The death of Gagarin
The investigation of one of the most puzzling tragedies of the last century - the death of the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin and pilot Vladimir Seregin - can be resumed. In the language of lawyers, "according to newly discovered evidence." On the resumption of the investigation insists a former employee of Research Institute of the Air Force maintenance and repair of aviation equipment, Igor Kuznetsov, who, among others, to investigate the cause "MiG-15" plane crash in 1968.
It puts forward a lot of versions of the causes of the accident, but the main question - what happened to the plane and the crew in the last 68 seconds of flight - no answer. Kuznetsov many years collecting materials related to the tragedy. During this time, the technical progress made great forward and Igor analyzed data based on current knowledge. The findings, which he did, truly sensational: Gagarin and Seregin at the time of the crash were unconscious, so they could not bring the car out of the dive. And the reason for it - unclassified someone vent valve in the cockpit.
March 27, 1968, Colonel Seregin as an instructor and checks on the aircraft "MiG-15" Gagarin flew together to the airfield "Chkalovsky." This flight proved to be their last. Careful inspection of the crash site and the amount of collected material does not have analogues in the world practice, the investigation of aircraft accidents. Under Kirzhach (the crash site) has raised more than 90% of the aircraft, while usually collect no more than 60%. The largest fragment of the human - left hand Gagarin - was discovered in the ruins of the first cabin the left pane. Among the debris found the floor and the sole of the shoe.
Doctors were in a very difficult situation: they are required to establish which one of the pilots flew the plane at the last moment. Careful analysis found the soles of shoes led to the conclusion that the aircraft ran Seregin.
August 18, 1968 the State Commission has formulated an opinion on the investigation of the disaster and prepared the text for publication in the press of the work - reveals the secrets of 37-year-old Igor Kuznetsov. - However, these official documents were not published: events began in Czechoslovakia, the USSR introduced to the troops, and the public attention shifted to the subject. But the fact remains: the investigation and did not answer the main question: what is the cause of the accident? When this - back in May '68 - reported the head of the committee, Dmitry Ustinov, it is in the hearts cried out: "Yes, that them was hit by evil forces?" And the work of the commission extended for another three months.
The first 20 years of Gagarin's crash issue was actually banned. The material collected by the state commission, was published only in 1987-1989, in the articles by Professor Belotserkovsky (he, along with cosmonaut Leonov allowed to read the summary report of the commission), published in technical and reference books on aviation and hence inaccessible to inhabitants. Professor outlined one of the many versions that considered the state commission, but acknowledged it only probable: it was not supported by the facts.
The State Commission held an unprecedented in scope and depth of the investigation, - says Igor Kuznetsov - but a stumbling block on which stumbled and stopped all work, was the inability to obtain reliable information about the emergency section of the aircraft flight - from the last session of the radio crew to fly the head to the point of impact . These last 68 seconds of the flight until now remained unknown.
It turned out that the then scientific minds and practitioners lacked knowledge. Some options, facts, readings experts could not explain, so they remained unused - for the time being. And only now it was possible to understand what they indicate, and what processes are reflected. Igor Ivanovich was able to identify the most important - and the trajectory parameters of Gagarin's aircraft movement on an emergency flight.
Knowing how to actually move the aircraft in this area, it was possible to understand the root cause and nature of the emergency, to assess the actions of the pilots in the current emergency situation, identify the factors that led to the tragic denouement, to restore the real aircraft flight path from takeoff to the point of impact with the ground .
The fact that the cab had not been sealed, the state commission has been established. Crane ventilation first cabin, Gagarin (total on the plane two cranes - in the first and second cabins), was opened on 48%. This means that the vehicle has not been sealed from the outset of flight. Pilots know this could only be at a height of more than 2 thousand meters - on the readings. They probably figured out that when making turns at an altitude of 4200 m. Having established that there was an emergency situation, the pilots began to act according to the instructions. Both then and now they have to stop the job, extra lower altitude up to 2 thousand meters and return to the airfield.
The trajectory indicates that this Seregin with Gagarin and did turned to urgently reduce the height of the flight. They asked for 320 degrees, ie. E. Wanted to go to the left. But it turned still on course 180. This is easily explained: the left at a height of 3000 meters worked other fighter training "MiG-15". Seregin with Gagarin knew that it was dangerous to go there - could face. Once down, they, too, could not fall: according to their calculations, there were jumping parachutists - cosmonauts led by Alexei Leonov. Leonov said then: "Our fly!" And he was the last person to hear Gagarin's plane.
We can say with confidence that "dive" ( "barrel" with care to dive in order to reduce the height) made Seregin, - says Igor. - Did vigorously right coup. Gagarin was not yet prepared to carry out such a complex maneuver. Only with such care options to reduce those could appear the readings that have been set by the Commission.
And then there was the incomprehensible: the machine went down (instruments confirmed it) and did not come out of the dive. All wondered why experienced Seregin did not even attempt to exit? No 2 thousand meters or close to the ground. Unfortunately, in 1968 some of the parameters of final flight conditions (just before the fall) were explicitly understood Commission. The experts considered that pilots too late to try to bring the car out of a dive and just nedotyanul. Now it is safe to say that the output is not even attempt undertaken.
The pilots were at an altitude of 4200 m in the unsealed cabin more than 6 minutes, the oxygen masks did not use - it established a commission. So, we can talk about the initial oxygen starvation (hypoxia). Of these, 6 minutes, 5 pilots operated overload. And then they began to decline rapidly, and overload continued to grow.
The unsealed cabin pressure is growing like an avalanche. One could argue that in the first 5-7 seconds, the pilots received the so-called aerodynamic blow: the cabin pressure was growing at a rate of 9-14 mm Hg per second, because the vertical rate of descent was 140-150 m / s - a (!) also showed devices. Imagine if you are flying in an airplane, lays the ears with a decrease of 5-7 meters per second. And then all the 150! The consequence of the aerodynamic impact can be deafening effect or death. There is every reason to believe that within the first 3-7 seconds of the pilots lost capacity for work, and then dive down to a collision with the ground, continued in unmanaged mode. After another 22 seconds the machine was broken.
Only in 1991, doctors were able to establish if the pilot was in lightheadedness, consciousness returned to him after 5-15 seconds, the ability to assess the situation - after 15-20 seconds, the motor activity and the ability to fly a plane - in 30-120 seconds. Gagarin with Seregin simply do not have enough time to recover and re-start control pikiruemoy machine. Igor Kuznetsov believes that the first half-open cab ventilation valve (this was the cause of a leak) and high vertical descent rate during a dive in any case can not be blamed for the crew. Crane could be left open and techniques, and the pilot, who flew on that machine before Gagarin.
We can assume that Yury did not touch the faucet. Pilots accepted cabin leaks as a malfunction of aircraft continue to operate strictly according to instructions - sums up Igor Ivanovich. - A statement of the time did not limit the amount of rate of descent at such contingency. Limitations imposed 1975 godu only - not more than 50 meters per second (and they are decreased at a rate of 140-150 m / s). And it is valid to this day. Danger of cumulative effects of high-altitude flight factors on the drivers then, too, was not as obvious as it is now.