Mystery of Alexander I
In January, 1864 in distant Siberia, in a small cell at four miles from Tomsk, died tall gray-bearded old man "Rumour rushes you, grandfather, none other than Alexander the Blessed, is it true?" -. Said the dying merchant S. F. Khromov. Already this secret for many years tormented by the merchant, who now, in his eyes, went to the grave with a mysterious old man "marvelous are thy works, O Lord:. There is no secret, that shall not be revealed, - the old man sighed. - Although you know who I am, but you did not greatness, just buried. "
Forty years before this conversation Adjutant General Dibich sent from Taganrog to St. Petersburg, the heir Constantine Pavlovich, the report, "With heartfelt regret, I have the duty to inform Your Imperial Majesty, that the Almighty was pleased to stop days of August, our Emperor Alexander Pavlovich this November 19 days, 10 hours and 50 minutes after midnight here in the city of Taganrog. I have the honor to submit herewith the act of signing, herewith a distress case-adjutants general and the Life of physicians. "
The body of the deceased emperor was placed in two coffins - wooden and leaden - and was sent to St. Petersburg. "Although the body and embalmed, but from the local raw air face all blackened, and even the facial features of the deceased really changed ... So I think that in St. Petersburg to open the coffin is not necessary", - urged the PM Volkonsky, who organized the transportation of mourning tuple.
"Someone else's body being taken!" - These words were accompanied by a tuple of almost all the way. Rumors that the coffin - not the emperor, appeared immediately after the death of Alexander I. They raced, ahead of the funeral procession, multiplied, spread over Russia, reached the most remote villages. The people talked about the fact that "cheating is going on," that the emperor is alive, and in fobu driven by another body. They spread the word, a completely contradictory.
"... The Emperor alive, he was sold into foreign
slavery." "... The Emperor alive, he went to light the boat into the
sea." "... When the emperor went to Taganrog, then followed him chased all the way, many gentlemen, with the intention to kill him. Two and caught up with him in one place, but the kill did not dare. "
" ... The emperor killed in Taganrog loyal subjects monsters, well, that is, the Lord is with noble souls, the first in the light of scoundrels. "
" ... The body Tsar was a village sexton, looked, and at his arrival in the village began to ask his men that if he had seen the Emperor, and he replied: "no sovereign is not, is a trait carried, not sovereign."
At the entrance to Moscow the rumor grew into a certainty that there were even desperate head, proposing forcibly open the coffin. Moscow authorities took unprecedented security measures: while the coffin stood in the Archangel Cathedral, Kremlin gates locked at 9 pm and at each entrance were charged gun. Throughout the night the city went to the military patrols. In St. Petersburg Volkonsky recommendation fulfilled only partially: the late privately ordinary members of the imperial family and the residents of the capital did not show the late emperor. March 13, 1826 the body of Alexander I was buried ...
The body of Alexander?
It is known that the Emperor Alexander I, has repeatedly expressed a firm intention to leave the throne. Take, for example, such a statement: "I am soon to resettle in Crimea and will live a private man. I served 25 years, and the soldier in this period give his resignation. " In what is the reason for the desire of the Emperor "to go into the world"? Recall that the young Alexander ascended the throne as a result of the murder of the Masons - the very same "loyal subjects monsters, well, that is, the Lord is with noble souls, the first in the light of scoundrels" - Emperor Paul I. Alexander himself was also privy to the plot. But when the news reached him of the death of his father, he was shocked.
"I promised not to encroach on his life!" - With sobs he repeated, and paced the room, unable to find a place for himself. It was clear that he was now - parricide, forever tied with the blood of the Masons. As indicated contemporaries, the first appearance of Alexander in the palace was a pathetic scene: "He walked slowly, his knees as though buckled, the hair on his head was loose, his eyes began to cry ... It seemed that his face was a hard thought," They took advantage of my youth, inexperience, I was cheated, did not know that, snatching the scepter from the hands of the autocrat, inevitably exposes it to the danger of life. " He tried to abdicate. Then the "loyal monsters" have promised to show him "the river spilled blood across the kingdom ing family" ...
