Avalon and King Arthur
Legend of the English King Arthur and his Round Table is known to many. But is it all happened in reality? And where was the mysterious island of Avalon - a permanent place of residence of the legendary King? After all, it is not on any map. The answer to this question gives a slight Glastonbury Abbey, where British archaeologists have discovered during the excavation of the grave with the bodies of Arthur and his wife Guinevere.
There are three of King Arthur in the memory of mankind - a historical Arthur, Arthur and Arthur legends of chivalry, and one image smoothly flows into another. Therefore, to separate historical fact from fiction is difficult, given the antiquity of the stories that have appeared in the VI century BC. e. This century is not accidental enveloped fantastic stories about the great King Arthur and his famous Knights of the Round Table who have committed mass incredible feats.
By the beginning of the III century the Romans conquered the British Isles and owned by them prior to the V century. Then Rome itself threatened by hordes of Goths, and Romans all left the colony. Less than half a century, as Britain attacked the Germanic tribes. Then the tribes of the Britons, and the remnants of the descendants of the Romans came together and began to fight the invaders. Although they inflicted a series of defeats to them, to the conquest of 1600 the main part of the island was completed.
On these times - the fight Britain's aboriginal population with the conquerors - and tells the story of King Arthur, which has become the hero that led this struggle. Despite its failure, the legend of King sends the wounded on the magical island of Avalon, which opens the way to little. On this island inhabited by elves and fairies, where time flows so slowly that the heroes of legends and settled may dwell in paradise, not knowing that swept over the planet and a half thousand years. So he lived there really King Arthur? There Is Avalon? It turns out that these issues are inextricably linked.
Around the legend of Arthur passed around so many rumors in the past century, and continues to go these days, that fit completely confused. Some of the mystics of the Middle Ages believed that the Avalon is not lost in the physical, and in the sacred sense of the word. Like the Russian Kitezh, the island passed into another dimension of magic and disappeared from the eyes of people.
Many historians of the XIX century explained the disappearance of Avalon is much more prosaic. They believed that the cause of death was banal island flooding. In support of their hypothesis, the scientists brought the true story related to the XI century. It was a speech about a very low island in the English Channel, protected by dikes and sluices. One day after some drunken celebrations guards forgot to close them, and unchecked tidal water rushed into the city. The waves killed all the local nobility (except the king, who escaped by swimming on horseback), and the island itself covered the sea. That the above-described case of the historically authentic and prompted researchers to suggest that Avalon could suffer the same fate.
Quite unexpectedly, I spoke on the subject (though in a disguised form) the famous Danish writer Hans Christian Andersen. In his rather eerie tale "Wen and Glen" he describes two twin islands. Once an ominous thunderstorm autumn Wen was absorbed abyss, and since then all the inhabitants of Glen horror went to bed, expecting today Ven night (ie. E. The sea) will come for his brother and for them. And Glen really disappeared, but it was for a different reason. It merged with the mainland, connected to him man-made embankments. This could happen to Avalon, if it was located close enough to the coast of Britain.
It should be noted that not only European scholars interested in the history of the island of Avalon. MA Orlov in his book "The history of human intercourse with the Devil" (1904) points out that: "Avalon often described ancient French poets. For example, in the poem we find mention of William Kurnosov that Avalon was extremely rich, so that another such rich city never was built. The walls were made of some special stone door they were made of ivory, homes lavishly embellished with emeralds, topaz, hyacinth and other precious stones and roofs on the houses were gold! The Avalon flourished magic medicine. It cured the most terrible diseases and wounds. In one of the then novel describes the island as a place where all the inmates spend time in the eternal feast, not knowing cares and sorrows. The word "Avalon" alike in the words «Inis Afalon» drevnebretonskogo language, that means - "apple island."
