The explosion over tunguska
Early in the morning of June 30, 1908 in the skies over central Siberia observed a strange, unprecedented phenomenon: from the south-east to north-west at a tremendous speed and a deafening roar swept dazzling white ball. All along its flight shook the earth. The houses trembled 1 glass, crumbling plaster flew from the furnaces burning wood and coal, with | shelves fell utensils. Many thought it was the end of the world.
A mysterious object that was observed tens of thousands of people who disappeared over the horizon, and in a few minutes over the taiga came the monstrous force fourfold explosion, which was heard within a radius of 750 kilometers. Distant thunder explosion in some places took for artillery fire and felt that once the war with Japan. At 7 hours and 15 minutes seismograph Irkutsk observatory registered the strange surface earthquake with an epicenter near the Stony Tunguska River, 900 kilometers north of Irkutsk. All seismographic stations in Europe and the Americas recorded a concussion crust. The blast wave propagates with the speed of sound, an hour later reached Irkutsk, four hours - Potsdam, a suburb of Berlin, in eight hours - Washington, DC, and the thirty-second clock has been featured in Potsdam - after she came around the globe ...
In the following night in the middle latitudes of Europe appeared mysterious glowing clouds with a strong silvery sheen that Wolf astronomer at the observatory in Heidelberg could not even take pictures of the night sky. A few days later the huge mass of dust and particles released into the atmosphere the explosion reached the other hemisphere, and the American astronomer Abbott noted with surprise that the transparency of the atmosphere is very diminished. The reasons for this phenomenon, he could not understand.
In Europe and in large parts of Russia from June 30 to July 3-4 nights were so bright that you can read small text: sunset lasted until the beginning of the morning, and the northern part of the sky remained lit throughout the night. It marked the inhabitants of Brest-Litovsk, Penza, Tambov, Atkarsk, Tsaritsyno, Slavic, Tiraspol, Kerch, Simferopol, as well as Berlin, Konigsberg, Copenhagen. On the vast territory from the Yenisei River to the Atlantic Ocean coast of observed anomalies: unusually bright sunsets, enhanced luminescence of the sky and the mass of noctilucent clouds.
Oddly enough, but the mysterious explosion in the taiga had torn planet, hardly attracted the attention of the scientific world. Locals passed about him the most fantastic rumors, the newspaper published a number of materials, far from sensational, and interest in the events of the country pretty quickly faded.
Swim this story to light just a few years. In 1921, Soviet scientist-geophysicist LA Kulik read the description of the fall of a gigantic car on accidentally fell into his hands a piece of paper torn from a wall calendar for the year 1910. Shortly after that, he had the chance to visit there the edges and talk with residents. Kulik was convinced that the mysterious event of 1908 people remember well. According to witnesses, the car fell somewhere in the taiga, far from roads and settlements.
Seriously interested in this mystery, Kulik started looking for the fallen celestial body - probably a meteorite. Among the evidence he found there was also a report of the district police officer, who informed on how to June 30, 1908 "above the village Kezhemsky, from the south to the north in clear weather high in the celestial space flying huge aerolite sizes, which discharges, produced a series of sounds such as shots of the guns, and then disappeared. " In 1924, a geologist SV Obruchev, who studied on the instructions of the Geological Committee Stony Tunguska, asked about the catastrophe locals. He found out that a few days away from the village as a result of Vanavara padeeniya meteorite for many hundreds of kilometers of taiga tumbled down. Chuchancha Tungus, who witnessed the event and along with his brother was in the 40-45 km away from the place of the meteorite fall, said:
"Suddenly a very strong thunder. It was the first blow. The earth began to twitch and sway, the wind hit our tent and threw him. Then I saw the terrible wonder: Lesin fall, needles on them burning ... It's hot, very hot, you can burn. Suddenly, above the mountain, which has already fallen forest was much light, as if a second sun appeared. Suddenly it flashed. Eyes was hurt, and I even closed them. And immediately there was a strong thunder. It was the second blow. After that we saw, if the top, but in another place, flashed again, and made a strong thunder. This was the third strike. Wind came, knocked on us, on the felled Lesin hit. Next we falling behind the trees, looking at the fire. Suddenly kökar shouted: "Look up!" - And pointed. I looked back again and saw the lightning flashed and she struck again. It was the fourth strike. It was another blow to the fifth, but he was small, and somewhere far away. "
In 1927, the Academy of Sciences, organized under the leadership of Kulik ^ first expedition into the forest for the investigation of the meteorite. After a few weeks the way the expedition finally reached the area felled forests. The sight was stunning ...
