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Iron mask


Iron mask
November 20, 1703 at the cemetery at St. Paul's Church in Paris on a secret burial of an unknown prisoner, held in the register of prisoners of the Bastille as the "Iron Mask". From the middle of the XVIII century. and to this day, scientists and cultural figures of France, Italy, the UK and Germany, trying to uncover the secret of "Masks", put forward more than fifty "candidates" on the role of a mysterious prisoner. However, despite the rational hypothesis and witty speculations, the veil of secrecy that hid hard three-century history of the puzzle.

The most mysterious prisoner in the stories.

The first rumors about bastilskom prisoner wearing a mask appeared at the court of Louis XIV in the beginning of the second decade of the XVIII century. Their source was very knowledgeable in the palace intrigues of the widow of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, Charlotte Elizabeth of Bavaria. In 1711 she was in the letters to his aunt Sophie, Duchess of Hanover, told the court on the common in the environment talks about the extraordinary prisoner main royal prison. According to her, in the Bastille for several years he was held prisoner and died unknown in the mask, supposedly English lord, who was involved in a conspiracy against the English king William III of Orange.

Much publicity has caused great public anonymous author of the book "Secret notes on the history of Persia," published in 1745 in Amsterdam. By imitating "Persian Letters" Montesquieu, he spoke about the unfortunate fate Zhiafera, the illegitimate son of "Shah-Abbas" - Louis XIV, gave a slap to his half-brother, "Sefi-Mirza" - "Grand Dauphin", and convicted of it on perpetual imprisonment. It was clear that this prisoner - Count Vermandois, Great Admiral of France, the 16-year-old son of Louis XIV and his mistress Louise de la Valliere.

In 1751 Voltaire, in exile, published a book "The Age of Louis XIV». In it the author himself became in 1717, and then in 1726 the Bastille prisoner, told the world the legendary story of her mysterious prisoner, is obliged under pain of death, to wear an iron mask on the face. He believed, as Voltaire talked to people, the Ministering "Masked" He's 20 years later offered a sensational answer to the mystery: under the "iron mask" to hide the elder brother of Louis XIV, son of Anne of Austria and one of her favorites Voltaire's version became widely known and has generated impressive the flow of literature about the mysterious prisoner "sun King" and his time which were still to this day.

Incredible, but a fascinating story once picked journalists, writers, and scientists. Besides Voltaire, who published his work in 1751, 1752, 1753., Before the French Revolution, the Bastille prisoner mystery investigated in Chancel Jean de Lagrange (1754), Senaka de Melyan (1755), A. Griff (1769), Abbe Papon (1780), S. Leng (1783); during the revolution - publicist Charpentier (1790) and JL Soulavie (1790). Among the many hypotheses and conjectures of the XVIII century. version, calling into question the honor of the queen-mother, were very popular. All of them provide for the family resemblance to the Bourbons, which explains the need to wear a mask. The assumption Voltaire dealt a severe blow to the prestige of the royal dynasty. No wonder even in 1775 on the orders of the Minister of the City of Paris Amelot from the register of the Bastille prison was seized 120th sheet correspond to 1698-the year of receipt of the mysterious prisoner in the jail, and replaced by a sheet of written instead. It contained falsified information on his age and name.

At the end of the XVIII century. a version of the twin brothers of the Queen of France, and the most poisonous speculation: a genuine son of Louis XIII allegedly imprisoned in the Bastille, and the throne was erected son of Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. Thus it was put into question the legitimacy of the Bourbons, since Louis XIV. In 1801, this anti-historical legend was used by supporters of Bonaparte. There were leaflets saying that Bonaparte - a descendant of the "Iron Mask".

After the storming of the Bastille in 1789 and the publication of its archive, it was found that the "Man in the Iron Mask" was delivered to her new prison governor of Saint-Marom from about. Sainte-Marguerite. Previously, this was kept a prisoner among the eight "state criminals" in Pignerol fortress on the border with Piedmont. It commandant of the castle since 1665 on 1681 was Cinq-Mars, who served under the former lieutenant of the Musketeers Charles de Ba Kastelmora (D'Artagnan). It became clear that the search for "masks" should be carried out among the "eight" members, who have been at different times on the order of "Sun King" prisoners of the castle.

But anyone stay? The study was complicated by the fact that the majority of prisoners were called in correspondence not names, and nicknames or conventional definitions like "a prisoner, delivered so-and then some." In addition, it was known that one of them, the Earl of Lozen, in 1681 was released; two - in the same year transferred to Ekzil fort, where one of them died at the end of 1686 or early 1687, and the second was soon sent on to. Sainte-Marguerite. Of the remaining five, two were slaughtered in Pignerol, and the remaining in 1694 and were transferred to the Sainte-Marguerite, where one of the prisoners died, and "The Mask," was taken to the Bastille.

