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Ahead of Columbus


Ahead of Columbus
Humanity has recently celebrated the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.

But let's - for the umpteenth time - let's ask ourselves: Was Columbus the discoverer of the New World? Of course, one could argue - even if they were his predecessors, what of it? After their discovery did not produce such an effect and did not have such consequences, as the Columbus voyage! Yes, let them swim across the Atlantic Celts, Phoenicians, Normans, went across the Pacific Chinese ... A New World was still undiscovered ... To say so is impossible. And that's why.

Many "small" pre-Columbian discovery of the New World, too, left a significant mark in history. And evidence of that - not only the frequent discovery of Phoenician and Celtic Letter on the rocks in North and South America. (By the way, recently the American scientist J.. Savoy discovered specimens of Phoenician letters on boulders not far from the town gran vilaya 600 kilometers north of Lima, Peru. And from the Andean peaks, where lies the village, leading to rivers flowing into the Amazon , ancient stone roads ...)

Greater evidence of contacts found professionals who like and do not deal with links between the continents and the mutual influence of cultures. Let us at least to the art of encaustic (special coating of wax and wood tar), which emerged as believe in ancient Egypt 3-4 millennium BC. e. and flourished in ancient Greece in the V-IV century BC. e. At the time, Russian researcher T. Hvostenko noticed that in South America, and on Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean also used wax colors, and different patterns of the American encaustic bear the influence of both ancient Egyptian and Greek encaustic. It claims the man is not interested in the victory of one or another group - diffusionists or isolationists - supporters and opponents of the pre-Columbian contacts!

And tobacco! After all traces of tobacco found in the burial of the pharaohs, but his birthplace - Latin America.

A eucalyptus! Homeland Eucalyptus - Australia, but it has got to Egypt long before our era.

In short, the question: "So, who discovered America?" - Yes, we can say, many opened and at different times, and Columbus put the last point in the millennial epic transoceanic voyages to the New World.

498 years ago, Rodríguez Triana lookout first saw on the horizon of the unknown shore. It was a tiny group of Guanahini Bahamas far from Florida today. Since then - for five centuries - going debate on the topic: "Who was the first?"

Penetrating deeper and deeper into the jungle of Central and South America, the followers of the Genoese navigator admired the perfect pyramids, crowded cities, magnificent stone palaces and could not believe that all this created themselves "servants of the devil," as dubbed the inhabitants of the New World first conquistadors. The roots of all this had to be sure to look in the Old World. Those first, the researchers were unable to prevent that similar civilization arose independently in different parts of the world - on the territory of today's Mexico, Guatemala, the Middle East, Egypt ... Scientists came to this thought later, through the centuries, and yet everything, absolutely everything, it seems , explained "by bringing". By itself, this theory, which bears the name "Diffusionism" makes sense, and we'll figure it out, getting acquainted with some specific Columbus, but we will not build it in the absolute.

The first in a series of hypotheses about the Pre-Columbian discovery and colonization of the New World are local American version of the Flood, which are fairly closely intertwined with the Bible. The Mayas did have a legend of a terrible flood, four destroys their city. The echoes of this myth can be traced in figures unknown artist available in the so-called Dresden Mayan Code. In fact, this hypothesis was not anything fantastic - such motives not necessarily be transmitted from the Old World to the New: stories were a reflection of real events, disasters that took place thousands of years before our era.

Then a Spanish chronicler, B. de las Casas first put forward the theory that the New World moved "tribes of Israel", after the Assyrians defeated the kingdom of Israel. At Casas were grounds for this: the elements of early Christianity found in the Mayan religion and other ethnic groups in Central America, and this was hard to dismiss. Besides, something like a long crosses found in Indian temples. This brings to mind the famous Paraibsky stone from Brazil, which tells of the voyage of immigrants from the Eastern Mediterranean (it was a separate story)? Some of our researchers in an ironic style dismiss these versions as "unlikely". But what good counterarguments they can put up against the very possibility of visiting the New World inhabitants of the Mediterranean in ancient times? Just what it has long been considered kulturtregerstvo our scientists-ethnographers terrible sin, which was allowed to blaspheme all the stands and in every other book on ethnography.