"I can not really imagine the grandeur of the whole picture of this exceptional fall - he wrote in his diary Kulik. - Strongly hilly, almost mountainous area, dozens of kilometers stretching into the distance, over the northern horizon ... Hence, from our vantage point, it is not visible and the forest of signs: all felled and burned, and around mnogoverstnoy border on this dead area loomed young twenty-year growth, rapidly Punches to the sun and life ... and it becomes terrible when you see ten giants dvadtsativershkovyh, broken in half, as a reed, with thrown many meters south peaks. "
The expedition was almost two weeks after the explosion of a fallen forest. The tops of the trees lying on the ground pointed to the southeast, in the direction from which there was a meteorite. Closer to the river mouth Chugurmy picture has changed - here the fallen tree trunks lying radially. This was probably the desired place of the meteorite fall, and the members of the expedition is no longer doubted, that is about to see the crater - a place where a red-hot lump was stuck in the ground. The forest here was knocked down unevenly, and along with a solid windbreak are areas where there were charred or withered trees, which sometimes fell with a crash in the gusts of strong wind. Felled boreal forest in this place also was burned, and in the center of the basin were many flooded craters with a diameter of several meters to several tens of meters. Considering that this is a place of falling fragments sprawled in a collision with the Earth meteorite expedition set off on the return journey.
Only in 1929, the third expedition Kulik, this time equipped with a drilling technique, tried to remove the fragments of the meteorite. And ... nothing found. Unable to find not only the pieces of a meteorite, but no traces of it hitting the ground was even discovered. As for the notorious craters, the geologists and soil scientists unanimously stated that these "craters" have no relation to the meteorite and are natural natural formations associated with the process of peat deposits.
In taiga expedition went for an expedition. Meteorite sought through a variety of devices, but not a single piece, not a single speck of dust has not been found - a mysterious celestial body has disappeared without a trace ...
At some point, researchers thought that they finally attacked on the trail: soil tests in the area of the disaster showed that it contains microscopic metal and silicate melt frozen droplets, chemical analysis which confirmed their cosmic origin. Apparently, the explosion turned a meteorite is literally a powder, scattering its dust remains of a huge area. However, these were soon obtained that falls on the Earth's surface is a huge amount of meteoritic dust each year - hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tons. The properties of these particles are virtually identical to those found in the soil at the site of the Tunguska catastrophe. Therefore, a substance found space most likely has nothing to do with the Tunguska meteorite.
The results of the study of all the circumstances connected with the fall of the meteorite revealed that a mysterious celestial body entered the Earth's atmosphere at about 7 am June 30, 1908 at a rate of 40 to 45 kilometers per second at an acute angle of approximately 10 degrees. Body weight was about one hundred thousand tonnes Diameter - about 30 meters. The explosion probably occurred not as a result of the body collisions with the Earth, but also in the air at an altitude of 5-10 kilometers, the explosion was not instantaneous: the body moving, exploding, at least 20 kilometers. The total released energy of the explosion was about 20 megatons, which is a thousand times greater than the energy of the explosion of the atomic bomb dropped by the Americans on Hiroshima in 1945. The shock wave felled forest on an area of 2150 square kilometers. Calculations show that if the Tunguska meteorite entered the Earth's atmosphere four hours later, the epicenter of his fall would become St. Petersburg ...
What was it? Space alien ship that exploded as a result of a nuclear explosion? The nucleus of a comet? Meteorite of antimatter? Huge snowball? "Black Hole", struck the Earth through? A cloud of cosmic dust? a powerful laser beam discharges in the Earth's atmosphere? A giant fireball? Or celestial body ricochet from the surface of the Earth, and again carried off into interstellar space? Hypotheses on the Tunguska meteorite expressed so much that one would paraphrase them-took a whole book. But, alas, none of these versions is not in the least advanced mankind to unravel one of the greatest mysteries of the twentieth century ...