Thanks to the 50-year-old librarian Paris Arsenal F. Ravessona, which became known as "the last prisoner of the Bastille", her archive at the end of XI X in. It is now available not only to scientists, professionals, but also to all interested the history of its prisoners ". In XI X in. archival materials and documents were studied Faziyyakom Roux (1801), M. Paroletti (1812), Jacques Delors (1825, 1829), P. Lacroix (1836, 1837), A. Sheruelem (1862), M. Topenom (1869) T. Young (1873), J. LEROM (1890), F. Ravessonom (1866-1891), D. Karutti (1893), F. bournonite (1893), F. Funck-Brentano (1898, 1903) and many others representatives of science and culture. The most significant contribution to the study of "the Iron Mask" made French researchers: Jacques Delors, P. Lacroix, M. Topen, T. Jung, J. Lehr and F. Funck-Brentano.

In the XX century. interest in the mysterious prisoner, sharpened over 30 years in the darkest French prisons, does not decreased. Research shows: the British A. Lang and A. Barnes, E. French Lalu M. Duvivier, J. Mongredena and playwright, a member of the French Academy of M. Pagnol, author of "The Iron Mask" (1965). At the turn of 60-70-ies of the book - P.-J. Arresi "Iron Mask. Finally, the solution to the puzzle "and J.-C. Ptifisa "Iron Mask - the most mysterious prisoner in the stories" In 1978, a new version of the sensational. French lawyer P.-M. Dizhol in the book "Nabq or iron mask", claimed that the prisoner of the Bastille - a servant of Queen Maria Theresa, wife of Louis XIV, the Moor TOY. In the domestic literature different versions of solving the puzzle of the "Iron Mask" foreign researchers devoted to essays in the book "Five centuries of secret war" historian EB Chernyak, ran into five editions.

On the history of the nameless prisoner turned writers NM Karamzin, Pushkin, A. de Vigny, Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas pere. In X X c., In addition to Pagnol, the story of "Iron Mask" intrigued writers P. Moreau, A. Decaux, Jean Bordoneva. Researchers and writers on the basis of the same facts and documents protected variety, in many cases mutually exclusive hypotheses and versions. And it is - a convincing proof that the mystery of "the mysterious prisoner in the stories" are still not disclosed.

The main contenders: questions and doubts.

Analysis of historical documents allowed the researchers to focus on three prisoners pinerolskoy "eight" most credible contenders for the role of "the Iron Mask". It - Nicolas Fouquet, former superintendent of finances of Louis XIV, the mysterious "servant" Eustache Dauger and Count Hercule Mattioli, the Duke of Mantua, Secretary of State - Charles IV.

The famous French statesman 50s of the XVII century. N. Fouquet fabulously rich on the trade in the French North American colonies, as well as through financial fraud in their own country, ignoring the statements before the king. His palace at Vaux-le-Vicomte, decorated with owner's motto: "Where it does not rise? ', Surpassed in luxury royal residences. Through a complex political game, Fouquet has strengthened about. Belle-Ile and began to acquire own ships. In case of arrest, he, being in the shower Frondeur, was still in 1658 for his supporters who called him "a man of the future", the resistance plan; I tried to bribe the favorite of Louis XIV L.-F. Valliere. JB Colbert, author of the project of improvement of financial and credit system of the country, exposed Fouquet, who by order of the king was arrested September 5 D'Artagnan. Fouquet was charged with financial scam, insulting the Head of State and sedition; Special Court of Justice, he was sentenced to life in exile with confiscation of property. This sentence was replaced by King indefinite detention, and in January 1665 Fouquet, escorted by D'Artagnan, crossed the threshold of the castle fortress Pignerol. There he was given in the service of a servant spy La Riviera. At the end of 1669 and a former nobleman Valkruassan servant Laforêt Fouquet got into a fortress to free Fouquet. The attempt failed. Laforêt was executed, and Valkruassan sentenced to five years in the galleys.

August 24, 1669 the castle was taken "simple servant" Eustache Dauger, caused "resentment of the King" and arrested on his orders. The Minister of War F.-M.-L. Louvois ordered to keep a prisoner in complete secrecy in a special punishment cell with double doors, with one meal. Under pain of death, he was forbidden to talk even with the commandant of anything other than everyday needs, and transmit any news of himself. Most researchers consider his name as an alias, as the drafts of orders for his arrest and delivery to Pignerol were anonymous.

