The figures in the desert
Mysterious drawings in the Peruvian Nazca desert, the most extensive work of art in the world, one of the most outstanding and at the same time inexplicable human creations were little known until 1939. In that year, pilots flying over the desert valley on the small airplane, noticed strange pattern of randomly intersecting straight lines long, interspersed with strange convolutions and squiggles that was visible in certain lights
This discovery aroused great interest Initially, archaeologists have suggested that the remains of an ancient irrigation system for their research in the Peruvian archaeologist Paul Kosok left the University of Long Island (USA)
From the air, the patterns looked immense, but on the ground because of the uneven surface Kosok barely found their "lines could be seen only when viewed along a few yards away - and nothing could be seen," After the first thorough study of surprise Kosok knew no bounds in his drawings came out, it was a clear image of a large bird, distinguished from the ground that it was not possible How you can create a drawing, Kosok explored the valley and found the outlines of a huge spider, followed by dozens of other paintings depicting either animals or geometric patterns it I could not figure out who this mysterious artist, and that it was for the people, leaving behind such a work of art
In 1946 Kosok handed his notes to Dr. Maria Reiche, a German mathematician, interested in ancient observatories, whose name is linked to virtually all of the "canonical" story of enigmatic figures of Nazca desert Since then, Maria Reiche, who became the world's largest specialist on the issue of Nazca, working practically alone, I learned a lot about how to create these pictures she was in a hurry to fix the exact size and location of all drawings and lines, as long as they are not destroyed by tourists and vehicles
As established Reiche, drawings were made in a simple manner on the yellowish ground lines was laid a thin layer of dark stones But although physically this work is not heavy, the project was extremely complex
Reich believes that the figures used by the authors of the fixed unit of measure equal to 0.66 cm, like the megalithic yard Alexander Thom Then figure laid on a specially constructed to plan on a scale that has been transferred to the surface by a rope attached to the stones, markers, some of which can be seen today, "The length and direction of each segment was carefully measured and recorded Approximate measurements would not be enough to play such perfect shape, we see with the help of aerial photographs deviation would likely distorted by a few inches proportion drawing Photo taken thus help imagine how much work it was worth the ancient craftsmen Ancient Peruvians must have had the equipment, which is not even here, and which, together with the ancient knowledge, carefully concealed from the conquerors, as the only treasure that you can not steal "
Glory figures of Nazca brought Erich von Däniken and other seekers of traces of space aliens Desert was declared no more than an ancient spaceport, and drawings - a kind of navigational signs for alien ships Another version says that the drawings in the desert are a map of the sky, and in the desert once there was a grand ancient observatory
Famous Gerald Hawkins, an astronomer who solved the mystery of Stonehenge, came to Peru in 1972 to find out if any of the drawings of Nazca desert signs indicating the link with astronomical observations (these signs was not there). He was surprised that the extremely straight line - the deviation is not more than 2 meters per kilometer. "Such a figure could not be set up, even with the help of photogrammetric measurements, - he said. - These lines are really absolutely straight, we would not get such a result, even using modern aerial photography. And such straightness is maintained over many miles. Because of the dense fog creeping along the ground lines are sometimes invisible. But they continue exactly in the same direction on the opposite side of the ravine, and they are as straight as an arrow trajectory let loose. "
Maria Reiche sure that only touched the ancient mystery: "What is most impressive about these figures ground - this is their huge size combined with perfect proportions. How could they depict animal figures such precise outlines and fine tuned dimensions - a mystery that we will resolve not soon, if ever solve. " Reich did, however, one stipulation:. "Unless, of course, they are not able to fly"
It is trying to prove Bill Sporer, a resident of the United States in Peru, a member of the International Research Society. The people who created these patterns probably originated from two similar nations, known as the culture Paracas and Nazca, who in the period before and after AD engaged in agriculture. But these people are known for their success in the art of weaving and pottery decoration and it gave Sporeru clue. Four pieces of fabric Nazca plundered from graves discovered near the Peruvian drawings were examined under a microscope. It was found that the ancient Peruvians took advantage matters better interlocking than we use in the manufacture of modern parachute fabric, and more robust than the modern fabrics for balloons - 205 to 110 threads per square inch, compared with 160 at 90. On clay pots found images of objects resembling balloons and kites with fluttering ribbons.
Having investigation, Sporer came across an old Inca legend about a young boy named Antarkvi who helped the Incas in the battle, flying over enemy fortifications and reporting on the location of their troops. Many tissues are depicted flying Nazca people. These legends have arisen a long time ago, but it is known that even today some Indian tribes of Central and South America do for their ceremonies balloons and launch them during ritual festivities.
Another mystery is the so-called "campfire pits," which ends with many straight lines. This round hole about 10 meters in diameter with charred stones. Sporer, along with several other researchers have studied the stones for it, not whether they are craters from the fall of celestial bodies, and made sure they blackened by exposure to strong heat source. Maybe this place was divorced a large fire that warmed the air inside the balloon?
In November 1975, this theory has been tested. Only one of those materials and technologies that could be available Nazca Indians, the balloon was built. Under it lit a fire, and the ball went in flight with two pilots in a reed basket. Of all the hypotheses about the emergence of such a perfect idea of the pattern with the ball was the best. But the purpose of all of this is still unclear. Maybe it was a peculiar form of burial, and dead bodies were sent to the leaders of the Nazca black balloons - into the arms of the sun god? Maybe birds and other huge creatures symbolize everlasting life of these leaders? But why they needed such a straight line? No answer…
But there is evidence that among the ancient is the desire for accuracy was very common. There is a clear similarity between the Peruvian drawings and finds on the other side of the world: Stonehenge and many famous megaliths differ unusual geometric precision. By the time when they were lined Peruvian patterns, tradition megalithic structures have faded, so the direct evidence of ties between the two cultures there. But do not be too hasty to assume that the levels of development of the cultures in which illiterate people mainly used stones were similar; and that the art of creating patterns of land died with the advent of written language and civilization.
Peruvian drawings are one of the wonders of the world. Before the final clue of the mystery, however, is still far away. Aside from that version no longer on the runways for the spacecraft. Reich categorically rejects the possibility that the Nazca drawings were signs of aliens landing: hypothetical extraterrestrials are unlikely in such a primitive level to spread the figures out of stone. In addition, "if you move the stones, you can see that the ground beneath them is quite soft, - says Maria Paradise, heh. - I am afraid that the astronauts would be stuck in this soil ... "