Around 335 BC. e. Greek philosopher Aristotle proposed a list of 178 admire his miracles relating to every Rodia phenomena in the field of history and knowledge about the world. Describing the miracle at No. 84, he says: "It is said that in the Ocean of the Pillars of Hercules Carthaginians found an uninhabited island. They grow a variety of trees, navigable rivers, there are extraordinary fruits of all varieties; many days' journey to this island ... People do not often come to this island, to take possession of the land and to take out the wealth of the Carthaginians. "

Traditionally minded archaeologist finds that the land is, without a doubt, belongs to England, if Aristotle actually ever wrote "such nonsense" ...

We do not think that Aristotle was referring to England. We believe that he was referring to America. He was responsible scientists paid attention to details. If he was referring to England, he would have referred to the uninhabited island as a place where the Carthaginians prepared tin and amber. We also think that he could have then much more precisely specify its geographic location. But it just shows that the island is located at a distance of many days of travel.

We talked about this in order to be able to clearly trace how differently you can interpret the facts of ancient history. In general, the theme of the Atlantic, the legendary island in it and, in particular, Atlantis as a "transit point", a bridge between two worlds - the Old and the New World - is too vast and mysterious to pass it in passing, without associating with the theme of the pre-Columbian contacts. She is still waiting to be explored with the impartial views. Most seriously, it seems, came to the study of the phenomenon of Atlantis Austrian ethnographer and linguist D. Velfel, German ethnographer L. Frobenius and some other scientists, their successors. It seems to us that one of the keys to unlocking its secrets and, accordingly, the earliest contact with the New World lies in the study of ethnic groups the so-called White Africa, the territory occupied today the Great Desert. After all, in the traditions of the tribes inhabiting in particular. Moroccan Atlas, there are echoes of the legends of Atlantis.

One can argue, causing the scales vary in favor of one or another version - everything is complicated by the fact that the disposal of experts is that not a lot of data, which would put an end to disputes. Archaeology throws arguments of one or the other side. It is noteworthy that the travelers, such as T. Hay Erdal T. Severin or simulating ancient voyage, becoming supporters is the diffusion of cultures, while the armchair scientists tend to isolationism. It is symptomatic.

Who knows where researchers zavedut new research in the field of pre-Columbian contact.

Longtime, already traditional debate on the theme "Who was the first?" Most likely, no. Rather, on the contrary, all were the first since discovered for themselves the different parts of the New World, a different attitude to their discoveries. Then came 1492 - and appeared Columbus, who brought together and used the experience of predecessors. Who helped him to set foot on the land of America?

In 1477, Columbus made the journey north. According to some sources, he was in Iceland. On the other - it was not. In Bristol he attended, it is proved, and to this we shall return. But if Columbus sailed from Bristol farther north? Renowned Canadian polar explorer Vilyamur Stefansson argues that the winter 1476-1477, in the polar regions was soft. In these winter sailing vessels easily manage to penetrate far to the north, to the latitude of the island of Jan Mayen.

Decidedly no arguments from opponents of the northern expedition of Columbus is not. Controversial and enigmatic another - whether he was able, during his voyage to the shores of Iceland to receive important information about the outstanding discoveries of the Scandinavians in the Western Atlantic - voyages Leif Hey Rickson, Greenland and the opening of the settlements there Normans, on voyages of Prince Madoka? Who else could share their experiences with the traveler voyages to the New World?

Warm winter 1477 came to an end when a Genoese who later became famous back from the northern voyage. Behind were icy sea, and fire-breathing mountains of Iceland. What thoughts were wandering in the head navigator?

But even suppose that Columbus was not in Iceland. "The existence of land in the Arctic and Subarctic, the Normans found, was by no means a secret to his contemporaries of Columbus" - rightly notes in the afterword to the book by J. Enterlayna "America Viking" Thor Heyerdahl.. On the discovery of Vinland, which lies to the west of Greenland, it has been discussed in the "Geography of the Northern Lands" Adam of Bremen in 1070, for more than 400 years before the voyages of Columbus. And even if he was not in Iceland, then it could get interesting information from seafarers who have visited there.

The Normans had made no secret of his research at Wing-Land, all the important information immediately reported to the Roman church. Columbus was a devout Catholic, sharing ambitions as a missionary church and its geographical progressive views. This can explain why he so stubbornly convinced of the Genoese and the royal courts of the Atlantic countries to listen to his bold assertion of the Atlantic is the earth and the path to it is a quarter of that distance, which suggest pundits.

