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Could to poison Napoleon?


Could to poison Napoleon?
It all started with the fact that in 1955 in France were published memoirs of Louis Marchand, servants and bodyguards of the emperor, had lain on the shelf archive 120 years before historians have given them a comment and let out into the light. Marchand day after day described Napoleon's life and said that he often gave to friends as a keepsake of your hair strands.

These memoirs once caught the eye of a history buff, a Swedish doctor, dentist and toxicology Wall Forshvudu. He looked, not looking up, read the memoirs and was surprised to find that in the detailed description of the last years of his life locked Bonaparte clearly myshyachnogo symptoms of poisoning. At least thirty recognized forensic medicine, Napoleon, there were 22! Then Forshvud studied the autopsy report, collated some other evidence and even more strengthened in its assumption.

However, he did not rush to conclusions. Rumors of poisoning of Napoleon went a very long time. Forshvud decided to rely on the latest advances in science, to prove the fact of premeditated murder and attempt to find the culprit.

After many adventures, he was able to gather the strands of the 1816, 1817, 1818 and 1821, the years of Napoleon's hair, and with the help of the Scottish scientist Smith expose their complex analysis. it was not so easy to get hold of the hair of the former Emperor of France. For example, the heirs of the imperial family of Napoleon politely refused to sacrifice science a single hair, hinting that they are already known poisoner. And they are not interested in making his name known to the public.

But the granddaughter of the younger brother of Betsy Balcombe, Balcombe Lady Mebel-Brooks said with a friendly smile: "I am glad that you are looking for evidence of the Emperor's poisoning. You know, my grandfather has always been convinced of this. And it is passed down from generation to generation ... As a relative of William Balcombe, I express my gratitude to you for your effort to solve this crime. "

Along the way, she added, that her great-grandmother Betsy died in London in 1873. French it owned great and distinguished courage, intelligence and will. When she was asked where she was studying French, she replied with dignity that she was a good teacher on the Bonaparte family.

The method by which Stan Forshvud intended to prove the fact of deliberate arsenic poisoning of Napoleon, was as follows.

In a university laboratory in Glasgow Napoleon hair samples, weighed and sealed in tiny containers sent to Harvellsky Institute of Atomic Energy near London. There samples bombarded with nuclear particles (thermal neutrons) within 24 hours. Subsequent comparison to the control group samples allowed a quantitative measure arsenic content in the hair by which to determine the total amount of venom and caught in the body. This method always gave very accurate results.

It's funny that Forshvud some time did not inform his fellow Englishmen whose hair they explore the fear that it somehow can affect the results of the examination (which was subsequently the subject of inexhaustible jokes).

After a while Forshvud received an official response: "... After the analysis found that the sample sent to you and marked the HS, contains 10.38 micrograms of arsenic per gram of hair. This proportion indicates that the person has received the required relatively high amounts of arsenic. "

Now Forshvuda was scientific evidence that Napoleon Bonaparte was poisoned with arsenic mass in the ex-emperor's hair at the time of his death, exceeded the norm by 13 times! As a toxicologist, Forshvud knew that arsenic poisoning human it requires quite a bit and the killer could do it in one step. For slow poisoning for six years took one small bag.

Judging from those described in the diaries and Gurgen Merchant symptoms at one time had been poisoned with arsenic Cipriani. This was a faithful Corsican Napoleon's secret agent. Probably, he was instructed to look for a poisoner, and possibly Cipriani managed to trace.

He was only a servant, and an autopsy was carried out. During the trip to the island of St. Helena Lady Mebel Balcombe Brooks did struck her discovery Cipriani grave with the Protestant cemetery had disappeared along with the headstone. It was empty! She has also been found that in the book of civil acts Count Montholon island "forgot" to register the fact of his death. The question arises: who and why needed a dead man?

The reason for the disappearance of the grave Cipriani, probably lies in the fact that the rumor spread in the 30s of the last century, like Napoleon's body secretly taken away to England and anonymously buried in a chapel of Westminster Abbey, and instead of the emperor in his fob put accident Cipriani, who was very look like him. Probably, for this version of documentary checks and secret body exhumation was carried Cipriani ...

With regard Forshvuda, he decided to expand the range of their research by exposing strands of Napoleon's hair even more sophisticated analysis. It was important to determine what doses of arsenic ingested Bonaparte.

If the poison is ingested metered doses at regular intervals (which indicated that intentional poisoning), the scientists had to get a graphical chart of peaks and valleys.

Human hair grows at a speed of 0.35 millimeters per day, or about 1.5 cm per month. It is possible to calculate the time separating the peaks of the diagram, ie the time of receipt of the largest portions of poison. In that case, if the hair was shaved at the root and is known the date of the event, the segment analysis, up to one day be allowed to determine the date of absorption (the absorption of other substances), that is, the absorption dose of poison.

Thanks to this technique, developed by Smith, Forshvud got actual evidence, was killed Napoleon, and revealed the secret of his death.

From ancient caskets relatives Louis Marchand learned silky strand of hair of Napoleon, which had been shaved in the first hour of the death of the Emperor May 5, 1821, when the sound of a violent storm, which broke out on the island, Antommarchi shooting death mask ... Taking this date as the beginning of the scale of reference, able to bind it dates to the calendar, and to compare them with the diaries and Gurgen Merchant, which describes the disease in the last months of Napoleon's life.

They were then subjected to analysis of hair strands, donated by Betsy Balcombe. She was cut off March 16, 1818, it was 18 centimeters and the information entered into nearly 12 months.

When arsenic chart was prepared, it was found that Napoleon very tangible dose of poison received from the killer, Count Montholon, since the beginning of October 1817 to 1 November, then 11,16,30 December 26 to 29 January, from 26 to 27 February 1818 and before leaving Betsy - 13 March.

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