December 19, 1671 Earl A.-N. was taken to Pignerol escorted by D'Artagnan Lozen, the captain of the royal guard, Colonel General dragoons. He paid the price for being grossly insulted Madame Montespan favorite of the king, and later had the audacity to claim the hand of the king's cousin, the Duchesse de Monpase. In the first half of the 70-ies of Lozen, along with his servant did move in located above them Fouquet camera. They began to meet and talk to each other. Progress has been found in March 1680

May 2, 1679 in Pignerol in the strictest confidence brought with a black velvet mask on the person of the Duke of Mantua, Count Mattioli. Contrary to diplomatic immunity, he was on the orders of Louis XIV, was arrested for issuing the rulers of Austria, Spain, the Republic of Venice and Piedmont secret deal between the king and the duke for the sale of the French border town of Casale. However, already in 1682 about the arrest and imprisonment Mattioli knew the whole of Europe.

Nominations Fouquet, Dauger Mattioli and the role of the "Iron Mask" discussed to date. But come it was not possible to a consensus. This is not surprising. After Fouquet, according to the prison administration and post "Gazette de France" from April 6, 1680, he died March 23 of apoplexy. Mattioli, on a very reliable data, has died at the Sainte-Marguerite in April 1694 remains Dauger ... According Mongredena Ptifisa and he paid with his two decades of secret solitary confinement for knowing the secrets of Fouquet, who served in Pignerol But then the question immediately arises: why Dauger hide the face behind the mask? It is known that up to March 23, 1680, he was not wearing it.

Riddle "Iron Mask" and demands an answer to the other questions arising in connection with the fate of these prisoners. Here are just some of them ... why in 1672 the idea was rejected by Cinq-Mars to give in service Lozena Dauger, and in 1675 he proposed to Louvois to use it as a second servant Fouquet? For what purpose, in November 1678 the King and Louvois, bypassing Cinq-Mars, became interested in Fouquet, what he did Dauger before sending it to the Pignerol? Under what circumstances and on what Fouquet died after the end of 1679 he had a meeting with the relatives, and in Paris a rumor about his close release? How could occur in the pockets of clothing Fouquet in the 54th and 91st day after his death, some papers are sent, according to Louvois, every time the king. How do you explain why the day of death and the day of his funeral in Paris shared the time period of one year and five days, while the resolution for the issuance of the body of the late King of native signed on the 17th day after the death of the ex-minister? Why Voltaire, after conversation with the members of the family Fouquet was able to say: "So, it is not known where he died the unfortunate, the smallest actions that took a lot of publicity when it was powerful." As Louvois could oblige the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Charles Colbert, Marquis de Croissy, entrusted to his department since 1681, all the costs of the "two blackbirds" Cinq-Mars at Fort Ekzil, including the costs of its governor, subordinate officers to him, doctor, a priest and a company of soldiers? After all, the state prison in France funded by the Ministry of Louvois! Why the mid 80-ies of the conditions of detention of prisoners of Cinq-Mars, has always attracted the attention of the king and his ministers, continuously improved? Finally, how do you explain that at the end of 1699 Cinq-Mars has equipped the Bastille prisoner in the mask for a soundproof chamber, and in March 1701 "The Mask" was in a cell with other prisoners? There is a number of other questions that have no answer. So what? Is the mystery of "Iron Mask" will forever remain not solved as in the XIX century, predicted the great French historian Jules Michelet? For the past 20 years seen only one document, not to attract the attention of researchers, and almost all existing versions have repeatedly denied.

Who are the prisoners Pignerol became "The Iron Mask" Bastille?

The way to solve the riddle of "Man in the Iron Mask" is, in our opinion, changes in the plane of the traditional historical methodology. For example, by incorporating in the historical search for a systemic approach and developed by the author based on his "identification matrix" were able to trace the fate of all the "eight" prisoners, aimed at different times Pignerol Castle (in August 1687 a new prisoner was the nobleman d'Ers) and determine which of them was the "iron mask" of the Bastille.

What is the essence of "identification matrix"? It is a logical table, the field which is similar to a chessboard, where horizontal lines are given a chronological listing of historical documents and facts relating directly or indirectly to the participants of "eight", and the vertical - correspond to the sum of the number of prisoners from this group, at the same time being in Pignerol, Ekzile, Sainte-Marguerite and the Bastille. The points of intersection correspond to the participation of one or the other prisoners in the events recorded in the chronological list of documents and facts. Combining these points with straight, we get "way of life" of each of the group of prisoners. We explore different hypotheses identification of "Masks". The hypothesis that gives a zero number of inconsistencies historical events nodal facts, seen as the most likely.