Alexander surrendered. But the consciousness of his guilt, the endless reproaches himself that he could not have foreseen the tragic outcome - all this heavy burden fell on his conscience, constantly poisoning his life. Over the years, Alexander slowly but steadily moved away from the "brothers". Started was liberal reforms were phased out. Alexander increasingly find solace in religion - later liberal historians anxiously called it "passion mysticism", though no relation to religious mysticism, and does not in fact mysticism is precisely the Masonic occult. In a private conversation, Alexander said: "The spirit ascends to God, I am set free from all earthly pleasures. Calling on the help of God, I get the calm, the peace of mind that would not change anything to the bliss of this world. "
For a long time, Alexander helplessly watched as the country's mushrooming lodges, knowing that this venomous contagion breeds its degree of allowance. But shortly before the events of 1825, he issued a rescript forbidding all Masonic lodges and secret societies. All their members were to take an oath to cease their activities.
But the main thing was: redemption. Redemption of mortal sin - patricide.
September 1, Alexander left St. Petersburg in Taganrog. Check out his place, according to Basil, "under very exceptional circumstances." The Emperor went on a long journey alone, without a retinue, at night. At five o'clock in the morning stroller Alexander drove up to the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. At the entrance he was greeted by Metropolitan Seraphim, Archimandrite and the brethren. The emperor received the blessing of Metropolitan and followed the monks, entered the cathedral. It began service. The Emperor stood before the shrine with the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky. "When it is time to read the Holy Gospel - writes historian NK Schilder - Emperor approached the Metropolitan said:" Put me on the head of the gospel "- and with these words he knelt by the Gospel."
Narrating about the visit by the emperor laurels, foreign historians point out, though, Alexander, going on the road, served a memorial service ...! For a long time it was thought that it was a mistake not versed in Orthodox rites foreigners could confuse the memorial service with a prayer service. However, the researcher riddle I H. Alexander Vasilyev believes that it served as a requiem. Finally, the fact that Alexander, often away from St. Petersburg for a long time and always before leaving served prayers in the presence of loved ones, this time to come to the monastery after midnight, all alone, and told him to shut the gate behind - is not indicated that on the night in the cathedral there was something unusual?
Leaving the laurels, Alexander was in tears. Turning to the Metropolitan and the monks, he said: "Pray for me and my wife." Before the gate he rode bareheaded, often look back, he bowed and crossed himself, looking at the cathedral. In Taganrog, Emperor ill: according to some sources - typhoid fever, on the other - malaria (even his illness - a mystery!). And ... he died?
B. Baryatinsky, serious students of this puzzle, it is believed that the Emperor Alexander took advantage of his stay in Taganrog and easy ailment to bring his plan into execution. He disappeared, leaving to bury someone "foreign body." In favor of this Baryatinsky case is as follows: In all documents relating to the Taganrog drama, there are many contradictions. None of the documents does not include such important information about the death of the emperor, as the circumstances in which the death occurred, the number of persons who were present at the death, Empress behavior and so on. D.
The disappearance of many documents related to these events, in particular, of the notes of Empress Elizaveta Alekseevna, covering events since 11 November.
Obviously forged signature of Dr. Tarasov under the protocol of the autopsy.
A number of strange behavior the next of kin of the king, is clearly devoted to the mystery.
Circulated as soon after death Alexander mass rumors that "carry someone else's body."
The analysis of the autopsy report, made at the request of V. Bariatinskii largest Russian doctors. They unanimously reject the possibility of the king's death from malaria or typhoid fever.
The emperor behavior, from its firm intention to leave the throne, to the fact that he, whose religion is not in doubt, even called the confessor in the last days of the disease, not confessed before death . The priest did not even present at his death! It is absolutely impossible for Alexander, who, if he really died, of course, would require a person to his spiritual. Yes, even the closest people around him - and those, of course, would be sent for a priest!
And, who died November 3, 1825 in Taganrog, long preserved tradition in the family courier Masked that their grandfather is buried in the cathedral of the Peter and Paul Fortress in place of the Emperor Alexander I. In the autumn of 1836 to the blacksmith shop on the outskirts of Perm province Krasnoufimsk rode on horseback tall, broad-shouldered man already old, dressed in a simple peasant clothes and asked to shoe a horse. In a conversation with the blacksmith told people that he was going "the world, but good people to see," and his name is Fedor Kuzmich.
Local police detained the wanderer, passport asked. His answers did not satisfy the police: call Fyodor Kuzmich, no passport, kinship does not remember, and travels because he wanted the world to see. For vagrancy wanderer given twenty lashes and sent under escort to a settlement in March with a party Sibir.26 exiles Fyodor Kuzmich arrived in Bogotol town of Tomsk province and was placed on the permit Krasnorechenskoe distillery. Here he lived for about five years, and in 1842 moved to the village Beloyarsk, and then - in the mirror of the village. He built himself a small hut-cell behind the village and lived there permanently excommunicated in neighboring villages.
