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Tower of Babel


Tower of Babel
The Tower of Babel is not included in the "official" list of wonders of the world. However, it is - one of the most outstanding works of ancient Babylon, and its name to this day is a symbol of confusion and disorder. During the excavations in Babylon German scientist Robert Koldewey managed to find the foundations and ruins of the tower. That tower, referred to in the Bible, was probably destroyed before the era of Hammurabi. In its place was built the other, which was erected in memory of the first. According to Koldewey, she had a square base, each side of which was 90 meters. The height of the tower was 90 meters too, the first layer had a height of 33 meters, the second - 18, the third and fifth - 6 meters, the seventh - the sanctuary of the god Marduk - was the height of 15 meters.

The tower stood on the plain Sahni (literal translation of the name - "pan") on the left bank of the Euphrates. She was surrounded by the houses of priests, temple buildings and buildings for pilgrims who flocked here from all over Babylonia. The top tier of the tower was lined with blue tiles and covered with gold. Description of the Tower of Babel left Herodotus, who thoroughly examined her and maybe even been on top of it. This is the only documenting eyewitness from Europe.

"In the middle of each part of the city erected a building. In one part - the royal palace, surrounded by a huge and strong walls; in the other - the sanctuary of Zeus-Bel with brass gates, is still preserved to this day. Temple sacred land - square, each side of its length in two stages. In the middle of this sacred temple site erected a huge tower, one steps in length and width. This tower is the second, and on it - even the tower; in general, eight towers - the one to the other. Outer staircase leads upstairs around all these towers. On the bench are halfway down the stairs - to be, to relax. In the last tower was erected a large temple. This temple is a large, luxuriously bed and next to it a golden table. No images of the deity there, but, no. Yes, and no one spends the night there, except for one woman, who, according to the Chaldeans, the priests of the god, the god chooses from all the local women.

There in the holy temple site in Babylon at the bottom yet another sanctuary where there is a huge golden statue of Zeus. Nearby are also a large golden table, footstool and the throne - as gold. According to the Chaldeans, for the manufacture of [all these things] went 800 talents of gold. Before this temple was erected a golden altar. Is there another huge altar - it sacrificed adult animals; the golden altar also possible to sacrifice just suckers. On the great altar burn the Chaldeans year 1000 incense talents at the festival in honor of this god. There was also in the sacred area at the time in question, a golden statue of the god, entirely of gold, height 12 cubits. I myself was not able to see her, but I give only what is told Chaldeans. This statue of a longed Darius son Gistapa, but did not dare to seize it ... ".

According to Herodotus, the Tower of Babel was eight storeys, the width of the bottom is equal to 180 meters. According to descriptions Koldewey, the tower was on the lower tier and the lower tier was 90 meters wide, that is less than half. It's hard not to believe Koldewey, a scholar and conscientious, but perhaps in the time of Herodotus, the tower stood on the terrace of some, albeit low, that for millennia leveled, and during excavations Koldewey did not find any trace of her. Every great city of Babylon had its ziggurat, but none of them could compare to the Tower of Babel, which is an enormous pyramid towered over the neighborhood. For its construction took 85 million bricks, and built the Tower of Babel generations of rulers. Babylonian ziggurat repeatedly destroyed, but each time he restored and decorated anew. The ziggurat was a relic that belonged to all the people, it was a place where thousands of people flocked to worship the supreme god Marduk.

Tukulti-Ninurta, Sargon, Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal storm took possession of Babylon, and destroyed the Tower of Babel - the sanctuary of Marduk. Nabopolasar Nebuchadnezzar and rebuilt it again. Cyrus, taken possession of Babylon after Nebuchadnezzar's death, was the first conqueror who left the town undefeated. He was struck by the scale of e-dark-Anki, and he not only forbade anything to destroy, but ordered to build on his grave monument in the form of a miniature ziggurat, a small tower of Babel.

Still, the tower was again destroyed. The Persian king Xerxes left only the ruins of it, which he saw on his way to India by Alexander the Great. He, too, was struck by the gigantic ruins - he, too, stood in front of them fascinated. Alexander the Great intended to build it again. "But - as Strabo says, - this work required a lot of time and effort, because the ruins would have to clean up the ten thousand people for two months, and he did not realize his plan as soon fell ill and died."

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