentions twice. But where the treatment is purely emotional character, they are called the first, and in the place where, in fact, transferred to the heirs and relatives for some reason find themselves after Lili Brik. (Later, the right to inheritance shall be affirmed by the Central Executive Committee and SNK of the RSFSR: 1/2 of the assigned Lili Brik, for 1/6 - mother and sisters, V. Polonskaya, in violation of the will of the poet, not get nothing). But, actually, it is not truly unjust decision is puzzling, and the moral meaning of such a "list". It is well known that Mayakovsky, in the public debate which allowed the sharpness was extremely noble people close. Why, referring to "Comrade Government," he so carelessly cast a shadow ... no, not at Lili Brik (it is the official opinion has long been reputed to be common-law wife of the poet at the official husband), and, above all, a married young woman? Moreover, unveiling the relationship with her, he immediately again humiliates her exclamation: "Lily - love me."
And the right letters to form would be in a hurry, in mortal anguish the last minute, but a piece of twin Ledger has a date - April 12th. One is struck by something else: why, in preparation for the decisive conversation with the beloved, Mayakovsky in advance, on April 12 predetermines the outcome has not yet held a conversation with her - "love boat has crashed ..."? Why not broken, in general: as we know, the poet's offer was accepted by Veronica Vitoldovna ...
However, the verses are not treated Polonskaya. They were written by the poet ... in 1928. Sketch poet transferred from one notebook to another. So handy to refer to the government .... It turns out, Mayakovsky, without straining either the mind or the heart, and took their old harvesting and integrated them into their last letter, all disoriented about the destination? Not to mention the financial calculations at the end of the letter. What a person thinks in the face of eternity? What taxes which GIZ! Like it or not, and it is necessary for something to agree with V. Khodasevich.
It is, but something interferes. Does not fit in my head, what's, frankly, a letter came from the vanity under the poet's pen. However, just ... not from the pen. According to newspapers reprinted the letter, readers would not understand that the original written in pencil ....
It is known that the poet's pen to get even for a short time, it was very difficult. And forge the handwriting "foreign" pen is almost impossible, but all these difficulties are eliminated if we use ... a pencil. And the handwriting itself - a mere trifle for professionals from agencies Agranova. And if we admit this assumption, the fluttering all distressing perplexity over the pencil text. The letter, like many other physical evidence, "took him" Agranov. It is known that even members of the government in the division of the inheritance of Mayakovsky not guided by a script, and a reprint of a newspaper ... it (a fact unprecedented!) ".
Found Skoryatinym notes filmmaker Eisenstein said that he, marking the suicide letter "proximity rhythmic system" to "Odessa thug poetry," as well as "yurodskomu folklore" of the civil war (thus implying the impossibility of Mayakovsky be the author of the letter) It makes a clear conclusion: "Mayakovsky never wrote anything like it!" And again: "It had to be removed. And it was removed ... "Offensive tone of the letter in relation to the mother and sister, as well as an unprecedented violation of their inheritance rights argue that anything like the poet wrote.
With Polonskaya Mayakovsky I spent most tragic year, and wanted to introduce her to her new home as a wife. Mentioned in the suicide letter Mayakovsky as a member of his family, it was deftly moved away from any of the rights to the poet's legacy. Get her a painful conversation with the raw but with Agranov, gossip, quick divorce from her husband and the ambiguous position in society, when Lili Brik somehow considered a "widow Mayakovsky", not being diluted with O. Brik, and she Polonskaya at essentially - "illegal" beloved poet. And in a terrible dream could not dream of a young actress, what a thankless role awaits her in this theater of the absurd Brik.
Considering that from 1930 to 1958, a letter was lying on top-secret archives of the OGPU and then the Politburo, it can be argued that it was a fake, made up in the organs of the OGPU and designed to convince everyone as the main proof of Mayakovsky's suicide.
"The criminal case number 02-29»
Several years ago, after numerous searches Skoryatinu can be obtained in a secret archive "The criminal case number 02-29, 1930, the investigator of the national 2 account. Baum. District of Moscow I. Syrtsova suicide Mayakovsky. " Here from the police report only some of the facts that caused serious misunderstandings:
the protocol is not mentioned last letter,
not mentioned calendar, reported by W. Polonskaya. Now the calendar at the Museum of Mayakovsky eat calendar sheets from 13,14 April torn Mayakovsky disappeared,
was not found and questioned "bookman" (Do not come in the guise of his people involved in the preparation of the murder?); Examination of Mayakovsky's shirt was not carried out. The shirt itself took Lili Brik and passed it to a museum, only 24 years later. We can not vouch for the fact that it is not "worked" in such a way as to match the version of suicide.
