Death of James Cook
Ships Cook emerged from the English port of Plymouth in 1776. The aim of the expedition was to find the Northwest Passage between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the North America. Cook walked around the Cape of Good Hope, across the Indian Ocean and visited New Zealand and Tahiti. His path lay to the north - the British Parliament promised to ship the team that made the discovery - 20,000 pounds - a fortune in those days. At dawn on January 18, 1778 Cook saw land: it was the island of Oahu, one of the eight islands of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A strong head wind prevented the ships approach the island and took them to the north-west to the island of Kauai. In the evening the ships approached the shores of the island of Kauai.
At night, some Hawaiians, one of which was called Moapa, fished in the bay. Suddenly, they saw the dark silhouette of the ships sailed Cook with burning lights. Hawaiians in horror abandoned gear and rushed to the bank to talk about Events nebychaynom leaders. The next morning, a crowd of curious Hawaiians came out into the ocean in their canoes to look at the extraordinary miracle. They did not dare to get on board, but came to the ships, readily tied to a rope thrown to the sides of the pigs, fish and sweet potatoes.
The ships anchored in the bay Waimea, close to the place where the river empties into the ocean with the same name. Along both banks of the river stretched huts covered with grass. On the bank had gathered a large noisy crowd of Hawaiians. Some have argued that the sails - a huge stingray. Others said that the mast is growing in trees ocean. Kahuna (Hawaiian shaman) announced that it ships Heian (altars) are very revered god Lono. In the end, the leader of the ruling decided to send its representatives to the board. When they reached the koroabl, then nearly went mad with excitement that they received the British officers for three-cornered triangular head. Clothes seemed to them hanging flap of skin with pockets. One of the highest leaders, who ascended the side, Cook has presented the dagger. The impression was so strong that the leader announced the new name of his daughter - Dagger.
Hawaiians gave as they could, the best descriptive names strange things British. The sailor, who raised the flag, was named Ku colored flags, called the idol of one of the altars. A man smoking a pipe, given the name Lono Volcano of Fire. When they saw the bull's skin, Hawaiians vooobrazili that haole (foreign) killed a legendary monster dog Ku Lun, who devoured men. The team needed supplies of water, food and firewood, and Cook ordered Lieutenant John Williamson an expedition to the coast. When the boat swam to the shore, some Hawaiians had gone into the water to help the boat hit the beach. When one of them grabbed the mooring boat hook, a young lieutenant pulled out a gun and shot the Hawaiian. Later in the afternoon, Cook decided to go ashore. He walked in the midst of Hawaiians unarmed. Hawaiians to welcome him as the highest leader. They prostrated themselves on the ground at his approach, and offered him as a present food, mats and kapa (bark material).
Hawaiians excitedly discussed the enormous wealth of foreigners. Some were not averse to grab iron objects which they have seen on the deck, but the high shaman warned them not to do so. He himself was in the uncertainty attributed to foreign gods or mortals. In the end he decided to make a simple test: to offer women strangers. If the British would agree that they are clearly not gods and mortals. The British, of course, failed the exam, but many Hawaiians still doubted.
Crowds of available women upset Cook, who knew that many of his team suffered from sexually transmitted diseases. He ordered all patients to stay on board, but this measure was unsuccessful, as the females began to be delivered directly on board. There is little doubt that this team brought it to Hawaii Cook syphilis and gonorrhea. The account book "RESOLUTION" ship contains the names of 66 sailors from the team of 112 who received treatment for sexually transmitted diseases during the voyage. A year later, after a visit to the Cook disease spread throughout the islands and became one of the main reasons for the sharp reduction in the birth rate of the indigenous population.
Two weeks later, after a rest and restock food, ships went north to seek the Northwest Passage. After the disappearance of the British runners were sent to other islands, to report the news of the extraordinary white men. Runners describes foreigners: their voices was like the twittering of birds, the legs were closed and his mouth as from a volcano, out smoke. Many Hawaiians believe that Captain Cook is the embodiment vsemogushego god Lono.
