The origin of Cyrillic
Everyone knows today the formation of words by taking a ready word, it is added to the ready-suffix or prefix to a certain value - and we have something new: ecstasy - pelvis, second-hand. It is clear that the formation of words is based on the already-established concepts: the ancient word "acquire" suffixes and prefixes, changing its meaning. But it is also clear, however, that the very first words were formed differently.
Each letter bears some concept. For example, with "A" letter associated start - start, the starting point of our physical and spiritual activities. energy categories correspond to the letters "E", "E", "I", the first two are of a shade cosmic energy, and the letter "I" tends to be more "worldly" forms of its manifestation. the original meaning of the whole is enclosed in sounds and letters of the alphabet. And the very first word formed in accordance with the original meaning.
That is why the alphabet can be safely regarded as the first code, and applicable to any language - ancient or modern. Why in the beginning of the word two "a"? You feel something in common between words reservoir, iron, loft, palm, plateau? Or, for example, the word remember yelling, meaning plow, cultivate the land. In Sumerian Ur-Ru meant plowing; horeysh in Hebrew - is a farmer, in the Lithuanian and Latvian arti - plow; Latvian plow - it aro; in the Old High art - a plowed field, and in Hindi harwaha - plowman. Modern British Earth - the earth is related staroskandinavskomu ertha, staroverhnenemetskomu erda, modern German Erde; aro - is to plow in Latin, with associated British and French arable - arable. After all these examples it is clear that Aryan is primarily tiller, but not what we usually think.
We often can not accurately determine the "fine" structure of word meanings - because this is not our problem - but can always feel it. And - thanks to the creators of the alphabet - see on the letter. They managed the flow of information that pours upon us the reality, to isolate the tiny particles of meaning - the sounds and stop them, leave on parchment, paper, metal or wood. True, we are talking about the letters. The invention of the alphabet can be considered the biggest cultural revolution in human history.
Ancient much stronger than we are aware of the importance of the alphabet. They perceived it as an entity, as a model of the world, the macrocosm - that's why on vases, urns, medallions of ancient tombs we find the complete records of different alphabets, which played the role of propitiatory sacrifice. This, of course, if the whole alphabet was a model of the world, some of his signs were regarded as world-elements.
We do not know the ancient "own name" alphabet, perhaps it was taboo. All alphabets are called by their first letters: Latin ABCD-arium (or abecedarium), Church Slavonic azbuka, Russian alphabet, the Greek alphabet, German Abc.
Historians can not give a precise answer to the question, when the company was ready for the emergence of the alphabet. War, fire, incorrect dating and stereotypes - too many obstacles in order to learn how it was actually. The art of writing is still described in the Mahabharata, and if based on these data, it appeared long before the writing of the Sumerians and at least two thousand years before the Phoenician alphabet. In this area of knowledge are more questions than answers. But we will not look back thousands of years - even against relatively young Cyrillic rather unclear.
History of Slavic Literature.
Since the Slavs settled quite widely - from the Elbe to the Don, from the Northern Dvina to the Peloponnese - then it is not surprising that their alphabets group had a variety of options. But if "sees the root", then these groups, successive, can be divided into three - the runes, Glagolitic and Cyrillic.
In the late 17th century in the village Prilvits it was found about fifty figures and ritual objects of ancient Slavic gods to put on them runic inscriptions, among which the most frequently encountered signs and retro Radegast. Scientists came to the conclusion that the collection of these items belonged to the temple of the Radegast city retro. German Andreas Gottlieb Mash acquired this collection and in 1771 in Germany published a catalog of items with engravings. Shortly after the publication of the collection disappeared. In the late 19th century in Poznan province three stones have been found in Poland (Mikorzhinskie stones) carved with inscriptions in the same alphabet as in retrinskih subjects.
Slavic runes in the Scandinavian sources called «Venda Runis» - «Vendian runes." We have almost nothing about them do not know, other than the fact of their existence. Runes were used for short inscriptions on gravestones, boundary signs, weapons, jewelery, coins. Religious figurines with runic inscriptions scattered in museums in different countries, and there they remain largely undeciphered.