This protocol submitted by countries and undisputed intervention in the matter Agranova and his "colleagues", then was transferred together with the case for some reason the investigator I. Raw, in charge of the other party district. Sirtcov proved to Agranova apparently more amenable. The contradictions between the memories V. Polonsky and her testimony of the investigator, to look Skoryatina, due to the fact that she wrote them eight years later, and not to the general public, and it probably seemed that damn doprosnye page forever faded into obscurity.
As for reading protocol ( "was intrusive," "was not going to go away from her husband"), it is this version and wanted to get away from it Investigator I. Sirtcov. April 14 I. Sirtcov after questioning V. Polonskaya on Lubyanka states: "Suicide is caused by reasons of a personal nature" - that the next day will be published in print. April 15 Sirtcov doing in investigating sudden "irrational" break Skoryatin which explains the fact that in this day Sirtcov received at the Lubyanka necessary instructions for further action. In fact there is a document talking about a keen interest in the poet's death by just two divisions OGPU: counterintelligence (Gendin) and secret, which was led by Agranov, in whose hands were then all the threads of the case. Perhaps the GPU confused in the interrogation record the phrase, "I walked out the door of his room ..." It turns out, so some time was alone, and this could give rise to all sorts of rumors.
"Fears gepeushnikov were not in vain, - develops guess B. Skoryatin - for the question, where was Polonskaya when a shot, caused a lot of rumors. Olesha wrote to Berlin Meyerhold April 30, 1930: "... She ran out screaming" Save ", and a shot rang out ..." A sister Lyudmila therefore considers that Polonskaya not only "out the door of his room," and already "I ran down the stairs." In her notebook, she recorded: "When ran down the stairs P. (Polonskaya), and a shot rang out, then there immediately appeared Agra. (Agranov) Tretiak. (Tretyakov) ring. They came in and did not let anyone in the room. "
The case file did not answer the question: Do Polonskaya managed to run out of the room of Mayakovsky or apartments, or when there was a shot of her? We did not have, because, apparently, the answer simply was not needed. All hasty and incomplete, said Skoryatin, because Sirtcov apparently "drove" the case, and on April 19, he closes it, introducing the resolution, where the only time mentioned deathbed letter of "note".
The prosecutors in the case added another document: "The receipt. I have received from the PM Oh, pr-ra t. Gerchikova found in the room of Vladimir Mayakovsky's money in the amount of 2113 rubles. 82 kopecks. and two gold rings. Two thousand one hundred and thirteen rubles to 82. 2 and angry. ring received. Lili Brik. 21/04/30. "
"Lily Y. - says V. Skoryatin - did not take place (in live-the husband!) In any official family relationship with Mayakovsky, for no apparent reason gets the money and the things found in his room, and then all it nasledstvo- and material values and priceless archives, which are essentially public property. Special cynicism of the situation is this. In a letter to the poet's sister Olga Vladimirovna, sent to relatives a few days after the tragedy, said: "the 12th I was with him on the phone ... Volodya I instructed to come to him on Monday the 14th, and, leaving the house in the morning, I said, that'll come from service to Volodya. This conversation on the 12th was the last. " It is clear also that "Volodya" prepared envelope sister with fifty rubles as a normal, an ordinary family assistance. And this is a benefit granted in the case file almost a final, dying though poet payment with your loved ones! Not to mention that this fact is the best evidence: the poet and thought there was no escape from life on their own. "
Add to the words of V. Skoryatina that all behavior Brik is the best evidence of the many areas of personal interest Lili Brik and her husband in this case, its extensive connections with the KGB circles that emerged through the work of her husband in the KGB since 1920 (first in the speculative section, and then "authorized 7th secret department department"). As found Skoryatin and Lily herself was an agent of the agency. Her identity number KGB - 15073 and 25541. Osip Brika- Clearly, what organization helped Briks urgently leave for February 1930 from Moscow to leave the poet alone. In connection with this argument Skoryatina becomes clear why Lilya Brik organizes in 1935 the transfer of the letter through Agranova Stalin. Stalin's resolution ( "Mayakovsky was and remains the best, most talented poet of our Soviet epoch") was to make the Soviet publishers produce works of Mayakovsky huge numbers, what directly as heir, was interested Lilya Brik.
After Skoryatinym said there is a natural conclusion: L. and O. Brik could not have been unaware that Mayakovsky will soon be killed. Their behavior proves it.