At the end of November 1778 Cook returned to Hawaii. It is here, in Hawaii, the unfortunate chain of events led to his death. Usually, on the other islands Cook met as the main leader of the other tribe. In Hawaii it took for the god Lono. Ancient legend foretold that Lono return on a floating island. Both Cook's visit took place in the holiday season of Lono.
For seven weeks, Cook explored the coast of the island, then anchored in the bay of Kealakekua largest island of Hawaii. The choice of the bay even more convinced Hawaiians that Cook is the embodiment of the god Lono, - according to legend, it was here that Lono was last seen. Hundreds of Hawaiians rushed privetstovat return of Lono. Cook wrote in his journal: "I have never seen in these seas, so many people gathered in one place; besides sets canoe, the whole beach was covered with people, and hundreds of them swimming around the ship like a school of fish. "
Hawaiians showered with gifts of all kinds of English on board constantly were many women. David Samvell, the ship's surgeon, made the following entry in his diary: "We live in the greatest luxury, and as to the number and choice of women, there is hardly such among us who will not be able to compete with the Turkish Sultan himself." For their services, women have a present pieces of iron, scissors, beads and mirrors. After some time on board appeared Kalaniopuu, the ruler of the island of Hawaii. He generously supplied Cook food supplies and all kinds of gifts. Every day hundreds of Hawaiians climbed aboard both vessels. Sometimes they are typed so much that it was impossible to work with. From time to time the natives were stealing metal objects. These small, but annoying and theft were not paying attention.
As the Court made repairs and replenish food stocks, some Hawaiians further strengthens in opinion that the British were not gods and mortals. Since foreigners richly loaded with food court, Hawaiians assumed that they left their country because of hunger. They politely hinted sailors that time and the privilege to know and what they will be able to visit the island during the next harvest, when again will be a lot of food. Many were alarmed by the story of a woman visits the units the ships. When she was lying with a sailor, her nails dug into his back as he cried out in pain. Hawaiians believed that the gods do not lie with mortal women, and even more so, do not know pain. Perhaps Cook was a god, but it was his people, exactly, were not of divine origin.
February 4, 1779, four weeks after the entry of ships in Kealakekua Bay, Cook ordered to raise anchor. Hawaiians with satisfaction watched the departure of the British. However, on the first night the ships caught in a storm and the front mast "RESOLUTION" cracked. We had to come back. Cook knew only one close to convenient Bay - Kealakekua. He spent seven weeks in order to find it, and now he had no choice but to go back into the same bay.
When the ships entered the familiar bay, its shores were deserted. Sent to the shore the boat returned with the news that the king Kalaniopuu imposed a taboo on all the bay. These taboos are commonplace in Hawaii. Typically, after the land and its resources are used fairly, to the leaders of the banned entry to time to give a chance to recover the sea and land.
The British felt growing alarm, but it was necessary to repair the mast. The next day the King visited the bay and friendly welcome of the English, but the Hawaiian mood has somehow changed. The initial heat of relationship slowly faded. In one case, it almost came to a skirmish when Hawaiian chiefs were ordered not to help the team, came to the shores of the water. Six sailors guarding work on the shore, were ordered to charge the gun with bullets instead of fractions. Cook and his trusted officer James King landed to settle the dispute over water between the team and the islanders. As soon as they had to solve a controversial issue as they heard the sound of musket fire in the direction of the ship Discovery. From the ship to the shore swept canoe. Sitting in it Hawaiians furiously rowing oars. Obviously, they have something stolen and tried to escape. Cook, King, and ran across the path of a sailor on shore over rocks and sand in the hope to intercept the thieves, but too late, and therefore rushed after him inland. They continued their pursuit for three miles until you come to realize that the Hawaiians, in which they asked the direction of deliberately mistaken. When they are tired and disheveled, they returned to the shore, then learned that the boatswain Discovery decided to go ashore and take a canoe thieves. As it turned out, belonged to a friend of the British Canoe chief Palea. When Palea demanded his canoe back, there was a skirmish, during which the leader was hit on the head with an oar. Hawaiians rushed to the British, and they were forced to take refuge among the rocks on the shore. Fortunately, Palea restored order, and rivals allegedly parted as friends.