Runic letter was the first, pre-writing stage of development, when a special need for it has not experienced: news sent messengers, all lived together, kept the knowledge from the elders and priests, and the songs and stories passed from mouth to mouth. Runes were used for short messages:.. Road indication, the border post, a sign of ownership, etc. This same writing Slavs appeared with the Glagolitic alphabet.
Glagolitic and Cyrillic.
Regarding the invention, the Glagolitic and Cyrillic among scientists there is an established opinion - about this. The appearance of these alphabets associated with the adoption of Christianity by the Slavs. Brothers Cyril (in the world - Constantine the Philosopher) and Methodius devised the Glagolitic on behalf of the Byzantine Empire on the basis of some rudiments of Slavic written language in order to translate this alphabet liturgical books and to prepare the ground for the adoption of Christianity by the Slavs. A little later, in 20-30 years, the Cyrillic alphabet was invented, more convenient than the Glagolitic alphabet, and so it pretty quickly ousted last. Though Cyrillic and called monastic name of Constantine the Philosopher, it is not invented himself, and apparently one of his students. Thus, the Slavic written language appeared no earlier than 863, and all written records, dating back to early 860's, swept aside by science as false and impossible.
In itself, this statement can cause a surprise. Indeed, at least, strange to assume that normal people were not normal at the time of writing, like all around it was already. And the question itself about the "invention" of the alphabet in a certain point of time is extremely doubtful. The need for a letter of the Slavs appeared centuries earlier. Knowing the existence of runes, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and another letter, probably Slavs or adapted alien alphabets for their needs, or gradually develop their own. In the Slavic pagan epics mention that Svarog, the god of heaven, carved laws for people on a rock called Alatyr - that is, the population was already able to read and, therefore, to write. So what is the merit of Constantine the Philosopher?
Konstantin philosopher, he is Cyril's brother Methodius.
Constantine the Philosopher was a man of extraordinary intelligence, strong character and high level of education, and Constantinople, using these qualities are often entrusted him with various diplomatic assignments. In the years of the life of Constantine the situation in Byzantium can not be called quiet: not only that rising discontent inside the country - she has experienced a significant and growing threat posed by the power of the Slavic tribes. All together, this called into question the very existence of the Byzantine Empire.
The only salvation for it could only be an appeal of the pagans to Christianity. Byzantium has made several unsuccessful attempts, but the idea has not won over the masses. And then in Constantinople it was quite reasonably decided that the more successful will be to present Christianity to the Slavs in their own language. In 860, Constantine the Philosopher was sent to Hersonissos for the translation of liturgical books - the Crimea at the time was a crossroads of roads where normally there is a dialogue between Russia and the Byzantine Empire. Constantine had to learn the Slavic alphabet, translated with the help of Christian prayer and generally prepare the ground for the Christianization of the whole of Russia.
Constantine spent four years in the Crimea, and then was sent with his brother Methodius to the Moravian ruler Rostislav, who, according to the chronicles, he brought prayer books written in Glagolitic. Perhaps for this reason it was concluded that the Glagolitic and Constantine was the invention in the coastal shores of Hersonissos.
However, as evidenced by the "Life of Constantine", in the 858 year, being in Hersonissos, he found a Gospel and Psalter written in Russian letters, and met a man who spoke in Russian, could him somehow to explain, and then quite quickly I learned to read and speak the language. Constantine learned to read so fast that his companions, the Greeks seemed as if there was a great miracle. In fact, even writing was a stranger, an unknown - judging by the fact that Constantine still had to learn to read, but the Old Russian language was quite close to the language of the Macedonian Slavs, which was Constantine the Philosopher.
It turns out that more than a hundred years before the official baptism of Rus of the Slavs already exist translations of religious books in the Slavic language and writing system of their own development, other than Greek. What was this written? And what it has to Constantine?