Different views of the mysterious island and express many of the modern foreign writers. But this hypothesis, which do not give us the opportunity to solve the mystery of Avalon. we are not in vain mentioned in the beginning of Glastonbury, which is located in the west of the UK. Spread over vast plains of Somerset, not far from the Bristol Channel, the complex currently includes the city, the abbey and a huge volcanic rock with the ruins of the church, down the descending terraces. The area surrounding the city, the island looked like before because of the myriad of swamps, not dried up to the XVI century! It should be noted that people have lived here since time immemorial. Remains of settlements discovered by archeologists, date back to the era of the Roman invasion of the island. It is also believed that at Glastonbury lands for a long period there was a snake temple Druid priests.
With more than 150-meter-high cliff tops can be seen in the landscape around 70-80 kilometers. Volcanic terraces bear traces of treating them as people, and may serve as a pathway for Christian pilgrims on their way here to worship and prayer.
In the Middle Ages, the monks built a monastery here majestic, named in honor of St. Michael. When it was destroyed by an earthquake, the church grew, the remnants of which are preserved in his place today. According to legend, Glastonbury Mountain is the place where King Arthur once lived, as well as the secret entrance to the underworld ruler of the elves. It is believed that in the VI century here entered the holy Collen, who wanted to do away with demonism. He performed an exorcism, and from contact with holy water elven palace with a bang lost, leaving one devotee on an empty cliff top.
Another legend is related to the so-called holy grail of the well, located at the foot of the mountain. It is said that in his time here Saint Joseph threw the cup that Jesus used at the Last Supper! Many have tried to find the precious magic item, but it is not possible to anybody. In the folk tradition states that the Round Table of King Arthur and broke something just because the holy grail of disappeared people in the world. The very well built by the Druids of the huge blocks of stone, treated with the greatest care masons arms. Every day of it poured 113,000 liters of red ferruginous water, which has, according to legend, the magical properties.
Generally rock at Glastonbury is a very strange place, even from the point of view of modern science. Very often, local residents are witnessing an extraordinary spectacle that takes place at night. Suddenly, in the air there are pale bluish lights that are worn around the clock church ruins. Some attributed their appearance factors UFO (UFO), the other - the magnetic energy of rock.
Glastonbury Abbey - a unique historical object for a variety of religions. In his time here was performed ritual actions Druids worshiped snakes. Then they were replaced by the Romans, and after the withdrawal of the latter on the territory of a local witch firmly settled communities (living here and now). But the most significant trace left, surely Christians. According to legend, Joseph of Arimathea (people bury the body of Christ) settled in Glastonbury and built the first church in the UK. On the ruins of the abbey every Easter blooms thorns. People say that when Joseph went after his arrival on the rock, he in prayer relied on his staff. Once he left it there, and the staff turned into a tree. The tree has taken root, and since then Glastonbury thorn is a local landmark. The most venerated saint in Ireland - Patrick - also lived and died among the local monks.
The date of foundation of the monastery is considered to be 705 years. It was then that the king made a decree Ain abode, and in the tenth century the Benedictines settled here. Those church ruins, which is observed today, tourists are to the thirteenth century. They left the temple, which was destroyed on the orders of King Henry VIII during his struggle with the English Catholicism (XVI century.).
As the final resting place of King Arthur and his wife, Glastonbury has become known to the twelfth century. Until that time, the authenticity of this fact was confirmed only legends. So, Excalibur - the legendary sword of Arthur, Sir Beduirom thrown at the request of a mortally wounded at the Battle of King Kamlene into the water, could be drowned in a local lake Pomparles. Unfortunately, this once vast reservoir now drained to check the veracity of the oral tradition is no longer possible.
Big Chill (which brought, however, and some benefit) occurred in 1184. A terrible fire destroyed the abbey then almost to the ground, but during the reconstruction of the monks engaged in large-scale search for Arthur's grave. In 1190, she was found! Carefully tapping the stone slab floor, Benedictines discovered at a depth of three meters - below the modern masonry - even older, from existing in it a hollow camera. On opening the floor, the monks made their way to the legendary tomb. Two huge coffin, preserving wood impregnated with resins, they appeared astonished gaze!
