Defrocked, or a kings son?
May 17, 1606 a man was killed in Moscow, who called himself the son of Ivan the Terrible, recognized his mother, the boyars and the people and became the Russian tsar. Later the same mother and the same nobles renounced him and started calling him no longer the king's son, and defrocked and heretic Grishka Otrepyev. When they were sincere? When he kissed the dusty boots "king's son" and crawled in front of him on his knees, looking for favors, or when you get the desired graces, kicked the mutilated corpse "defrocked" and publicly spit on him?
What was actually this man forever remains a mystery. Official historiography, tangled in contradictions, tend to consider him a fugitive monk of the Galician nobles Gregory Otrepyev.
Investigation the case of the "murder of Tsarevich Dmitry" can not be set to a reliable source, because it produces a result Prince Vasily Shuisky, who later became Tsar Vasily IV of, twice renounced the findings that made the investigation under his leadership, and twice exposed himself in the wrong the production of this investigation.
The first time he acknowledged the impostor true Dmitry, thereby reversing the very fact of Prince's death, another time, already overthrown and destroyed sworn Dmitry, he said that the real Dmitriy was killed on the orders of Boris Godunov, and killed himself in a fit of epilepsy, As the findings of the investigation file. Undoubtedly, Shuya knew the truth better than anyone else, but some of its three readings - the truth, and any two - a lie?
Thus, "three versions Shumsky" formed the basis for further historical research about the personality of Dmitry Ivanovich king, and all the historians of later times have built their research when choosing convenient for a version, building on their own opinions and preferences, or frankly confused in all three versions .
"The question of the death of Prince Dimitri, and the guilt of Boris Godunov in this death gave up more than once in an archive pending, and again extracted therefrom hunters solve it in favor of Boris. None of this could not be ... "- wrote NI Kostomarov.
... The son of Ivan the Terrible and Maria Feodorovna Nagaya (it was the seventh king of the marriage entered into without the permission of the church) was born in Moscow on October 19, 1583. His first name was Varus, in honor of the holy martyr Huara, whose memory is celebrated by the Orthodox Church on 19 October. At the baptism of the infant she was named Dmitry.
Six months later, Ivan the Terrible died. In his dying orders, he bequeathed to Dmitry and his mother's inheritance Uglich and entrusted the education of his favorite of Prince - Boyar Bogdan Yakovlevich Volsky.
Sly Wolski in boyar circle disliked and feared seriously, as if a clever schemer in alliance with the family of Prince. Naked, he did not try to start a confusion by announcing Dmitry heir of Ivan the Terrible. Therefore, already on the first night after the death of the king, the queen widow with a young prince, her father, brothers and close relatives, accompanied by numerous attendants, solicitors, servants and guards of honor musketeers solemnly sent to Uglich - actually link.
But the prince remained a constant factor in Russian domestic politics, which does not take into account was not. The offspring of the ruling Tsar Fedor was not, and the question of succession is not worried minds without reason. In Moscow, there were a few very, very ambitious individuals who are in the secret thoughts of his mind already tried on the treasured hat Monomakh. And one of these individuals was an energetic Boyar Tsar Boris Godunov.
And yet in Uglich grew up last Rurikovich. About genuine traits of the young prince, we will probably never know, because Moscow is not seeing and not knowing Dmitry could judge him only by hearsay, sometimes deliberately dissolve the supporters of this or that party Boyar. On the one hand, it said that, when he was six or seven years old, the boy is the exact likeness of his father-fanatic: he loves to torment and kill animals, loves blood and sadistic fun. It was said that one day in the winter, playing with children, Dmitry ordered to sculpt out of the snow twenty human figures, called each named after one of the first of the boyars and with relish chopped these figures sword, and "Boris Godunov" he cut off the head, the other - the hands and feet, speaking thus: "so all of you will be my reign!" This, of course, obvious nonsense, and it is strange that it sometimes take seriously until now. It is not hard to believe in the possibility of a speculative manifestations of hatred have six year old child to the people, which he not only never knew, but never even seen, and it is unlikely the young Dmitri, living in Uglich, would know the names of the Moscow boyars.
Opposing rumors Dmitry painted as a "sovereign lad." It was said that the young prince shows the mind and features worthy of a sovereign. Whatever it was, it seems undoubtedly an important one: in Moscow, nobody, absolutely nobody knew Tsarevich Dmitry, and could not say anything for certain about him.
Boris Godunov, devoured by a thirst for power, constantly thinking about how to get rid of the young heir to the Russian throne. According to Karamzin, "this power-hungry greedy saw between himself and the throne of the infant unarmed as avid lion sees the Lamb!" And so "greedy power-hungry" forged deed terrible bloody thing: planned the murder of Prince ...