In 1473 or 1474, when Columbus began his naval career, the times were troubled: the east raged Turks, the Italian coasts were hunted pirates. Portugal was still a great maritime power. By the end of the XIV century it was little known in Europe - the country was facing the Atlantic, while uncomfortable. By the end of the century, it caught the baton of marine expeditions of the Mediterranean countries.

In Lisbon markets and caravans of slaves flowed Sagres. In 1419 the Portuguese established themselves in Madeira, a little over a decade later - in the Azores. These islands are still uninhabited but rich in forests and fresh water, lying close to the routes (not yet mastered) that led to the Land of the setting sun.

On the island of Madeira, Columbus did not happen again. Until 1872, in Funchal on Eshmeraldu street was his home, where, according to local legend, he always stayed. Madeira Columbus traded books and maps. In those days, it was not hard to get the edition of Ptolemy maps and other scholars, both ancient and modern. Portuguese steel for years of study time of Columbus. However, he repeatedly confessed that neiskushen in the sciences. But all that was necessary for his plans, he studied with extraordinary zeal.

What are these building blocks from which to build a building his confidence? What made into the unknown, into the sea, the ocean?

Son Columbus - Fernando and chronicler Las Casas with the words explorer told that Columbus heard from the sailors. Someone Martin Vicente told the Genoese that 450 leagues (2700 kilometers) from the Cape of San Vicente, he picked up a piece of wood in the sea, expertly crafted by some is clearly not an iron object. Other sailors met at the latitude of the Azores boats hut. Seen and huge pine trunks brought by westerly winds. Came across a broad-corpses of people, obviously not a Christian guise. So little by little, he made itself felt huge continent in the west ...

The story of the "unknown helmsman" (Genoese met with him on the island of Madeira in the 80s of the XV century), reported Columbus information about overseas lands, we found in Las Casas and in Gonzalo Fir nandesa Oviedo-and-Valdés work "General and natural history of the Indies": some argue that the captain, the pilot, was Andal-siytsem; others call it the Portuguese, and others - bass; others say that Colon was then on the island of Madeira, and some prefer to say that the Cape Verde Islands, and that it was attributed to his caravel ...

Lisbon - the cradle of the Atlantic seafaring Europeans. It is here that were born lighter caravels and heavy "Earphone redondush" Europeans are studied marine craft for theft of secret nautical charts cut head, the mystery of discovery were kept by severe and vigilant. Do not lurking in the answer to the question: why Columbus was silent about his conversations with the northern sailors? He ashore and multiplied these nuggets of knowledge about the Atlantic and the lands that lay behind it.

In Lisbon, the city where Columbus spent years of study, on the modern Avenida Liberty luxurious hotel wall spacious hall is occupied by a mosaic panel: bearded "sea wolf" stands on the bow of a caravel and gazes into the misty distance. Below the inscription - "João Corte-Real. The discoverer of America in 1472 ". For some mysterious voyage he was given the title of governor of the city of Angra in the Azores island of Terceira. Let's try to figure out the riddle Kortereala.

The documentary evidence of his travel was first clearly described in a small book, a Danish historian S. Larsen "Discovery of America 20 years before Columbus" Why Denmark? What relation was Denmark to the Portuguese discoveries in the Atlantic? As it turns out, the most direct. It turns out (as demonstrated by the royal archive of the manuscript), king of Portugal AfonsuUdal authorization for the expedition, carried out by two Norwegian captains - and Hans Didrik Payningom Poforstom. In Your Joao was Kortereal, Representative of Portugal to the king as an observer during the expedition. Most likely, he was head of the company.

The first attempts to get to the Portuguese service Scandinavian seafarers dating back to 1448 - it wrote the famous chronicler Gomes Eanish de Azurara He spoke in detail about how some Vallarta, Dane, came to the court of the Infante Enrique (the future Henry the Navigator) in Sagres and was appointed the head of the expedition to the Cape Verde Islands. It ended sadly. We know that Vallarta and a few man squad were captured by local people, and so far, they were never seen. Such Larsen led a lot of episodes. So, it turns out relations with Denmark were long and strong. The death of Henry the Navigator is not interrupted these contacts, but only pushed to continue the planned Infante - search northwestern way across the Atlantic.