Surely it was Glagolitic. And certainly the letter at the time was already quite developed - at least, not beginnings. The assertion that the Slavic letter appeared only with Christianity, is not true. Chernorizets hrabar (Bulgaria, the end of the IX century) in the "Legend of the Slavic writings" writes that the Slavs have long read and write, using for this special "features and cuts."
Constantine met not with the beginnings of Slavic Literature and with the development of writing - certainly unstructured, so he had not so much to invent a new alphabet, how to reform the existing one. What is it like to the Slavic alphabet?
In the history of the origin of the Glagolitic alphabet it is also quite unclear. As a Slavic alphabet, she appeared at least in the IV. Glagolitic was born in the Balkans, where it dies off in the form still exists. Glagolitic western Slavs (Czechs, Poles, and others.) Lasted a relatively short time and was replaced by Latin script, and the rest of the Slavs moved into Cyrillic. But the Glagolitic alphabet was used until the beginning of World War II in some villages in Italy, where this font even printed newspaper.
Her invention, or at least, as a routine associated with the bishop Ulfiloy - primacy of the so-called small ready living in the Balkan Peninsula. In fact, it was Geth, who fell victim consonance with the Goths, but to differentiate their name added to the "small." About getah mentioned even Thucydides, and history comes to the Trojan War. Geta in antiquity had a high culture - the Greeks themselves have stated that the geth nearly indistinguishable from the Greeks. It is very likely that a part of the Goths and the Slavs were hiding, and the sacred books of the Christians were converted by them long before Cyril.
It is not known, invented the Glagolitic bishop Ulfila himself or improved so getskogo runes. But it can be argued that the Glagolitic alphabet for at least five centuries old Cyrillic. Knowing this, a lot of historical documents can be overstated, because they were dated based on the fact that the Glagolitic alphabet was created only in the IX., Although its alphabet of the Slavs was the end of IV century. Traces of it left a bit, and it inherited a little studied and not appreciated, because it does not fit into the picture of the invention of the Slavic alphabet Cyril and Methodius.
What are the salient features of this enigmatic alphabet?
The Glagolitic no Greek letter "chi" and "psi", which is in Cyrillic. Author Glagolitic was more independent from the Greek alphabet than Cyril, and decided to anything to enter the third letter for the combination of sounds that already have their own symbols. The Glagolitic there are two letters to indicate the hard and soft "g", which is more consistent with the phonetics of Slavic speech. The Glagolitic - two different letters for "ds" sounds and "z". The Cyrillic alphabet was initially only the letter "h", but later the Cyrillic alphabet has been improved to the extent of the Glagolitic alphabet and the diphthong "ds" began airing crossed the letter "z".
It turns out that when the original was written in Glagolitic and Cyrillic correspondence, the scribe, mechanically repeating the letters of the original, actually changed the date - often for decades. This explains a certain inconsistency in the dates. Glagolitic graphics are very intricate and is associated with the Armenian or Georgian writing. The shape of the letters may be noted two types of Glagolitic: round the Bulgarian and Croatian (Illyrian, dalmatsiyskaya) - more angular.
As we can see, Glagolitic is significantly different from the Greek letter, which was used in the Byzantine Empire. This is another argument against its invention by Constantine. Of course, we can assume that Constantine "from scratch" created a new writing, which is so radically different from the familiar to him. But then requires its answer the question of where he took the mark of this design principle, since the time he had to spare - Byzantium Constantine sent a rather urgent mission.
It is doubtful, and the position that "Kirillovskoye letter" was created later in Constantinople by one of Cyril's followers, and it fits the needs of the Greek alphabet for the Slavic languages. Cyrillic was very thin device - it has generally maintained an internal system of the Glagolitic alphabet, but Glagolitic letters have been replaced by new ones on the Greek type, and additional letters to denote special Slavic sounds stylized Greek. Thus, this letter on his schedule was a Greek, and phonetics - originally Slavic. Unknown follower of Constantine was supposed to be respectable scientist. It is hard to imagine that he kept silent about his role and allowed to call their offspring a false name.