How many misunderstandings, abuses, problems caused the case of such a simple and ordinary suicide "for personal reasons", surrounded, however, the strictest secrecy. But all the questions and problems disappear or be explained if we assume that the poet was killed. This conclusion does and Skoryatin. And then there is already really the last question: what was done and by whom? Skoryatin admits that the end of life, "the poet was faithful to the romantic ideals of the revolution. But more and more often in his "book party" broke the tragic notes of disappointment, and everything he sang strained reality. But the conviction grew stronger satirical "rubbish". In the course of gaining strength rejoicing over success - the poet's voice began to sound dangerous dissonance. There were also ominous warning signals: defame's play "The Bedbug" and "Bath", filmed portrait of the magazine, all the embittered baiting in the press. "
Reflecting on how quickly narrowed the circle of security officers around the poet in the last month, Skoryatin believes this is not accidental. (To his apartment immediately after the departure of the Briks moved Elbert L., who worked in 1921 in the Cheka Deputy. Early. Inf. Division and special plenipotentiary of the foreign department, engaged in espionage and terrorism, often family KGB Volovich, and finally came Ya Agranov, which Roman Gul writes: "When Dzerzhinsky was, and Stalin reached the highest positions bloody KGB investigator Cheka Jacob (Yankel) Agranov ... became the executioner of the Russian intelligentsia ... He destroyed the cream of Russian science and the public ... It's bloody nothing. is the actual killer of famous Russian poet NS Gumilev ... ") Mayakovsky, apparently he did not understand" all-consuming fire with which he plays "in contact with some secrets of the GPU. And because there are very serious grounds for the conclusions about the murder of the poet. Analysis of the last days of the poet says that the murder was being prepared under the supervision of the GPU on April 12, but for some reason escaped. (Brilliant guess Skoryatina explaining why the alleged suicide letter so it is worth this date.) The influx of employees GPU April 14 (from a secret department, counterintelligence and operoda, engaged in arrests, searches, provocations, terrorist attacks), said Skoryatin, on the one hand, throws a shadow on the reputation of the proletarian poet, forcing us today to suspect him not only in creative collaboration with the regime, and on the other - could be evidence of mistrust of the authorities to the poet.
Skoryatin found that on the day of the death of Mayakovsky Activity GPU employees was clearly higher than in the other days. Apparently, for a long time to find the surveillance, poet and I was constantly frustrated by this. From the testimony of V. Polonskaya it follows that, when she ran into the street after being shot, she was approached by "a man asked my address." The same thing happened with the bookseller, whose interrogation report was kept for decades in the deepest secrecy. A bookseller Loktev was in the apartment, probably only a few minutes before the shot, because he accidentally saw the "Mayakovsky was standing in front of it to (Polonskaya) on my knees ...". From the transcript of the examination of the poet's body it is clear that the shot was fired from the top down (as the bullet entered near the heart, and to probe the near past edges lower back) "and similar, - concludes Skoryatin - at a time when Mayakovsky was on his knees." The latter, to which he had come to investigate.
Skoryatin found who the murderer is. But his research he proved that an official of the Soviet myth of the suicide of the poet Mayakovsky no longer exists, that the secret of this tragic event they raskryta- poet Mayakovsky was killed.
Name unknown killer. But we know who it was profitable, who was interested in it, who did not like his play, the desire to write a poem "Poor" and much of what has already been born within it and only find a way out. Hence his desire to be free from the yoke of Brik, which it has long been spiritually destitute people to break with the KGB environment, the desire to say "in a loud voice" that was born in his heart. Not by chance in one of his visits to Paris, he said with startling frankness Yuri Annenkov, "that communism, the idea of communism, his ideal is - is one thing, while the" Communist Party ", organized by the very powerful ... and led by people who enjoy all the benefits of "full power" and "freedom of action", it is - a completely different thing. "
It is no accident varies his faith. Late in the evening April 13, 1930 "... he broke the exclamation:" Oh my God. " Polonskaya said: "Unbelievable! World turned upside down. Mayakovsky calls on the Lord. You did a believer? "And he replied:" Oh, I do not understand anything now ... what I believe! "
If Mayakovsky wanted to fit in, he would have written a poem, "Joseph Stalin". The poet did not do it, although he certainly strongly prompted. But those major mistakes he made in life and in poetry (insert word art on the side of those whom it was necessary to deprive the word), they were sincere. And every person who sincerely mistaken, and he slowly begins to see. But when he really begin to see clearly, it will be born in such a strong will, such a colossal power, giving it the most true of his life, this man no longer cope. He will stop at nothing and will do what needs to be done. And such Mayakovsky was born.
I know the power of words,
I know the words sound the alarm.
They are not the ones
who applaud the lodge ...
Did not hear this tremendous spiritual power, just opera in vague lines, just coming out of the souls of his heart, but has already announced that the old Mayakovsky with its countless volumes of his "party books" never will be, even if it It requires that he had not been himself. Mayakovsky was born again does not want to put up with put up with anything before, does not want to listen to those who listened to before, does not want to bow down to anyone, and wants to be, whatever it may cost him. He defies death itself - ... and she accepts it.