Here we come to the most mysterious place in our history. King Afonso decided to finance this expedition in the hope that the northern sea route to Asia and India will be found. But there was no evidence known to the possibilities of this trip. And we found a certain letter Carsten Kripa, mayor of Kiel, the king of Denmark, Christian III. In a letter written March 3, 1551, states that its author, Carsten Creep saw Iceland map with the image of the unknown items found in this country. Further, he states:

Card confirmed that his grandfather His Majesty, Christian I, sent an expedition at the request of the King of Portugal to the new island and the mainland in the north-west.

Grandpa recipient letters Danish rule from 1448 to 1481. Not about whether it is Kortereale in that letter. History Kortereala expedition to America is full of gaps, for obvious reasons: the Portuguese are reluctant to part with their naval secrets.

Thus, the Danish king sent two - Payninga and Poforsta. Payning was a pirate, he sailed under its own and British flags, held in Denmark several important posts. Eventually he became the governor of Iceland's possible to get a place as a reward for participating in Kortereala expedition. Poforst, a close friend Payninga, too, was a pirate.

The starting point of the expedition is unknown, although it is reasonable to assume that the participants came from Norway or Denmark, followed by Iceland. From there they went to Greenland and then to the New World. Logbook not maintained, and to calculate the course of the expedition succeeded in using later scattered in various sources of evidence. Nevertheless, those statements, though few, convincingly prove the fact Kortereala presence in America in 1472 Here is one of them - the famous globe of Martin Behaim 1492. It is picturesquely presented not only the Scandinavian countries, but also the land west of Iceland, which have a striking similarity with Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence Until such Behaim globe nobody was producing. But how he had received this information?

I found out that Martin Behaim, the famous German astronomer and cartographer, was married in 1486 to Joan de Mando. The beautiful girl was the sister-in-law Kortereala - di am, and the couple settled on one of the Azores - Terceira, driven by an elderly Kortereal. Behaim lived there for four years. Globe made in 1492-m. So, for several years Behaim lived next door to Korterealom and, no doubt, spent a lot of time talking with the governor, listening and remembering all the fun of the distant seas, which he visited in 1472 comparing the Behaim globe with a higher card of the same area made by John Cabot, scientists have seen first - best 'what if Columbus had seen this globe shortly before went to America?

Fate opening Kortereala sad. The expedition was so secretive that the opening of no one knew anything. Whether the news of the voyage made public, it would not have humanity to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America in 1992?

A puzzling aspect of this expedition is in agreement between Portugal and Denmark, which provided Christian I entitled to all lands discovered during searches. Perhaps the Portuguese king had no idea of ​​the true significance of the discovery of new lands, considered them worthless. But the situation quickly changed, when they began to know the results of the Columbus voyage. After 1494 the king granted the exclusive right twice Gaspar and Miguel Korterealam, sons, Juan, to "the islands and the mainland," the father of open ...

May 12, 1500 King Manuel signed the deed for which Korterealu Gaspar and his heirs provided long right to the land that he was "at his own expense and risk reopening or intended to look." Note: "reopening" clearly indicates that your old Juan found the same land and that Gaspar had intended to find her again and show her the legitimate rights of Portugal!

During his third expedition in 1501 Gaspar disappeared. A year later, Miguel went in search of his brother, and along with the land, they found earlier. And before he left on a voyage, the king assured him the same rights, pointing out that half of the land, found his brother, becomes the property of Miguel.

The further fate of Miguel Kortereala also lost in the mists of centuries.

At the beginning of our century, came to the US two-volume book-lumboveda Mr. Vigneault "Critical History of Christopher Columbus." For the first time it suggests that Columbus was not to open the shore of East Asia and the islands of the Atlantic, of which he already knew before other seamen. The idea of ​​the voyage to the Land of the Great Khan was born as Vigneault is, after returning from the first trip. Twenty years later, this theory has supported the Argentine historian R. Carbo, and later in her favor were expressed, and other scientists, including the Soviet. Counterarguments are, but they are not numerous enough to dismiss this hypothesis. What are they? Credentials to the Great Khan, issued within 11 months before the return of Columbus from the first voyage, - once. The interpreter, who knew Oriental languages, assigned to a team - two. Marks navigator on margins of books, they read, - three. But if this was a planned series of well-designed fraud? For what. Yes, in order at least to hide the true purpose of the expedition - to achieve a rich land, and no one to share! Medieval monks were not as stupid as it is often portrayed. The preparation of the voyage they spent ten kilograms of gold. But count: according to conservative estimates, over three hundred years of domination in Latin America, Spain exported out as much value that their value corresponds to three million kilograms of gold. It was for the sake of what to try.