Going from house to house, he taught literacy peasant children, acquainting them with the Scriptures, history, geography. Adults, he surprised the religious conversations, stories from Russian history of military campaigns and battles, and go into such minute details, that it makes the audience puzzled: how could he know such details? Fyodor Kuzmich had a legal and public-knowledge: it is acquainted with the peasants of their rights and duties, taught to respect authority. According to the stories of contemporaries who knew Fyodor Kuzmich, he showed a great knowledge of the St. Petersburg court life, and etiquette, as well as the events of the late XVIII - early XIX century, he knew all the statesmen and expressed quite correct their characteristics. He spoke of the Metropolitan Filaret, Arakcheev, Kutuzov, Suvorov. But he never mentioned the name of the murdered Emperor Paul I ...
Siberia has seen a lot of things to the people. Rogue, kinship is not remembering, then visited a great many. But this one was special. His rare quality called everyone's attention, and the popularity of Fyodor Kuzmich was extraordinary. He lived a modest and unpretentious. Suit it consisted of coarse linen shirt, belted with a strap, such as pants, ordinary leather shoes. Sometimes over a shirt to wear long dark blue cloth coat, winter wear Siberian fur coat. Fyodor Kuzmich different accuracy, his clothing was always clean in his home makes no mess. At home, he received all who came to him for advice and a few who refuse to accept. Among his new acquaintances were Macarius, Bishop of Tomsk and Barnaul, and Athanasius, Bishop of Irkutsk.
For some reason, everyone was convinced that the mysterious old man - "of the bishops." But once in the village Krasnorechenskoe incident occurred that gave food for gossip. Retired soldiers deer, seeing the approach of Fyodor Kuzmich, asked the peasants: "Who is it?" And, rushing forward into the hut an old man with a cry: "This is our king, father Alexander Pavlovich" - saluted him in military fashion. "I should not render military honors. I am a vagabond, - said the old man. - You take it for the prison. "
In 1857, the elder met a wealthy merchant Tomsk SF Khromov, who invited him to move to Tomsk, where he had built for him at four miles from the city's cell. October 31, 1858 said goodbye to the old man Zertsalov, where he lived for more than twenty years, and went to Tomsk. Became a legend in his lifetime, Fyodor Kuzmich died January 20, 1864. And while many were convinced that it was the Emperor Alexander I, reliably, as V. Baryatinsky believes it can be stated about it.
Firstly, a mysterious old man was, of course, a very well-educated, well-bred, well-informed in matters of state, historical, especially with regard to the time of Alexander I, knew foreign languages, first wore a military uniform, visited the court, well-known St. Petersburg life, manners , customs and habits of high society.
Secondly, he voluntarily took a vow of silence about its own identity. He retired from the world for the purpose of redemption of a grave sin tormented him all his life. Not belonging to the clergy, he was very religious. Appearance, height, age, deafness in one ear, the way to keep your hands on your hips or one of the belt, the habit of taking foreign and standing with his back to the light - everything points to the undeniable similarities Fyodor Kuzmich with Alexander I.
The Emperor Alexander I was a Cossack cameras Ovcharov, who accompanied him everywhere since 1812. He came to the emperor and to Taganrog. From there Alexander sent him a short vacation to his native village on the Don, and in the absence of the Emperor, "died." And when the Cossack returned to Taganrog and wished to say goodbye to the deceased, the coffin of Alexander did not let him. They called it ... the Cossack Feodor Kuzmich!
For many years, historians, confirming the official date of death of Alexander I, emphatically rejected "idle speculation" about the identity of the emperor and the Siberian elder. Other researchers have admitted the reality I legend. However, much more important than the actual content of the legend, and the enduring moral value that has this apocryphal story about a king left the throne in the name of repentance and atonement of sin. The largest biographer Alexander I HK Schilder wrote: "Had a fantastic speculation and folk tradition can be based on positive data and transferred to the real ground, then set this way would indeed reserved the boldest poetic fictions. In any case, such a life could serve as a canvas for inimitable drama with stunning epilogue, the primary motive which would serve as atonement. In this new image created folk art, Emperor Alexander Pavlovich, the "Sphinx, unsolved till death", no doubt, would have had the most tragic face of Russian history, and its thorny way of life beyond the grave would be covered with an unprecedented apotheosis, overshadowing rays of holiness".