Boris opened his accomplices plan your neighbor: all of them except the butler, Grigory Godunov decided that the death of Dmitry need a public good perspective. For starters chosen poison that bribed mother of Tsarevich Vasilisa Volokhova secretly slipped into his "dishes and drinking." But deadly potion for some reason did not harm Dmitry.
Then it was decided to kill a prince. The first two selected for this delicate mission of the nobility, Vladimir Zagryazhsky and Nikifor Chepchugov, flatly rejected the offer made to them, and "from that time have been persecuted." Found another clerk Michael Bitiagovsky, judging by descriptions - downright Herod, "commemorated the face print atrocities, so that wild species vouched for his loyalty in evil." If you, the reader, have suggested such a character to look after your farm - you would have at least a little worried? And it was this Herod sent to Uglich rights of economic Dowager Queen, supervise the servants and the table ...
However Bitiagovsky arrived to Uglich, his son Daniel and nephew Nikita Katchalov. There they were already waiting bribed Volokhova, mother of Prince, and her son Osip, also dedicated to the circumstances of impending assassination.
Saturday, at the sixth hour of the day, the queen and her son returned from church and were preparing dinner May 15, 1591. Servants have worn dishes, suddenly, it is not clear why, mother Volokhova called Dmitry walk into the yard. Queen supposedly gathered to go with them, but hesitated. The nurse did not let go of Prince, but Volokhova force (!) Led by Dmitry together with the nurse out of the room into the hall and to the lower porch. There appeared before them Osip Volohov, Bitiagovsky Danila and Nikita Katchalov. Volo Hove took Dmitry's hand, he said ominously:
"The Emperor! You have a new necklace! "
"No, the old ..." - smiling trustingly, Dmitri said.
Volohov pulled out a knife and tried to stab him in the prince's neck, but the knife fell from his hand. Cried out in horror, the nurse grabbed his pet, but Danila and Nikita Katchalov Bitiagovsky snatched the child from the hands of a woman and stabbed him in cold blood. Throwing the dying prince, they ran off. Just at this time on the porch came the queen ...
After a few minutes, the silence of the city tore echoing sounds of the tocsin: the sexton of the Transfiguration Cathedral, the bell tower and the former has become an unwitting witness to the tragedy, I have invited the people. The citizens ran to the palace and saw the lifeless body of Prince and beating in hysterics queen and nurse. Somewhere nearby there were also a killer, trying to hide in the discharge hut. They were captured and killed. On the porch there was Michael Bitiagovsky, shouting that the prince himself cut my throat in a fit of epilepsy; They stoned him, caught and killed, along with a kind of "minions" him, Danilo Tretyakov. Killed Michael and servants, and some tucked under the arm burghers, and "whacky little wife", who lived in Bitiagovsky, kept alive only nurse Volokhov for "testimony" ...
Why is "popular anger" and destroyed the main conspirators, sparing Volokhov - what she could give such "evidence"? How long it took to citizens in search of violence and murderers? Why did not the killer managed to escape? Maybe because it did not try? And not try because they were not killers and do not feel or no guilt?
to investigate the murder of the Commission concluded that the Prince "cut my throat itself," injuring himself with a knife in a fit of epilepsy. From questioned relatives of Queen Mikhail Naga she said that the child was stabbed;
Gregory Naked shown that playing with a knife in a "butting" the prince wounded himself; Naked Andrew said he did not see any murderers and does not know who could have done it. Nurse Tsarevich Vasilisa Volokhova described how in a fit of epilepsy prince "was thrown to the ground, and then the prince himself pricked with a knife in his throat."
And fourteen years later, when the Moscow throne already occupied allegedly Dmitry, SHUISKI, in 1591 head of the commission of inquiry and, as anyone who knew the true facts of the case, in the hearts of cast: "Damn it, rather than a true prince; you know that this prince, Boris Godunov ordered to kill. "
So suicide or murder?
... Having considered the results of the investigation, the Boyar Duma decided that "the fate of the prince was in the hands of God, and all His will." Minutes of the investigation, however, remained a mystery to most of his contemporaries, and the people only knew about the death of Prince - a sudden and inexplicable.
In Uglich tragedy and the scene remained difficult to explain to most historians. At midnight, after the fateful day in Yaroslavl at the gate of the house appeared Gorseya Englishman who lived in exile in Yaroslavl brother Dowager Queen Nude Athanasius. Come out to knock Horsey Naga announced that Demetrius about six o'clock in the afternoon "clerks" cut the throat, and the crime they learn some Boris Godunov. Naga added that the Queen Mary poisoned or spoiled, and requested as soon as possible to give him some means. Horsey gave him some salve. In the morning already knew about the entire Yaroslavl prince's death and that the killer was standing behind Boris Godunov.