Here is the reconstruction of the main events in the four prisons during 1674-1703 gg., Obtained on the basis of use "identification matrix". September 1674 - March 1675 g .: died one of the servants Fouquet - Champagne; Cinq-Mars on the orders of Louis XIV gives service eksministru Eustache Dauger on condition that the one in any case not served Lozena and that no one other than Fouquet and his servants La Riviera, did not communicate with him. November - December 1677 .: received permission for King Lozena Fouquet and walking apart from each other on the grounds of the castle, accompanied by their servants. November 1678 - January 1679 .: Louvois, bypassing Cinq-Mars, directs "private letter" Fouquet:

"Monsignor, with great pleasure that I fulfill the order, which the king has deigned to give me: to inform you that His Majesty intends to soon provide a significant softening of your conclusions. But before that His Majesty wishes to be informed, if not talk called Eustache, whom you have given to services with other oversight of the servant of you about how it has been used before appeared in Pignerol. His Majesty ordered to ask you about this and tell you that he expects you without fear tell me the truth about the above-mentioned to His Majesty could take measures that he deems most appropriate, after he learns from you that it is above Eustache could tell his friend about his past life. His Majesty wants you to reply to this message privately, saying nothing about its contents Monseigneur Saint Maru, which I said that the King wished that he brought the paper to you, and so on. D. ".

Fouquet, broken physically and mentally 18 years in prison, agreed to spy on Dauger, ask the La Riviera and provide information of interest to the King, Colbert and Louvois. Orders of 20 January and 15 February 1679 the King and Louvois allowed Fouquet and Lozen see, talk, dinner together, make joint trips all over the fortress, and to communicate with its officers. Saint Maru and the ex-Minister ordered to ensure that Dauger in any case did not meet with any Lozen, nor with anyone else, except Fouquet and his servants La Riviera. At the same time on January 20 Fouquet was sent to a different "personal message" Louvois detected historian F-K. Ptifisom. "You will learn, - Louvois wrote, - said Saint Marom precautions required by the king, who applied to prevent Eustace Dauger to communicate with anyone, except you. His Majesty expects you to use every effort, as you know, for some reason, no one has to know what he knows. " February - December 1679 Reply .: Fouquet called satisfaction of Louis XIV, who thus reinsured regarding precautionary measures against the Doge. As a reward, the king allowed Fouquet wife, his daughter, son - Count de Vaux, the brothers d'Agde and Mezieres, as well as the attorney's wife to go to Fouquet Pignerol and communicate freely with the ex-minister. Upon arrival, his daughter and settled in the graph in the castle premises, next to his father. Saint Maru instructed to observe that Dauger have not talked with anyone alone 18 August 1679 Louvois ordered Saint Maru went to Paris Blainville lieutenant with secret reports that it was impossible to "trust the mail." January - February 1680 .: Lozen was "dragged" her daughter Fouquet. Prisoners quarreled and stopped to see. Henceforth, Lozen - enemy Fouquet; Fouquet relatives removed from the castle and the city. In January Fouquet ill, and "drug package" was sent from Paris. 23 March 1680 Cinq-Mars sent Louvois a report of the sudden death of Fouquet. However, conventional documents - death certificates, autopsy and funeral - no one has ever seen. In Paris there were rumors about poisoning Fouquet. At the same time employees of Colbert spread the legend that the ex-minister was allegedly released and died on the way to the capital in Chalon-sur-Saône.

Save the answer Louvois Saint Maru on April 8, 1680, Louis XIV of letters commandant learned of the death of Fouquet and that Lozen and ex-minister communicated among themselves without the knowledge of Cinq-Mars through a hole punched between the chambers. The king ordered renovated translate Lozena Fouquet in the camera, I'm sure of Count and all curious that the servants of the deceased, La Riviere and Dauger, released. In fact, both were ordered to put in a separate cell and adopt stringent measures so that they had no links with the outside world. April 9 the king ordered the people to give the widow Fouquet late husband's body to transport wherever they wish. However, according to official figures, Fouquet was buried in Paris at the same time with his mother only March 28, 1681, t. E. In 370 days after the death. April 22, 1681, after another change of King's favorite, Lozen was released, but was forced at first to go into exile.

The above circumstances suggest that Fouquet was the victim of a conspiracy. Maybe he tried to poison or deliberately given drugs, then secretly transferred to a punishment cell. This could be done personally Saint Marom without the participation of the officers of the castle, but, apparently, using Dauger and La Riviera, then the prisoners in the "Low tower." This is indirectly evidenced by a letter Louvois Saint Maru on July 10, 1681 "Me found - Louvois wrote - how is it possible that called Eustache could have done what you could send me, and where he bought the drug required for business ; can not think of you supplied him". What is it, the researchers still argue.

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