The abbey archives kept a detailed record of the inspection bodies of the dead. Skeleton men hit their high growth -. 2 m 25 cm could not establish His skull was damaged, but the cause of the injury, although it could be a trace of the injured. At the head of a woman is perfectly preserved blond hair.
Monastery Guide ordered a solemn reburial of the royal couple, and soon on their new grave grew large lead cross with the inscription: "Here, on the island of Avalon, resting under the earth renowned King Arthur." In 1278 the monarch's remains were re-buried in a special tomb of the beautiful black marble.
The first modern research in Glastonbury began in 1907. Historical and archaeological expedition led by British scientist Frederick B. Bond. Its employees have made significant progress - they found the remains of an unknown chapel. By checking its geographical position with the general plan of the abbey, Bond came to the conclusion that it was built according to the laws of sacred geometry, used by the ancient Egyptians and later the Freemasons. However, the veteran explorer was careless enough to declare publicly that all the directions to find it with the help of antiquities mediums received by communicating with the souls of the dead monks. He broke a major scandal, and Bond fired.
Only many years later, the results of his research have been reinterpreted in the light of new scientific data. As it turned out, Frederick Bond has shown in his report (although without direct evidence) power link between Glastonbury and Stonehenge. The so-called line of "lei" (the place bursts of energy of unknown origin) connects the two above-mentioned places, paralleling the ancient road. This mystical route is popularly called Tod Line - literally "dead line", or "the way of the dead men." In English folklore Todd Lyne indicate the path of spirits, through which the dead follow in the next world.
Burial place of Arthur and Guinevere, discovered by monks in the XII century, is located just on the line. Next attempt to solve the mystery of Glastonbury was made in the 20 years of this century. For London scientists mystery remained ancient observatory (otherwise - Star Temple), located to the south of the abbey. It is a huge twelve signs of the zodiac, cleverly laid out on the ground. Description of the object is first encountered John Dee (1527-1608 gg.) - The famous astrologer and psychic Queen Elizabeth I. And in 1929, the Star Temple re-examined sculptor Catherine Meltvud. She was known among the British intelligentsia primarily as an illustrator "High History of the Holy Grail" - the historical and mystical work written in 1199 at Glastonbury. Carefully examining astrological figures Meltvud in his "Temple of stars in Glastonbury" tried to link them with the characters of the Arthurian epic. Thus, the magical figure of Merlin, it compares with the constellation of Capricorn; King Arthur - with Sagittarius and Guinevere - with the Virgin! The very same Glastonbury Abbey - is a sign of Aquarius, which symbolizes the arrival of a new enlightened era.
At the end of the twentieth century British scientists, bringing together the accumulated knowledge, we decided once and for all to give an answer to all the questions that are put in front of them at Glastonbury over a thousand years. We can not say that they have fulfilled this task completely, but something is done after all was. For example, archaeologists have conducted a re-opening of the grave of Arthur and details Abbey chronicles fully confirmed! The researchers were not only black marble tomb, but also studied the earliest burial chamber, discovered by monks in 1190. Skeletons of Arthur and Guinevere were sent for medical examination, which is dated the remains of V-VI centuries AD, ie. E. The time when he lived a legendary king. Doubt was no longer!
We do not know what he was thinking in his last hours the dying Arthur. But the writer Terence White's novel "Candle in the Wind" writes about this: "The mournful wind blew in Salisbury. Mist stood in the empty tent of the King. The wind howled, guttering candles ... In anticipation of the bishop-old old man sat reading for Nala. As time went on, and his head Nicla in securities. He remembered the island, seen during his trip, the island where the birds peacefully cohabited without knowing war. Old King felt full of vigor, he is almost ready to start all over again. But that night it was too late for the new effort. At that time, the fate appointed him to die and be transferred to Avalon, where he could expect better days"!