Nude Athanasius in the day of the murder in Uglich was not, and the detective did not even attracted to his commission for interrogation as a witness. Whence already after six hours, he knew all the details of the tragedy? It is obvious that from someone urgently arrived from Uglich. But it was not with this mysterious messenger ... wounded or tortured road Tsarevich Dmitry, for which rescue and asked the night Athanasius Nude in Gorseya balm?
Despite the findings of the Commission of Inquiry, Naked version that was killed on the orders of Prince Godunov prevailed in public opinion. Across Moscow secretly whispered that everything is arranged Godunov. They talked about the "treason" of Godunov and his quest to take over the throne. To plug these whisperers mouths, the government has committed mass executions of inhabitants of Uglich (killed about two hundred people), Naked sent to prison, and the Queen Mary became a nun ...
The rumors that the prince was alive, went immediately after the death of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich. They said that in Smolensk seen any letters from Dmitry. Margeret Frenchman Jacob wrote in 1600 that "some believe Dmitri Ivanovich alive."
A wave of new rumors about saving Dmitry caused "the case of the Romanov boyars." Historians attribute this wave of activity Romanov, who, wishing to overthrow Godunov, prepared to replace him "impostor." Meanwhile, it is among the servants Yuri Romanov a Otrepyev was seen ...
... October 16, 1604 within the Moscow State took a small detachment of hired troops led by a man who called himself the rightful heir to the Russian throne, Prince Dmitry Ivanovich, who escaped death. Terrified authorities issued just two (!) Is very different from each other versions of what allegedly Dmitry is a certain Grigory tow, fugitive monk defrocked.
Yes, surrounded by latter-day prince really was Gregory Otrepyev. February 26, 1605 the Jesuits, who were with Dimitri Putivl, wrote: "This led Grishku Otrepiev known throughout Muscovy magician and libertine ... And it became clear to the Russian people that Dmitry Ivanovich was not that Grishka Otrepyev". Otrepiev demonstrated in Putivl "before ER and MR, clearly oblichayuchi Borisov is a lie." Otrepiev seen in Moscow, after which Dmitry sent him to Yaroslavl, where the traces were lost. Later prevailing view that it was "Lzheotrepev", but in reality - a runaway monk Leonid. Much in this story of fugitive monks with similar biographies and any "False" ...
The sudden death of Boris Godunov Dmitry opened the way to the capital. Moscow greeted him enthusiastically about finding the true sovereign. Anointed Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Job named Dmitry Ivanovich king, the king caused surprise and fear among his contemporaries and continues to be a genuine interest historians.
No impostor in world history did not enjoy such support. People genuinely liked Dmitry and stricter all the supreme power was ready to punish his enemies if anyone dared to call the king "unreal", then, according to a contemporary, "and he was gone: whether he is a monk or layman - is now kill or drown."
Dmitry mindedness, his inner freedom and tolerance could not but cause apprehension among adherents paternal antiquity. "We only have some ceremonies, and the meaning of their hiding - he told the Moscow Orthodox clergy. - You supply only piety that retain the posts, worshiping relics, revered icons, and no have no idea about the essence of faith. You call yourself a new Israel, consider yourself the most righteous people in the world, and live is not a Christian: not only love each other, there is little disposed to do good. "
Surprised and scared and "netsarskoe" behavior of the new king, his country for "splendidly" Moscow quirks. Before his palace statue Dmitry put copper Cerberus with three heads - "infernal guards' three jaws which can be opened and closed, while uttering klatsat sound. This, in essence, a very funny quirk frightened the pious Muscovites: scary! In winter, on the order of the king on the Moscow River ice icy fortress built for the military fun, depicting Azov. Its walls were painted images of monsters, symbolizing the power of the Tatar. Moscow people are frightened and the monsters: they very much resembled the devils! And it is not surprising that organized Boyar tip program "popular protest" against the "rotten" the king caused the people a certain sympathy. Boyars strongly emphasized that "Dmitry is the king rotten: do not honor the holy icons, does not like piety, nourished infamous dishes, going to church is unclean, right from the" bed nasty ", has never washed in the bath with his" nasty queen. " Without a doubt, he was "not of the royal blood."