As can be seen from the book of Irish monk Dick (VIII-IX century), the monasteries have read the works of ancient authors, seeking guidance on distant Happy Isles. Brandao Island travels medieval maps at the Venetian portulane (compass card) in 1367, he - on the site of Madeira, and Behaim globe - west of the Cape Verde Islands.

Another enigmatic point on the map - Earth Brazil - was more fortunate, it has not disappeared from the cards as Brandao island and wandered up to the beginning of the XVI century, it has not yet turned into the eastern part of the South American continent. (By the way, when Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500, he named it Santa Cruz, and this name has been recognized throughout the European cartographers in the XVI century. But not the French! They always called her name in Brazil. This word has long been used in the descriptions of species of mahogany. And that so-called open long before the Portuguese land in the ocean deppskie merchants. Another step to Columbus.)

And there were an island of the Seven Cities, and Antilia. These mirages played a role in the history of geographical discoveries. They seemed to Columbus in the preparation of its project credible steps on the road to the west. Or maybe not so mirages? It led the Spaniards in the XVI century to the interior of North America, namely the search for the legendary Seven Cities ...

Another striking point. In the decades leading up to the voyages of Columbus, geographical views have undergone major changes occurred as if the transition from right to wrong views. On the maps of the amazing transformations occur. Countries in East and South-East Asia are growing enormously, and they are moved farther to the east, that is, to the shores of western Europe. There are non-existent rivers, mountains, lakes, fantastic country.

Cartographers are based on empirical evidence - such a conclusion suggests itself. The reasons for breaking up the old beliefs, according to some researchers, a number of some messages travelers. And a lot of them. Cartographers informed of the lands to the west, and they are attributing their Asian, drew on their portulanah.

... Island Brazil sought and merchants from Bristol, fishing center in the North Atlantic. Trading mainly from Ireland, merchants initially did not go to distant sea. But in the 80 years of the XV century, they began to show increased interest in the fantastic islands in the ocean. Probably not by accident. Obviously merchants received interesting information from the Icelanders. The fact that European cartographers long ago learned about Greenland, has been proved. On the map in 1467 Claudius Klavusa already has many local names of settlements giant island.

At the time, Spanish historian Luis Andre Vineras published a letter found in the archive Simancas, sheds light on the history of the discovery of America. In Spanish, undated, it was written by John Dai, an Englishman, a certain official person - Grand Admiral, who was none other than Grand Admiral of Castile by Christopher Columbus. The letter indicated the good geographical knowledge of the sender, and to prove that these two men were in correspondence, exchanged books and information about the voyages of British sailors.

This letter is dedicated to the successful navigation of an unknown traveler from Bristol across the ocean to the country that calls Country Day Seven Cities. For many characteristic data, and including a large pension, the king appointed this man on his return can be determined and the traveler - John Cabot, who in 1497 examined a considerable part of the coast of Newfoundland and the mainland. In the letter, but said also that a traveler previously performed less successful voyages from Bristol. Filed Vinerasa, it was in 1480, 1481 and 1491, respectively.

Or maybe even earlier?

Fobe Taylor, a professor at the Institute of Mechanics, a specialist in the history of industry and trade, found new evidence swimming Bristol sailors towards the New World. He came to this after studying the detailed business reports, including custom lists of goods that are imported every ship in the Bristol and export since 1479.

According to the declaration ship captains traded with Ireland. Often, however, a strange composition of goods and excessively long voyage suggest some kind of secret.

F. Taylor analyzed the nature of the cargo and flying ships. Here is a typical route of one of the ships ( "Christopher"), which belonged to Morris Targatu. He allegedly departed from Bristol to Ireland November 17, 1479 and returned March 11, 1480, that is 115 days. Why "Christopher" the voyage was so long? The reason for his delay might not be strong winds in Bristol Bay, as the other three ships made for the same duration flights to the shores of Ireland and back. It is unlikely that the ships went to France or Spain, for a load - which were five tons of the rejected wine - to lead - the same as sending Newcastle slag instead of coal. One of two things: either Targat shamelessly squandering time in Ireland or the court he drove far to the west, and there carried their unusual business deals ...