At dawn the next day the British discovered that a boat tied to a buoy in a dozen yards from Discovery disappeared. Hawaiians managed to steal it right out from under the nose watchman. At six o'clock, Captain Charles Clerc, who commanded the Discovery, went to the RESOLUTION to report the incident. Cook was furious. This boat was the best of those who were on board. He ordered to block the bay so that no canoe could not get out of it. Cook went to his cabin, took a shotgun and ordered to equip shestiveselnuyu boat to take him to the village Kaavaloa on the northern tip of the bay. Along with him went to Lieutenant Phillips and nine marines.
The objective was to meet with Cook King Kalaniopuu. He was going to use a plan that has never let him in similar circumstances in other parts of the ocean: he invites Kalaniopuu on board and will keep it there for as long as his subjects did not return the boat.
At seven o'clock in the morning, James Cook and his Marines jumped from the boat into the water and surf on the black basaltic lava formations, go to the ocean, got to the shore. Two boats were waiting at the shore. Cook considered himself a friend of the Hawaiians, who, as well as Hawaiian, there was nothing to fear. House Kalaniopuu stood about thirty yards from the shore. King just woke up when Phillips looked at the door of the royal house. Cook came in and sat down next to an aging king and spoke about the loss. As it turned out, the king did not know anything about the boat, but Cook still decided to bring his plan into action and invited the king to spend a day on board the ship. Kalaniopuu agreed with pleasure. While Kalaniopuu and Cook talked quite a large crowd gathered near the royal house. After a while, the two left the house and walked through the crowd to the shore. However, the king's wife and some of the leaders did not want the aging king was on the ship and were trying to stop him. Wives loudly cried and begged him not to go. In the end, they were able to sit at the king's land from the water's edge.
The crowd grew rapidly, back pressed. Lieutenant Phillips asked permission from Cook put his men with muskets in line at the shore so that was the line of fire, and no one was able to come back to them. Cook thought it was unnecessary, but still gave permission to build people. At this time over the bay resounded the echo of shots. Hawaiians visibly alarmed. Cook realized that the king to bring the ship will not be possible. He got up and went to a boat. At this point, the excited crowd ran gavayets and shouted that aglichane killed high chieftain, when he tried to get out of the bay on his canoe. It was a declaration of war. Women and children have disappeared. Men wearing protective woven mats in their hands poyavili spears, daggers, stones and batons. One of the soldiers approached Kuku and swung at him with a dagger. Cook cocked it and fired. The bullet of small caliber stuck in the protective mantle of the warrior. He turned triumphantly to the tribesmen show that safe and sound. Now, even the most timid chelov decided to attack, which they regarded as a god. According to one of the English, that morning on the banks gathered from 22 to 32 thousand armed Hawaiians.
Cook backed to the water's edge. Next to him was Lieutenant Phillips. Another soldier with a knife attacked Cook. Cook quickly fired, but missed and killed another standing near Hawaiian. Kick butt Phillips knocked one attacker and shot the other. At this point, the Marines lined up on the shore and fired a volley into the crowd. The crew boats also opened fire. Cook went to his knees in the water and turned to summon the boat and ordered to cease fire. At that moment, his head struck a crushing blow wooden batons. When he fell, another soldier stabbed him with a dagger in his back. An hour after he went ashore, Cook was dead.
Phillips spent his last cartridge and, in spite of the dagger wound from standing in the water, sword fighting off the pursuing Hawaiians. Finally, he turned and swam to the boat. As soon as he pulled into the boat, Phillips saw one wounded infantryman disappeared under the water. He again jumped into the water and helped to drag the boat infantry. Later, David Samvell wrote in a report that the Marines fired a volley, threw down their muskets and ran. Four of the nine were killed by the hands of the Hawaiians and the rest hastily sailed in boats. The men beat on the oars to get out from under a hail of stones, which they showered Hawaiians. That's how Lieutenant King described the moment of the death of Cook: "Seeing that Cook fell Hawaiians issued a triumphant cry. His body was immediately dragged to the shore, and a crowd surrounded him, eagerly snatching the dagger from each other, he began to inflict many wounds, as everyone wanted to take part in its destruction. "
The sailors on board RESOLUTION saw battle on the beach and was shot twice from a gun on Hawaiian. A short time later on the banks no one left. Hawaiians also carried away the dead bodies. Assumed command of the officers decided to take is on the shore mast and sails RESOLUTION, as well as the return of the body of Cook and four sailors.