For medieval thought (and it is completely intact and preserved to this day), there is nothing more unbearable than the meeting with the phenomenon does not fit into the framework of their own ideas. Then, for an explanation of this phenomenon always attracted supernatural powers. In the XVII century it was a heresy and witchcraft, in our time - about zombiing and magic (ie of the same sorcery..). It is therefore not surprising that Boyar opposition began to accuse the king that he - a warlock, sorcerer and heretic, entered into an alliance with the evil spirit. This rumor has caused many rumors among the people. Some thought Falsdmitry extraordinary man, the other - the devil's accomplice. Numerous and recognized even by his enemies talents Falsdmitry tried to explain that the young teenager Gregory Otrepyev an alliance with Satan: "This is young yet navyche black magic ... Diploma emudasya is not of God, but diyavolu vessel perpetrate."
Rumors that allegedly Prince Dmitri - a heretic and warlock began circulating as early as 1604, when defrocked only just started their march on Moscow. It was said that, fled to Poland, the monk Grishka Otrepyev addressed there in black magic and "angelic image and obruga deposed, and the action of the enemy exceedingly departing from God." In fact, there is evidence that, while in Ukraine, Gosche, Otrepyev adopted Arianism and studied with one of the preachers of Arianism Matthew Tverdohleb. By the way, Arian activities in Ukraine provoked anger and the Polish Catholic Church.
"He's in Poland has sold soul to demons and wrote them blood handwriting, - said at the Moscow - Demons promised to make him king, and he has promised to them by God to back down."
"Yes, if he is a demon? - Asked the other. - He appeared in human form, to embarrass themselves Christians and do toy with those who fall from the Christian faith. " Still others argued that Grishka Otrepyev - risen from the grave dead once lived and then died and lively devilish force Christianity on the mountain (in modern parlance - a zombie).
Much later, the people of the historical memory of the composition of songs about Grishka-blasphemer, which mocks the Orthodox shrines:
"A local icon by itself spreads, A chyudny crosses under the heel puts".
In another song magician Grishka does handicraft imagine fairy wings, which tries to fly away from the crowd burst into the royal palace:
"But can you do krylitsa damn, I'll fly nun devil!"
"It was Grisha-rasstrizhka nicknamed Otrepkin - many years later we told the people. - He went at midnight on the ice under the bridge and Moskvoretsky wanted to drown himself in the sagebrush. And then to his wicked - and says: "Do not topis, Grisha, I'd better give it back! Have fun in the world you live. I can tell you a lot of gold, silver, and give a great man to make "Grisha and said to him:" Make me king in Moscow "" Very well! Only you give me your soul and write a contract in blood! "So, according to legend, Otrepyev way and got himself the throne.
May 17, 1606 Dmitry allegedly was killed by conspirators. Broke into the palace of nobles and their supporters found in the chambers of the king skomoro-sew a mask immediately grown into killers eyes to the state crime sizes: "That this same hare, this idol and worshiped the magician and heretic Grishka tow, and not the true God!" The mask is thrown to rip the belly of the False Dmitry. Over his body long mocked, and finally buried "in a squalid home" (in the cemetery for the poor and the homeless) for Serpukhovsko gate, near the main road.
On the day when the body of the former king, tied to a horse, dragged him to the gates of Serpukhov, Moscow terrible storm swept on Kulish tore the roof from the tower and threw a wooden wall at the Kaluga gate. Immediately reminded that the same storm was at the grand entrance Falsdmitry in Moscow ...
In the "squalid house" body of the deceased by an unseen force was transferred from place to place, and many people saw him sitting on the two lovebirds. Someone saw over the grave defrocked rose from the ground blue lights. Then the body allegedly ordered to dig a little deeper into the ground, but suddenly the body of a dead king appeared in a quarter of a mile from the "shabby homes".
In addition, Moscow rumors began to circulate that at night the dead man rises from his grave and walks. Immediately I remembered that recently came to Moscow Lapps - the inhabitants of northern Lapland, bowed to the king Dmitry annual tribute. About Lapps from time immemorial was the rumor is about wizards who can even raise the dead, "ordered to kill themselves, and then come to life." Not otherwise Grisha Otrepyev learned this art from the infernal Lapp wizards Hyperboreans!
The authorities and the clergy were alarmed by these confused and to do away with the dead or rather "a sorcerer and magician," the body Falsdmitry dug and taken to the village of Lower boilers, where the dead man was burned. They said that did not immediately succumb to fire the body of the magician. They throw it into the fire - burned only arms and legs, but the body does not burn itself. Then the dead man hacked to pieces and thrown into the fire again - then burned. The ashes of the king-pretender collected, mixed with gunpowder loaded into the gun and shot him in the direction from which came to Moscow this mysterious man ...