Moreover, when the Cyrillic alphabet, which belonged to some unknown creator, began to oust the Glagolitic, it could not respond to the disciples and admirers of Cyril and Methodius, because the transition from Glagolitic into Cyrillic effectively negates all the work of brothers. Imagine years translating liturgical books, to use them for at least 20 years - and suddenly drop everything and start rewriting all the literature on the "Cyrillic"? This revolution was to cause a fight between supporters and opponents of innovation. The transition to the new font has been impossible without the convening of a special church council, without debate, differences of opinion, but in the history of this word. Not preserved as any church book, written with the help of the Glagolitic alphabet.
From all this it must be inferred that Constantine the Philosopher did not invent the Glagolitic and Cyrillic. And most likely, he not even invented, and reformed the already existing alphabet. Even before the Slavs Cyril used the alphabets as a non-Greek and Greek-style. In the XVIII century in the hands of Montenegrin princes Crnojevic house was Pope diploma Leo IV (847-855), written in Cyrillic. One of the reasons for which the document was declared false, was that Cyril had to invent the Cyrillic alphabet only 863
Another example is the image of Christ on a towel, so-called image of Veronica, which is stored among the other relics in the Vatican. It is generally accepted that it refers to the first centuries of Christianity. On it, except for the letters IC (Jesus) cholesterol (the Christ), there is a clear inscription: "TO OBRAZ GSPDN ubrus" (ubrus - face towel).
A third example is the icon of the Apostles Peter and Paul, recorded in Giacomo Grimaldi catalog in 1617 at number 52. By the nature of the letter, it refers to the first centuries of our era. In the central part of the icon at the top of the image of the Savior with the inscription in Cyrillic «ICXC». On the left - the image of St. Peter with the inscription: "PETRI sty." On the right - the image of St. Paul with the inscription: "STA PAVL".
Slavs used the Greek alphabet type Cyril centuries before, so it took as the basis of already existing alphabet, supplemented it and made it church literature. Lay the foundation Glagolitic he could not: it was not suitable for a quick letter because of its complexity, moreover, it was Ulf not particularly revered by the Orthodox Church. Finally, the Glagolitic postpones Byzantium with its Greek letter and Slavs.
Rome treated Glagolitic quite loyal. Since 1554 the French kings, came to the throne, took the oath in the cathedral at Reims Gospel. Gospel consists of two parts: the first is written in Cyrillic and contains readings from the New Testament on the Slavic rite; the second is written in Glagolitic and concludes readings from the New Testament in the Catholic rite. In the text the Glagolitic inscription in French: "Summer of the Lord 1395. It is the gospel and the message written in the Slavic language. They have to be sung in the course of the year, when committed episcopal office. As for the other parts of this book, it corresponds to the Russian rite. It is written in his own hand St. Prokop, abbot, and the Russian text was presented by Charles IV of late, the emperor of the Roman Empire, for the perpetuation of St. Jerome and St. Prokop. God grant them eternal rest. Amen". It should be noted that St. Prokop, abbot of the monastery in Sázava (died February 25, 1053) served as the liturgy of the Roman Catholic rite, but in the Old Slavonic language. According to legend, the first king, sworn in this gospel, was Philip I, son of Henry and Anne, the daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, who married in 1048 the Gospel, perhaps belonged to Anne, and her son swore at him out of respect for his mother. Anyway, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabet for centuries lived in peace in the Roman Catholic Church, in contrast to the Orthodox, where the Glagolitic deliberately avoided, although in the home simultaneously use both the alphabet.
Glagolitic and Cyrillic much older than perfect it phonetically. Along with the Slavs used Glagolitic and Greek alphabets of the sample, and at a fraction of Cyril fell only to finalize what was in general use, but did not make the rules, and the canon. Thus, both the Glagolitic and Cyrillic composed specifically for the Slavic language. Cyrillic is a graphical version of the Greek letter (and it is often called "the Greek letter"), and in its sound system - an imitation of the Glagolitic alphabet. Glagolitic same is likely a product of the West - where she has developed, there is more and more restrained, and there is also still there.