Before they make that decision, both on the shore of the sound of gunfire reverberated muskets: Hawaiians attacked by a small team, guarding the sail and mast. Once ashore vysadilo reinforcements had reached a truce. The sails, the mast and the instruments were brought on board RESOLUTION. Lieutenant King Hawaiians tried to convince to return the fallen body. At night the sentries heard the sound of oars cautious about RESOLUTION side and shot into the darkness. They narrowly missed two Hawaiians who asked permission to board. In their hands they carried a small bundle wrapped in tapa (tanned cloth from the bark of trees). They solemnly unfurled tapa, and flickering light of a lantern made out British horror bloody meat that was apparently cut from Cook's body.
The British were horrified by this treatment with the body of their captain, some began to suspect Hawaiians cannibals. And yet, with the remains of the Cook treated as received the bodies of the highest leaders. By tradition, the Hawaiians separated the flesh from the bones of highly respected people. Then the bones linked together and buried secretly, so no one was able to abuse them. If the deceased was a subject of great affection and respect for, the bone can be stored for some time at home. Since Cook enjoyed great respect, parts of his body were divided between the high chiefs. His head went to the king and took the scalp of one of the leaders. Horrible treatment was, in fact, the highest accolade by the Hawaiians.
Over the next few days the British brutally avenged. Official journal of the expedition did not mention the details, but it seems that the team was out of control officers and plunged into an orgy of bloodshed and destruction. In an unknown number of Hawaiians were killed and their villages burned during one episode on 17 February. Murder Hawaiians continued for several days. During one such outing severed heads Hawaiians planted on the boat bowsprit. King, who had to finish the track log Cook, and who was ill at the time, later wrote apologetically: "If I could personally present, I would probably have found the means to save the tiny nation from destruction."
One result of the bloodshed was that frightened Hawaiians decided to return additional remains of the British cook. One of the leaders dressed in ceremonial cloak of red feathers, back wrist, skull, arm and leg bones captain.
In the evening, February 21, 1779 Captain James Cook's remains were sewn into the canvas and after the funeral prayer, the reading Captain Clerk, lowered into the water of the Gulf. The crew lowered the British flag and gave a salute of ten guns. Many of the sailors and marines on the decks of both ships were crying openly. Hawaiians not watched the ceremony from the shore, as the leader imposed on the Gulf kapu (taboo). The next morning, the British set sail and left the island forever.
However, the story did not end there - in May 1823 Hawaiian King Kamehameha II, arrived with his wife and entourage in the UK, where he died three months later. Shortly before his death he gave physicians an arrow tipped with iron and wooden fins. Unremarkable arrow, if respected Kamehameha II would not say that the white bone in the middle of the boom is bone white man named James Cook.
In 1886, the boom has moved from London to Australia, where he was kept until recently. So it was all forgotten and, if not the President of the Company of Captain Cook Cliff Tronton who decided to check the authenticity of this boom. Much immediately caused doubt among historians: the boom was not similar to those used by the natives of Hawaii at the time, rather, it was brought to the place of parking penultimate Cook - American shores.
Then bone x-rays enlightened, and it turned out that it may belong to a whale or a dolphin and humans. Now the turn has been a DNA test, which was supposed to determine who owns the bone. However, this work is complicated by the fact that none of the six children of the captain not got his own offspring, and so scientists probably have to turn to relatives of his sister Margaret. More recently, President of the Society of Captain Cook Cliff Thornton announced that according to the analysis of DNA Arrow nothing to Kuku has not. She died this beautiful legend.