June 15, 1480 the vessel Dai John, Jr., left Bristol and headed towards the island of Brazil, to the west of Ireland, but soon returned, having suffered from the weather. July 6, 1481, two vessels - "George" and "Trinity" from Bristol that belonged to Thomas Croft, left the port to find the island in the ocean under the name "Brazil". And there were many voyages. Their results, we do not know anything.

Spaniard Pedro de Ayala reported from London in 1498 the royal couple Ferdinand and Isabella, "These Bristol for seven years, sending every year a flotilla of two, three, four caravels in search of the island of Brazil and the Seven Cities ..."

This was advantageous to swimming Genoese navigator in the "Indian"? Who, knowing or guessing the countless treasures, supported seeker of new roads? Columbus helped the Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza, the keeper of the treasury of the king Luis de Santanhel. They were connected with the merchants and bankers of Castile and Aragon. And the question:

"Who needs it" - can be answered unequivocally: "We!"

West to the East ... it is not about whether the dreaming generation of Genoese merchants, when the Turks blocked the road to the Black Sea and captured Constantinople? These people have borrowed money for the Castilian crown gear of the first and second transatlantic expedition. They were later to manage trading houses in the colonies of the New World - "the Indies."

King Ferdinand. He at that time worried problems of Naples and Sicily, Sardinia and Algeria. He put out the flames of the peasant war in Catalonia, wasting time and resources on Granada. And money for a dubious enterprise gave!

Queen Isabella. She was younger and wiser than her husband. Mila and helpful with the right people to her. Sharp mind and an excellent memory allowed her excellent conduct the affairs of state. Columbus prayed on her life.

So who would benefit from the expedition? Of course, they, the Catholic Kings, who dreamed of the great Castilian-Aragonese Empire, which owns wonderful cities in China, India ... And maybe not India? Who knows what lies out there, beyond the ocean? ...

In the diary of Columbus, we found no hesitation in choosing the route, as well as the movement in the vast, seemingly unknown ocean. Court came to the Canaries, and from there to the latitude of the islands - to the New World. That is, all along the route they always enjoyed blowing easterly trade winds and favorable currents in the ocean. That was the best route for sailing in the Atlantic. D. Tsukernik historian from Alma-Ata, observes that, moving along an unknown route, the ship should only go in the daytime and at night, or to stop or slow down the swimming, so as not to stumble on the island or other land. But caravels were in full swing, day and night, as if the pilot was sure that there are no surprises and will not be ...

Columbus before heading to the Canary Islands awarded the captain bags, writing on them that they can be open only when the storm disconnect. It says, in Casas that when the distance of ships at 700 leagues from the Canary Islands, they did not move at night. 700 leagues - it is 4150 kilometers. Eastern Caribbean islands of the archipelago of the Canaries are approximately at a distance ... Location Admiral knew about this?

The problem of returning home stood before the participants of the expedition in the early days of sailing. Sea currents and trade winds frightened crew. The sailors thought that they would become an insurmountable obstacle for the return home. The only person to remain calm and equanimity, was Columbus. He comforted the sailors, assuring that they will float back, too, with a fair wind.

Back flotilla was in the north-east and more than two weeks with confidence to wade through the winds and waves in this direction. There she got to the zone constantly blowing westerly winds and currents, they formed. Then the court abruptly turned east and went to the Azores at a high speed. That was the best route from the Old World to the New!

A childhood friend of Columbus and a member of his second expedition Michele di Kunes in a letter from the 15-28 October 1495 wrote that when Columbus said that Cuba - a bank of China, one of the participants swimming disagreed with most satellites, too. Then Admiral resorted to threats and forced people to say in advance prepared an oath that they agree with him in everything and undertake never to express different views. So the leaders of the expedition spread false information, if open land - Asia and the purpose of the expedition - only achieve it.

Bartholomew Columbus, Christopher's brother and associate, testified: "In those days, when his brother applied for this (. About swimming - Author), scoffed at him, saying that he probably wants to discover the New World." Neither the Middle Ages nor at any other time Asia never was called so ...

We have touched on only a small part of the hypotheses about the Pre-Columbian discovery of America - this topic is worthy of a book in which you can talk about the Phoenician, and Celtic, and an African expedition to the New World ...

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