The legend of Doctor Faustus
From the depths of centuries came to us a legend about a man who with the help of Satan - angel, cast into hell because of pride and the desire to catch up in the power of the Creator - and decided to challenge God, mastering the mysteries of the world and their own destiny. He did not spare even for the sake of his immortal soul, promised a host of hell to pay for this alliance. This is one of the "eternal images" of world literature. In the Renaissance, it is embodied in the person of Dr. Faustus - the hero of medieval German legend, a scientist, an alliance with the devil for the sake of knowledge, wealth and worldly pleasures.
This hero had their prototypes. According to the "Historical Lexicon" entry in the German church books, strings of letters, travel notes show that in 1490 in the city of Knitlin gene (Duchy of Württemberg) was born a Johann Faustus.
Name Johann Faust, bachelor of theology, is registered in the lists of the University of Heidelberg in 1509, he sometimes referred to as Faust from Simmern, sometimes - as a native of the town Kundling, who studied magic in Krakow, where at that time it was taught publicly. It is known that Faust studied magic trick, sorcery, alchemy, horoscopes. It is understood that approval of the law-abiding citizens is not caused. Faust expelled from Nornberga and Ingolstadt. He led a hectic life, and suddenly, as if a ghost appeared here and there, confusing and disturbing the public. What little is known about Faust, it shows great pride wounded the man. He liked to call himself "a philosopher of philosophers."
During the life of this strange person we began to take shape the legend, in which the ancient intertwined stories about magicians, jokes about wandering scholars, the lives of early Christian motifs and medieval literature demonological. And among the people to Faust treated not seriously, but rather with regret and ridicule:
"Departed Faust, holding their sides, Auerbahovskogo From the cellar, sitting astride a barrel of wine, and saw it all around. Postignul black magic it is, and a dash for it has been awarded. "
The church belonged to the Faust more severely. In 1507 the abbot of the monastery Veneer-geymskogo Johannes Trithemius wrote the court astrologer and mathematician Elector Palatine: "The man of whom you write to me ... having to dare to call themselves the head of the Necromancers - tramp, babbler and a crook. So, he came up with the right, in his view, the title of "Master George Sabellikus Faust Jr., fount of necromancy, an astrologer, a successful magician, palmist, aeromant, Pyromancer Hydromancer and outstanding." They told me another priest, he bragged that knowledge of all sciences and this memory, that if all the works of Plato and Aristotle, and their whole philosophy had been completely forgotten, that he would be fully restored memory and their even more elegant form. And appearing in Würzburg it is no less presumptuous to say in a large meeting that nothing worthy of wonder at the miracles of Christ is not present, it is taken to Hugo himself at any time and any number of times to do all the things that made the Savior. " However, Faust were boasting bragging - nothing outstanding to make it failed.
They said that Faust enjoyed the patronage of the rebellious imperial knight Franz von Zikkengena and the prince-bishop of Bamberg, and that he was always accompanied by a "dog, which was hiding under the guise of the devil." On the outskirts of the city of Wittenberg castle ruins still been preserved, which are called "the home of Faust." There are still many years after the death of Faust worked alchemists, among which stood out Christopher Wagner, who called himself a pupil of Faust. Wittenberg alchemists manufactured a variety of magical items, in particular - the mysterious "black mirror". It also trained various desperate people, thirsting to join the magic.
Real Faust died in 1536 or 1539 in the city of Stauffer (Bry-SSAU). And in the second third of the XVI century folk stories about Dr. Faust have been recorded, and based on them in 1587 the Frankfurt publisher J. Spies published a book "The History of Doctor Faustus, the famous magician and Warlock." It told of how a scientist named Faust made a pact with the devil, because otherwise he could not know "that moves the world, and what keeps this world"; both at the imperial court, he evoked images of ancient heroes and philosophers as showing students living Helen of Sparta, which caused the Trojan War broke out, and with which he subsequently joined the magician affair; both before his death, he repented of what he had done, but it did not save Faust from the clutches of the devil, dragged the warlock soul into the underworld.
Among the many transcriptions, adaptations and translations of the book that have flooded Europe, experts distinguish the books of the French doctor of theology Victor Kaye (1598), the Nuremberg doctor Nikolaus Pfittsera (1674), first told about the love of Faust for some "beautiful but poor maid," and anonymous the book "Christian believer" (1725).
But the biggest success was waiting for the drama Englishman Christopher Mar lo "Tragical History of Doctor Faustus," first published in 1604. Sam Marlowe argued that the basis of his drama lay down some old manuscript, found them in one of the Scottish castles, but we know that Marlowe was prone to mystification and, moreover, the story had already been well known in Europe. But truly immortal name Faust did, of course, Goethe Under his pen image of Faust became a symbol of the whole of modern Western civilization, under the influence of Gnostic teachings renounced God and curled up on the technocratic path of development for the sake of mastering the mysteries of the world in the name of knowledge, wealth and worldly pleasures. The price of this rotation is known - the rejection of immortality. And the end of this path is also known:
"There is no end to his terrible Faust Let us all make sure, as a bold mind is defeated when he transgresses the law of heaven."